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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

A.M.A. Silva, T.M. Santiago, C.R. Alves, M.I.F. Guedes, J.A.K. Freire, R.H.S.F. Vieira and R.C.B. da Silva

This paper seeks to report a preliminary study that was conducted in order to investigate the corrosion behavior of aluminum surfaces in aqueous solution in the presence…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to report a preliminary study that was conducted in order to investigate the corrosion behavior of aluminum surfaces in aqueous solution in the presence of microorganisms. For this purpose, the fungus Aspergillus niger was tested in chloride‐containing aqueous media.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss and pH measurements were performed to verify the activity of the fungus on the aluminum surface and the atomic force microscopy technique was used to examine the surface after removing the biological film.

Findings

The pH of the media depended on the immersion time. Pitting attack was observed on the surface. The findings confirmed that the corrosion reaction of the aluminum was catalyzed by the presence of fungus and, simultaneously, the mean roughness of the aluminum surface was altered. After removing the biofilm, fungal hyphae hallmark was evident.

Originality/value

Up until low, relatively few studies have addressed biofilm attack on materials, and especially attack on metallic surfaces in media contaminated by fungi. Hence, this paper is important for its contribution to the body of knowledge about biofilm action on metallic surfaces.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Maisa Mohamed Ali Mansour, Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan, Salwa Moustafa Amer Mahmoud and Youssif Mohamed Akl

This paper aims to identify the most common fungal species that grow on paper manuscripts and cause bio-deterioration. It also detects the impact of additive materials on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the most common fungal species that grow on paper manuscripts and cause bio-deterioration. It also detects the impact of additive materials on fungal degrading and builds a wide database. Thus, it helps conservators understand this phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 samples were collected from different paper manuscripts suffering from fungi. The achievement of the study objectives depends on using a variety of analyzes, such as a microbiological study, which indicated that three main fungi grew on the paper samples. Then, a digital microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope were used to detect the effect of fungi on paper fibers. Fourier transform infrared microscopy was used to identify the binding medium and the X-ray diffraction method was used to measure the crystallinity index of cellulose of the paper samples.

Findings

Arabic gum was used as a binder medium with the samples. Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus Fumigatus and Aspergillus Clavatus were the most common fungal species that grew on the Qur’an papers under investigation. They also caused much common damage to the paper samples. The results of the analyzes also showed that the highest crystallinity index of cellulose was in the samples that contained the lowest rate of fungal growth.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the relationship between fungal degradation and the multi-component nature of paper manuscripts. It builds a wide database that correlates the composition and the degradation of the Qur’an papers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

A.A. Abdel Hameed, A.M. Ayesh, M. Abdel Razik and H.F. Abdel Mawla

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVC) on the survivability and susceptibility of some fungal species isolated from the indoor air…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVC) on the survivability and susceptibility of some fungal species isolated from the indoor air of agricultural, industry‐related workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Environmental fungi were collected from the air of cotton and soybean mills using liquid impinger sampler (AGI‐30). The UVC exposure experiment was performed on Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceous, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium rubrum using UV lamp (λ=254 nm; 0.1 mW/cm2). The susceptibility constant (Z) was used to determine the susceptibility of any given organism to UVC.

Findings

The conidia survival was inversely proportional to the time of UVC exposure and ∼77‐88.5% of conidia were killed within six hours of exposure. Mutant conidia showed a wide range of morphological alterations including damage of their cell walls and features. Mycotoxin production patterns of the mutants Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus changed on comparison with the parental control patterns.

Originality/value

The paper provides information on the effect of UVC radiation on environmental fungi. The results reported in this research discussed the disadvantages of using UVC as a decontaminant of fungi.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Alan Feest

The purpose of this article is to: review the current methods and results of measuring the macrofungal biodiversity of both saprophytes and mycorrhiza; to show root tip…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to: review the current methods and results of measuring the macrofungal biodiversity of both saprophytes and mycorrhiza; to show root tip analysis to be less accurate for mycorrhiza than expected when the latest research reports are considered; and to provide a simple methodology for measuring macrofungal biodiversity of forests.

Design/methodology/approach

Current macrofungal biodiversity methods are reviewed. A diagram representing the relationship between the mycorrhizal fungus and the root with three axes of variation is presented. A new methodology based on fruit body recording and analysis to provide a set of biodiversity quality indices is also presented.

Findings

The results of the use of the new methodology on two adjacent sites are presented as examples. The comparison of a set of sites for the full range of indices is also presented. Suggestions of how forest management may be influenced to include macrofungal biodiversity are made.

Originality/value

This new approach is considered to be an improvement on current practice since it relates both mycorrhizal biodiversity and saprophytic biodiversity to the ecosystem function.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Zeinab Hosseini, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mahin Ghafourzade and Abbasali Jafari Nodoushan

This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central province of Iran, using mixed fungal culture.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the effluent samples from the cardboard recycling industry were cultured on potato dextrose agar medium to isolate native fungal colonies. The grown colonies were then identified using morphological macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to choose the dominant fungi for bioremediations. The mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium digitatum were finally used for bioremediation experiments of the cardboard recycling industry. A suspension containing 1 × 106 CFU/ml of fungal spores was prepared from each fungus, separately and their homogenous mixture. Sewage samples were prepared and sterilized and used at 25%, 50% and 90% dilutions and pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 for bioremediation tests using mixed fungal spores. Following that, 10 ml of the mixed fungal spores were inoculated into the samples for decolorization and COD removal and incubated for 10 days at 30°C. The amount of COD removal and decolorization were measured before incubation and after 3, 6 and 10 days of inoculation. In this research, the color was measured by American Dye Manufacturer Institute and COD by the closed reflux method. The results of the present study were analyzed using SPSS 21 statistical software and one-way ANOVA tests at p-value < 0.05.

