Search results

1 – 9 of 9
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Buying Wen, Zhongbin Bai and Fushuan Wen

The efficiency of the emission trading system (ETS) may help to control the total emission amount. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the generating cost issue in…

Abstract

Purpose

The efficiency of the emission trading system (ETS) may help to control the total emission amount. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the generating cost issue in environmental/economic power dispatch, under the premise that the ETS has already been established.

Design/methodology/approach

The emission benefit and price level factors are introduced for transforming the bi‐objective optimization problem with the fuel cost and emission cost minimization into a single objective. In the developed mathematical model, both the total emission amount from all units and the permitted emission amount from each generating unit are taken into account. The successive linear programming method is employed to solve the optimization problem.

Findings

Simulation results of the IEEE 30‐bus test system show that a proper trading mechanism of emission permits is very important for generation companies to control the total emission amount and to reduce the overall generation cost.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to find out the impact on the generating cost caused by trading price fluctuation and the coping strategies.

Originality/value

The results can help to meet the requirements of current generating optimal dispatch.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Fushuan Wen and S.N. Singh

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Binbin Xun, Fushuan Wen and Shulin Tong

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gaming equilibrium among fossil‐fueled generation companies (GenCos), wind generation companies, the grid company and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the gaming equilibrium among fossil‐fueled generation companies (GenCos), wind generation companies, the grid company and customers participating in an emission trading (ET) market and the day‐ahead electricity market.

Design/methodology/approach

The complementarity method is used in this work to obtain the Nash equilibrium. By combining the Karush‐Kuhn‐Tucker (KKT) conditions of each kind of market participants with market clearing and consistency conditions, a mixed linear complementarity problem could be established.

Findings

Simulation results show that: the enforcement of ET could increase the share of generation outputs of wind generation units, and decrease the emissions from fossil‐fueled generation units; the bilateral contracts between GenCos and customers could limit the ability of exercising market power by GenCos; and when the emissions allowances allocated by the government shrink, the price of emissions allowance will increase and as the result the dispatching order of fossil‐fueled generation units will change, and the shares of generation outputs from wind generation units and combined‐cycle gas turbines increase. However, it should be mentioned that because the cost of wind generation is still very high, the increase of the share from wind generation units in the electricity market should mainly rely on cost reduction rather than the enforcement of ET.

Originality/value

The original contribution and the value of this study lie in developing a model framework to explore the gaming equilibrium that thermal and wind generating plants both play in the emissions trading environment and electricity market.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Aslı Yüksel Mermod and Berna Dömbekci

The purpose of this paper is to analyze emission trading applications in the European Union (EU) and to benefit from its experiences; also to discuss different types of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze emission trading applications in the European Union (EU) and to benefit from its experiences; also to discuss different types of energy financing mechanisms for Turkey, an emerging market which faces a fast growth of energy demand.

Design/methodology/approach

The Kyoto Protocol and its market‐based flexible mechanisms to reduce emissions worldwide are explained. The logic and development phases of an emission trading scheme (ETS) started in 2005 in the EU are given in response to this protocol's targets. With lessons learned from the ETS, the position of Turkey in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and its strategy to find solutions for a low carbon economy are underlined, as it can be assumed to be a reference point for other emerging markets.

Findings

This ETS became the main vehicle for EU member states to enforce themselves, to be in line with their Kyoto's emission reduction targets via some mechanisms and it has the potential to be leader in the formation of a global emission trading program. It made possible the transfer of technology and experience to emerging countries. Turkey should be aware and well prepared, for the post‐Kyoto period, to benefit from similar mechanisms to finance its energy investments.

Practical implications

The paper is a useful source of information for ETS.

Social implications

This paper gives information on emission reduction mechanisms used worldwide by countries which aim to be a low carbon economy.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils a resource need for the structure of ETS and the position of Turkey as an emerging market with Kyoto's Protocol.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 10 April 2009

Qin Wang, Hui Gao, Fushuan Wen, Iain MacGill and Jiansheng Huang

The purpose of this paper is to overview the development of China's emission trading, which is transforming environmental policy measures from traditional command and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to overview the development of China's emission trading, which is transforming environmental policy measures from traditional command and control regulations to business‐led decision making within government initiated environmental markets, and investigates the main factors that affect China's policy making with regards to further climate changes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the authors' review of the literatures on emissions trading program in China and their critical analysis.

Findings

Initially China's environmental protection policies were focused principally upon the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions for improving air quality. Since the authorization of the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, project‐based activities such as Clean Development Mechanism producing carbon credit developed rapidly. However, the implementation of carbon dioxide emission trading is still under discussion and research is much inferior to that of SO2 emission trading. The barriers of and suggestions for designing future emissions trading market are also discussed.

