Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 26 November 2021

Nigel Craig, Nick Pilcher, Alan M. Forster and Craig Kennedy

The spirits industry is a major economic contributor worldwide, often requiring years of maturation in barrels that is associated with significant release of ethanol into…

Abstract

Purpose

The spirits industry is a major economic contributor worldwide, often requiring years of maturation in barrels that is associated with significant release of ethanol into the surrounding environment. This provides carbon nutrition for colonisation of black fungal growths, one type being Baudoinia compniacensis, or Whisky Black. Although growth is localised in production areas, numerous sites exist globally, and this paper's purpose is to investigate the extent and implications of colonisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents and discusses the results of a visual survey of the area surrounding a site where whisky is maturing in nearby bonded warehouses. The evaluation considers radial zoning distance from the ethanol source and material substrate types and surface textures. Classical key stages of Building Pathology, namely manifestation, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy, are considered.

Findings

Key findings are that the colonisation of the fungus is non-uniform and dependent on the substrate building material. Additionally, rougher-textured building materials displayed heavier levels of fungal manifestation than smooth materials. Aspects such as distance, wind direction and moisture are considered relative to the extent and level of fungal growth.

Originality/value

This investigation provides the first assessment of the extent and nature of the fungal growth in properties built in surrounding areas to bonded warehouses. Such information can facilitate open dialogue between stakeholders that recognise the aspirations of values of corporate social responsibility, whilst balancing the economic importance of distilling with recognition of the fungus's impact on property values and appropriate recurring remedial treatments.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Chirato Godana Korra

This paper aims to prevent cotton textiles from fungi damage using eco-friendly aloe vera leaf extract, which was applied at a minimum amount, and cost-effective material.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to prevent cotton textiles from fungi damage using eco-friendly aloe vera leaf extract, which was applied at a minimum amount, and cost-effective material.

Design/methodology/approach

Batch extraction method using methanol solvent; phytochemical analysis was investigated and three-level factorial design of experiment and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the optimization of 27 test runs. The finish was applied by pad-dry-cue at distinct concentrations, and the chemical property after treatment was studied. Colorfastness and coordinates are analyzed. Cotton fabrics were cultured with Fusarium oxysporum fungi and the anti-fungal property was examined and reported according to AATCC 30–2004 standard.

Findings

The maximum yield of extract was at an optimum volume of 200 ml, 65 °C for 120 min. The effective antifungal fabric was achieved with minimum concentrations. There was significant strength loss in warp and weft direction. The treatment results in yellow-colored cotton fabric with fastness grade 3. The antifungal effect is durable until fifteen washes as the tensile strength losses were less than 1%.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this work were based on samples considered in the laboratory. However, it can be reproducible at the factory production scale the treatment has the potential of yielding yellow dyed cotton fabric with multifunctional finishing.

Practical implications

The treated fabric is against Fusarium oxysporum Fungi which is one of the vital antimicrobial properties of textile apparel products for various areas of application.

Social implications

The natural extract material applied to a textile material is eco-friendly effective against microbes of cotton seeds during cultivation and apparel end-uses.

Originality/value

The work application of fungi resistance on cotton fabric using aloe vera active component was original; this work provides extraction of the active agent from aloe vera leaf, which is optimized statically and successfully applied for anti-fungal activity on cotton fabric.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

A.M.A. Silva, T.M. Santiago, C.R. Alves, M.I.F. Guedes, J.A.K. Freire, R.H.S.F. Vieira and R.C.B. da Silva

This paper seeks to report a preliminary study that was conducted in order to investigate the corrosion behavior of aluminum surfaces in aqueous solution in the presence…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to report a preliminary study that was conducted in order to investigate the corrosion behavior of aluminum surfaces in aqueous solution in the presence of microorganisms. For this purpose, the fungus Aspergillus niger was tested in chloride‐containing aqueous media.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss and pH measurements were performed to verify the activity of the fungus on the aluminum surface and the atomic force microscopy technique was used to examine the surface after removing the biological film.

Findings

The pH of the media depended on the immersion time. Pitting attack was observed on the surface. The findings confirmed that the corrosion reaction of the aluminum was catalyzed by the presence of fungus and, simultaneously, the mean roughness of the aluminum surface was altered. After removing the biofilm, fungal hyphae hallmark was evident.