Findings

The results of this research showed that the mean decolorization by mixed fungal culture over 10 days at pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 were 44.40%, 45.00% and 36.84%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 71.59%, 73.54% and 16.55%, respectively. Moreover, the mean decolorization at dilutions of 25%, 50% and 90% were 45.00%, 31.93% and 30.53%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 73.54%, 62.38% and 34.93%, respectively. Therefore, the maximal COD removal and decolorization efficiency was obtained at dilution of 25% and pH 7.

Originality/value

Given that limited studies have been conducted on bioremediation of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry using fungal species, this research could provide useful information on the physicochemical properties of the effluent in this industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1983

Christopher D.V. Abbey

The simplest forms of plant life may prove to be the answer to world food problems and the source of life‐saving nutrients for the hungry nations in the years to come.

Abstract

The simplest forms of plant life may prove to be the answer to world food problems and the source of life‐saving nutrients for the hungry nations in the years to come.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 83 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

F. Brian Pyatt

Specimens of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum) werecollected from highly polluted sites in Czechoslovakia and also fromEngland. The bracket fungus was found to be…

Abstract

Specimens of the bracket fungus (Ganoderma applanatum) were collected from highly polluted sites in Czechoslovakia and also from England. The bracket fungus was found to be an excellent long‐term monitor/accumulator of atmospheric pollutants and collected material arriving by impaction and sedimentation from the atmospheric environment.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1939

It is a well known fact that bacteria play a large part in the success or failure of the satisfactory production of dairy products, but the role of yeasts and moulds…

Abstract

It is a well known fact that bacteria play a large part in the success or failure of the satisfactory production of dairy products, but the role of yeasts and moulds should not be overlooked. These living organisms, commonly known as fungi, are the next higher form of life in the vegetable world after the bacteria stage. Their form of growth resembles the growth of plants in that they reproduce by budding, and their spores, analogous to the seeds of plants, are the means whereby many species propagate further generations. The yeast cell is much larger than the ordinary bacterium, so that it is possible to study them with the aid of much lower magnifications. When grown on solid media the yeasts give colonies not unlike those of bacteria except that the edges of the colonies are less defined, the colonies themselves project well above the surface of the media, and their surfaces are usually of a rough appearance. A good example of mould growth is that of the ordinary “green mould.”—Yeasts usually prefer to grow on the surface of liquids, and moulds are found to grow most vigourously on solid or semi‐solid media, such as meat, cheese, butter, etc. The growth of bacteria in the media hinders the simultaneous growth of the fungi, so that it is only after the media has become too acid for the growth of bacteria that yeasts and moulds are able to grow. In support of this theory it has been found that fungi will grow on the surface of sterile milk, but ordinary fresh milk containing bacteria is not a suitable media as the fungi cannot compete with the bacteria. It is found, therefore, that only bacteria proliferate in fresh milk. However, when milk has become sour bacterial growth is arrested, and it is then that mould growth becomes perceptible. The fungi tolerate a relatively large amount of acid. Media used for their cultivation is generally standardised to a ph of about 4.5. The optimum temperature for their growth is in the region of 75°–90° F. Some species will grow at 32° F., others even below this temperature. Low temperatures are not lethal to the fungi, so that when infected products are removed from cold storage growth may occur. The temperatures required to kill them and their spores generally falls between 130°–180° F. Most yeasts are killed at temperatures above 120° F., while their spores may have to be exposed to higher temperatures.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 41 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1921

The annual report of the Food Investigation Board which has just been issued contains much information relating to the cold storage of meat which is of interest. The…

Abstract

The annual report of the Food Investigation Board which has just been issued contains much information relating to the cold storage of meat which is of interest. The Engineering Committee has offered some valuable suggestions on the means of improving refrigerating plant. Particular attention has been given to the condition known as “Black Spot,” which is caused by a fungus and develops in cold stores. This hardy fungus will grow at 5 deg. Cent. below freezing point. It is possible that even this temperature may not represent the lowest at which growth can take place. Spores—or seeds—of this fungus retain their vitality for six months under cold storage conditions, after which they are still able to develop normally at ordinary temperature. There was much “Black Spot” on meat coming from the Southern hemisphere during 1918–1919. It has been ascertained that this was due to the prolonged cold storage necessitated in 1917–1918 by the war. As conditions become more normal the duration of storage will be so short as to prevent the development of the pest. On the other hand, it is known now that fluctuations of temperature are dangerous, because the fungus flourishes best at 0deg. Cent., and also because fluctuations alter the humidity of the cold store and cause snow to fall. The flakes of the snow carry the fungus into the meat. The fungus is thought to come from the stock yards and slaughter‐houses. It is not, however, so far as is known, poisonous to human beings and produces no poison in the meat. Meat so affected need not, it is thought, be condemned as unfit for food unless putrefaction is also present. The fruit and vegetable committee is now investigating the storage of English apples. This is a complicated problem involving questions of humidity, temperature, time, soil, and packing. The results obtained so far suggest that a temperature of 1 deg. Cent., is better than higher temperatures. With a humidity of 85 per cent. saturation at 1 deg. Cent. or 3 deg. Cent. no shrinkage of the apples has been observed. Marked shrinkage occurred with a humidity of 60 per cent. saturation at 5 deg. Cent.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 23 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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