Originality/value

This review helps to raise awareness and understand possible scenarios for emission trading in China.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Joy P. Vazhayil, Vinod K. Sharma and R. Balasubramanian

In the context of the negotiations for apportionment of emission reduction post‐Kyoto regime, issues of equity and fairness have emerged. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

In the context of the negotiations for apportionment of emission reduction post‐Kyoto regime, issues of equity and fairness have emerged. The purpose of this paper is to generate a model for equitable emission reduction apportionment.

Design/methodology/approach

The mathematical model has been designed utilizing mitigation capacity (based on gross domestic product (GDP)) and cumulative excess emissions as the criteria for apportionment. Quantitative results have been arrived at, using cumulative γ and parabolic mitigation emission reduction trajectories to demonstrate the impact on stakeholders.

Findings

The apportionment outcomes are independent of the specific trajectory fine‐tuned in the feasibility region. Since the apportionment takes into account entitlements and the mitigation capacity, Africa and India have negligible reduction targets in tune with the development goals in these economies. Substantial reduction commitments would fall on the USA and the EU countries. China gets a moderate target due to higher emissions and GDP.

Research limitations/implications

The approach is in consonance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibility enunciated in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. The method can easily incorporate emissions trading. The issue of population as a driving factor of emissions has been partially accounted for by considering the entire national GDP as an emission reduction responsibility factor, without considering population based GDP entitlements.

Originality/value

The generalized framework can be extended to situations involving responsibility apportionment in public policies dealing with externalities. The framework is original and will be useful to policymakers and other stakeholders dealing with climate change, as well as researchers looking at externalities of a global or national dimension.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

S.N. Singh, D. Saxena and Jacob Østergaard

Besides organizational changes in the electricity supply industry there are growing concerns about environmental issues derived from the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction…

Abstract

Purpose

Besides organizational changes in the electricity supply industry there are growing concerns about environmental issues derived from the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as well as promoting renewable energies. The purpose of this paper is to address the source side emission trading impact on electricity prices in the competitive power market.

Design/methodology/approach

Various schemes are suggested and are being implemented to achieve this objective. It is expected that electricity price will increase due to imposition of emission taxes. This paper analyzes the impact of electricity prices in the competitive electricity markets having a uniform market clearing price mechanism.

Findings

It is found that the electricity prices depend on the system loading, generation mix, etc. at a particular hour. Various emission trading instruments are discussed with a special emphasis on the European market.

Research limitations/implications

Block bidding of the suppliers is considered whereas the demand is assumed to be inelastic.

Originality/value

The emission trading impacts are analyzed on a simple example.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Ivana Kockar

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how emission constraints imposed by the emission trading scheme (ETS) in the European Union, as well as transmissions capacity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how emission constraints imposed by the emission trading scheme (ETS) in the European Union, as well as transmissions capacity, can affect the outcome of the generation scheduling. The aim is to demonstrate the application of the generation scheduling tool which includes both the ETS and transmission constraints, and helps evaluate their effect on emission reduction, costs, and generators' behavior and availability. It can also be used to help generators make strategic decisions regarding utilization and purchases of carbon allowances.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper extends the generation scheduling formulation to allow for additional constraints modeling. The formulation is based on the mixed integer programming approach with linearization of generation cost and emission functions, and the possibility to split the system into zones in order to investigate transmission congestion.

Findings

The paper presents six case studies that include unconstrained and constrained operation, both from the emission and transmission points of view. It also illustrates the effect of free allocations versus auctioning. The case studies look into the system with wind generation that can be constrained due to transmission limits, and their impact on emission reductions. This is often the case in systems where most of the wind generation is located in the area which does not have sufficiently strong links to the rest of the system where the majority of loads are.

Research limitations/implications

The extension of the work will be inclusion of stochastic nature of emission prices and wind availability. It will also be used for further studies on systems with high wind penetration and insufficient transmission capacity.

Originality/value

The generation scheduling tool and the results from the paper could be useful for generators when making decisions on how to use or purchase their emission allocations, as well as for evaluation of the adverse affect of transmission congestion on carbon emission reductions.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Farid Meziane, Sunil Vadera, Khairy Kobbacy and Nathan Proudlove

Global competition and rapidly changing customer requirements are demanding increasing changes in manufacturing environments. Enterprises are required to constantly…

Abstract

Global competition and rapidly changing customer requirements are demanding increasing changes in manufacturing environments. Enterprises are required to constantly redesign their products and continuously reconfigure their manufacturing systems. Traditional approaches to manufacturing systems do not fully satisfy this new situation. Many authors have proposed that artificial intelligence (AI) will bring the flexibility and efficiency needed by manufacturing systems. This paper is a review of AI techniques used in manufacturing systems. The paper first defines the components of a simplified intelligent manufacturing systems (IMS), the different AI techniques to be considered and then shows how these AI techniques are used for the components of IMS.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

Keywords

1 – 9 of 9