Originality/value

Up until low, relatively few studies have addressed biofilm attack on materials, and especially attack on metallic surfaces in media contaminated by fungi. Hence, this paper is important for its contribution to the body of knowledge about biofilm action on metallic surfaces.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Maisa Mohamed Ali Mansour, Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan, Salwa Moustafa Amer Mahmoud and Youssif Mohamed Akl

This paper aims to identify the most common fungal species that grow on paper manuscripts and cause bio-deterioration. It also detects the impact of additive materials on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the most common fungal species that grow on paper manuscripts and cause bio-deterioration. It also detects the impact of additive materials on fungal degrading and builds a wide database. Thus, it helps conservators understand this phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 15 samples were collected from different paper manuscripts suffering from fungi. The achievement of the study objectives depends on using a variety of analyzes, such as a microbiological study, which indicated that three main fungi grew on the paper samples. Then, a digital microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope were used to detect the effect of fungi on paper fibers. Fourier transform infrared microscopy was used to identify the binding medium and the X-ray diffraction method was used to measure the crystallinity index of cellulose of the paper samples.

Findings

Arabic gum was used as a binder medium with the samples. Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus Fumigatus and Aspergillus Clavatus were the most common fungal species that grew on the Qur’an papers under investigation. They also caused much common damage to the paper samples. The results of the analyzes also showed that the highest crystallinity index of cellulose was in the samples that contained the lowest rate of fungal growth.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the relationship between fungal degradation and the multi-component nature of paper manuscripts. It builds a wide database that correlates the composition and the degradation of the Qur’an papers.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

A.A. Abdel Hameed, A.M. Ayesh, M. Abdel Razik and H.F. Abdel Mawla

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVC) on the survivability and susceptibility of some fungal species isolated from the indoor air…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UVC) on the survivability and susceptibility of some fungal species isolated from the indoor air of agricultural, industry‐related workplaces.

Design/methodology/approach

Environmental fungi were collected from the air of cotton and soybean mills using liquid impinger sampler (AGI‐30). The UVC exposure experiment was performed on Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus ochraceous, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium rubrum using UV lamp (λ=254 nm; 0.1 mW/cm2). The susceptibility constant (Z) was used to determine the susceptibility of any given organism to UVC.

Findings

The conidia survival was inversely proportional to the time of UVC exposure and ∼77‐88.5% of conidia were killed within six hours of exposure. Mutant conidia showed a wide range of morphological alterations including damage of their cell walls and features. Mycotoxin production patterns of the mutants Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus changed on comparison with the parental control patterns.

Originality/value

The paper provides information on the effect of UVC radiation on environmental fungi. The results reported in this research discussed the disadvantages of using UVC as a decontaminant of fungi.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Alan Feest

The purpose of this article is to: review the current methods and results of measuring the macrofungal biodiversity of both saprophytes and mycorrhiza; to show root tip…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to: review the current methods and results of measuring the macrofungal biodiversity of both saprophytes and mycorrhiza; to show root tip analysis to be less accurate for mycorrhiza than expected when the latest research reports are considered; and to provide a simple methodology for measuring macrofungal biodiversity of forests.

Design/methodology/approach

Current macrofungal biodiversity methods are reviewed. A diagram representing the relationship between the mycorrhizal fungus and the root with three axes of variation is presented. A new methodology based on fruit body recording and analysis to provide a set of biodiversity quality indices is also presented.

Findings

The results of the use of the new methodology on two adjacent sites are presented as examples. The comparison of a set of sites for the full range of indices is also presented. Suggestions of how forest management may be influenced to include macrofungal biodiversity are made.

Originality/value

This new approach is considered to be an improvement on current practice since it relates both mycorrhizal biodiversity and saprophytic biodiversity to the ecosystem function.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Rehab El-Gamal, Khaled El-Nagar, Nagwa A. Tharwat and Gomaa Abdel-Maksoud

This study aims to use whiteness (WI) and yellowness indices (YI) that were calculated from the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) color parameter to evaluate…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use whiteness (WI) and yellowness indices (YI) that were calculated from the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) color parameter to evaluate the efficiency of some triazole fungicides [propiconazole (C15H17Cl2N3O2) and tebuconazole (C16H22ClN3O)] to protect wooden artifacts from fungal deterioration.

Design/methodology/approach

Archeological wooden samples were collected from some historical Islamic buildings in Cairo, Egypt. Three species of fungi were identified in previous work. Propiconazole and tebuconazole with different concentrations treated the infected wooden samples aged for different periods. WI and YI of studied samples were measured using UV spectrophotometer. Calibration and uncertainty estimation accompanied by color measurement were studied.

Findings

Studying the uncertainty sources of diffuse reflection of the standard white tiles revealed that the uncertainty of calibration for both the spectrophotometer and white tiles had the highest contribution. The treated samples with tebuconazole and propiconazole fungicides gave good resistance against fungal deterioration at 0.50% for WI and YI.

Originality/value

This study presents the importance of colorimetry in the conservation field because they are considered one of the most important criteria to evaluate conservation materials. From color measurements and their uncertainties, it became clear that triazole fungicides have good efficiency in the protection of wooden artifacts from fungal deterioration. The value of this study is that propiconazole and tebuconazole fungicides at 0.50% can be applied to archaeological wood that is endangered to improper conditions, especially in the case of high levels of relative humidity.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 May 2022

Dhruba Jyoti Borgohain, Mohammad Nazim and Manoj Kumar Verma

Mucormycosis has evolved as a post-COVID-19 complication globally, especially in India. The research on fungus has been very primitive, and many scientific publications…

Abstract

Purpose

Mucormycosis has evolved as a post-COVID-19 complication globally, especially in India. The research on fungus has been very primitive, and many scientific publications have been discovered. The current COVID-19 pandemic needs further investigation into this unusual fungal infection. This review study aims to provide a pen-picture to researchers, science policymakers and scientists about different bibliometric indicators related to the research literature on mucormycosis.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative research was conducted using the established procedure of bibliometric investigation on data collected from Scopus from 2011 to 2020 using a validated search query. The search query consisted of keywords “Mucormycosis” or “Mucormycoses” or “Mucormycose” or “Mucorales Infection” or “Mucorales Infections” or “Black Fungus Infection” or “Black Fungus Infections” or “Zygomycosis” in the “Title-Keyword-Abstract” search option for data extraction. The analysis of data is performed using MS-Excel. Mapping was done with state-of-the-art visualization tools Biblioshiny and VOSviewer, using bibliometric indicators as units of analysis.

Findings

The analysis reveals that the first publication on this topic was reported from 1923 onwards. In total, 9,423 authors contributed 1,896 papers with 11,437 collaborated authors, documents per author are 0.201, authors per document are 4.97 and co-authors per document are 6.03. Total records were published in 779 journals in the English language from 75 countries globally. Mucormycosis literature is mostly open access, with 1,210 publications available via different open access routes. The highest number of articles (204) published in the journal “Mycoses” with 1,333 authors received 4,875 cited references, and the h-index has 24. The growth of publications is exponential, as depicted by the Price Law. The USA has recorded a maximum number of publications at both country and institutional levels compared to the other nations. There has been extensive research on mucormycosis before the outbreak as a post-COVID complication, as indicated by the highest number of publications in 2019.

Practical implications

The research hot spots have altered from “Mucormycosis,” “fungi,” “Zygomycosis” and “Drug efficacy”, “Drug Safety” to “Microbiology,” “Pathology,” “nucleotide sequence,” “surgical debridement” which indicates that potential area of research in the near future will be concerned with more extensive research in mucormycosis to develop standard treatment procedures to fight this infection. The quantity of scientific publications has also increased over time. The research and health community are called upon to join forces to activate existing knowledge, generate new insights and develop decision-supporting tools for health authorities in different nations to leverage vaccination in its transformational role toward successfully attaining nil cases of COVID-19.

Originality/value

The analysis of collaboration, findings, the research networks and visualization makes this study novel and separates from traditional metrics analysis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this work is original, and no similar studies have been found with the objectives included here.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Zeinab Hosseini, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mahin Ghafourzade and Abbasali Jafari Nodoushan

This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the bioremediation [chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal] of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry in Yazd, central province of Iran, using mixed fungal culture.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the effluent samples from the cardboard recycling industry were cultured on potato dextrose agar medium to isolate native fungal colonies. The grown colonies were then identified using morphological macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to choose the dominant fungi for bioremediations. The mixed cultures of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium digitatum were finally used for bioremediation experiments of the cardboard recycling industry. A suspension containing 1 × 106 CFU/ml of fungal spores was prepared from each fungus, separately and their homogenous mixture. Sewage samples were prepared and sterilized and used at 25%, 50% and 90% dilutions and pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 for bioremediation tests using mixed fungal spores. Following that, 10 ml of the mixed fungal spores were inoculated into the samples for decolorization and COD removal and incubated for 10 days at 30°C. The amount of COD removal and decolorization were measured before incubation and after 3, 6 and 10 days of inoculation. In this research, the color was measured by American Dye Manufacturer Institute and COD by the closed reflux method. The results of the present study were analyzed using SPSS 21 statistical software and one-way ANOVA tests at p-value < 0.05.

Findings

The results of this research showed that the mean decolorization by mixed fungal culture over 10 days at pH levels of 5, 7 and 8 were 44.40%, 45.00% and 36.84%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 71.59%, 73.54% and 16.55%, respectively. Moreover, the mean decolorization at dilutions of 25%, 50% and 90% were 45.00%, 31.93% and 30.53%, respectively, and the mean COD removal efficiency was 73.54%, 62.38% and 34.93%, respectively. Therefore, the maximal COD removal and decolorization efficiency was obtained at dilution of 25% and pH 7.

Originality/value

Given that limited studies have been conducted on bioremediation of the effluent from the cardboard recycling industry using fungal species, this research could provide useful information on the physicochemical properties of the effluent in this industry.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Reference Reviews, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

Keywords

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