Search results

1 – 10 of over 60000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Lianlian Liu

The purposes of this paper are to organize historical, solved questions and recent, unsolved questions in a coherent, progressive way; explore the key question to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are to organize historical, solved questions and recent, unsolved questions in a coherent, progressive way; explore the key question to be answered under this systematic framework; and reflect on an alternative analytical perspective to the current “problem-solving-oriented” approach. Transnational bribery regulation, with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Anti-Bribery Convention as the central governing legal instrument, is on the top agenda of international governance. However, its complex nature makes theoretical viewpoints on this topic rather fragmented. This fragmentation is used to help understand the wisdom of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) approach in the early years. However, as the FCPA approach was internationalized and evolves to its current phase, in which individual inquiries become path-dependent and interdependent, the fragmentation causes more confusion than makes contribution.

Design/methodology/approach

Sections 2 and 3 retrospect the historical trajectory of academic research on the global regulation of transnational bribery, systemizes relevant theoretical insights and illustrates how people’s understandings of the wisdom of the FCPA approach in early years affect their evaluations of the effect of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention in the contemporary era. Given that, at present, the most popular viewpoint is that the Convention is “ineffective”, Section 4 systemizes the diverse causal attributions of the “problem” in current academic literature, sorts out the roots causes and points out the key question for the next step forward under the version of the “problem-solving-oriented” analysis. Section 5 has a reflection on the inherent limitation of a “problem-solving-oriented” approach for our understanding of the effects of the Convention.

Findings

Under the version of a “problem-solving-oriented” approach, the key question to be solved is how to establish a mechanism to cope with the surreptitious nature of transnational bribery and the self-sacrificed nature of the FCPA-style approach simultaneously. The popular “problem-solving-oriented” approach has an inherent limitation to create new knowledge on the multilateral anti-bribery collaboration. A reality-based, historical analytical perspective is a good alternative to it.

Originality/value

The paper presents a personal, original organization of the conventional theoretical insights to the operation of the global anti-bribery collaboration and the underlying logics of these viewpoints. The paper also presents the author’s personal analysis of the “technical omission” and “inherent limitation” of a problem-solving-oriented approach to analyze the performance of the global anti-bribery collaboration, and the power of a historical analytical perspective as an alternative.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ferda Halicioglu

The purpose of this research is to study empirically the dynamics of obesity in Finland and provide empirical evidence of temporal causality between obesity, health…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study empirically the dynamics of obesity in Finland and provide empirical evidence of temporal causality between obesity, health expenditure, unemployment, urbanization, alcohol consumption and calorie intake.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs bounds testing cointegration procedure and augmented causality tests.

Findings

The econometric results reveal that the leading cause of obesity is urbanization which is followed by the increasing availability of fast and convenience foods with high energy density, and sedentary jobs, with little incentive to exercise.

Practical implications

The conclusion drawn from this study could be useful for policy makers and practitioners in international health organizations.

Originality/value

The paper provides first time time-series evidence on the dynamics of obesity in Finland, using the framework of cointegration and causality tests.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Xinzhe Xu, Chaojun Yang, Daolun Chen and Gongmeng Chen

With the launch of CSI 300 Index Futures trading on April 16, 2010, China's stock market presents a more diversified trend, such as arbitrage, trends strategy entering the…

Abstract

Purpose

With the launch of CSI 300 Index Futures trading on April 16, 2010, China's stock market presents a more diversified trend, such as arbitrage, trends strategy entering the market rapidly. Therefore, the liquidity demand also presents a higher frequency, and the change is more complex than the original situation. In recent years, many literatures are engaged in high-frequency trading (HFT) related research, and an important concern is the impact of HFT on market volatility and liquidity. Is it playing the role of stabilizing the market, or bringing more noise and turmoil? Based on this, the purpose of this study is trying to study what kind of impact the HFT have on market liquidity before and after the launch of the CSI 300 Index Futures.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the simultaneous equations model of price and net order flow proposed by Deuskar and Johnson and for the first time introduces an asymmetric identification through heteroskedasticity (ITH) method. The paper applies the method to the high-frequency data of CSI 300 Index and the Futures and classifies the buying and selling orders through volume clock. The price risks are decomposed into a component driven by the impact of liquidity demand shocks (flow-driven risks (FDRs)) and a component driven by external information (information-driven risks (IDRs)).

Findings

The empirical results show that the flow-driven risk of CSI 300 Index Futures is about 20 percent. In addition, before the introduction of the Index Futures, there is no asymmetric effect between liquidity demand shocks and price shocks existing in either CSI 300 Index or CSI 300 Index Futures. While after the introduction of stock Index Futures, the asymmetric effect in the both two markets emerges. The impact of the buying net order flows on the price is less than the impact of the selling net order flows on CSI 300 Index, whereas the impact of the buying net order flows on the price is larger than the impact of the selling net order flows on CSI 300 Index Futures. The paper further analyzes the relationship between liquidity and FDR and gets the conclusion that the reasons for the deterioration of the liquidity level are caused by the impact of the external information shocks, rather than the liquidity demand shocks. And entries of HFTs like arbitrage traders and hedge traders play a positive role in improving the liquidity level in the market.

Originality/value

The paper introduces an asymmetric ITH method for the first time and finds asymmetric effect of the net order flow on the return in both CSI 300 Index market and the corresponding Index Futures market.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Iwan Gardono Sudjatmiko

Purpose: The violent conflict in Ambon, Indonesia (1999–2002) – which claimed more than 2,000 lives – occurred when a dominant ethnic group (Ambonese) was challenged by…

Abstract

Purpose: The violent conflict in Ambon, Indonesia (1999–2002) – which claimed more than 2,000 lives – occurred when a dominant ethnic group (Ambonese) was challenged by new ethnic groups (non-Ambonese: Bugis, Butonese, and Makassarese). The conflict intensified and evolved into a religious one between the Christians (mostly Ambonese) and the Moslems, consisting of Ambonese and the non-Ambonese. The absence of a long-term societal re-integration strategy that emphasized on the management of group diversities had resulted in a pseudo or fragile integration that led to societal disintegration. Following the regime change in 1998, a violent communal conflict or “politics by other means” occurred since the conduciveness of the local situation was related to national politics.

Method: Using Ambon as a Case Study, the chapter analyzes the trajectory of the conflict and its resolution.

Findings: The conflict grew more extensive ever since the failure of the state, particularly the police and the military that became partisans in order to protect their families or to benefit from security businesses. The peace building efforts took in several stages involving various social organizations as well as governments at the local and the national level. These processes were facilitated by general election or “war by other means” that transformed the violent conflicts to non-violent competition or from bullet to ballot.

Details

Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution: Sociological Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-8485-5122-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Ali Asgary and Abdul Halim

This paper aims to examine people's preferences for alternative cyclone vulnerability reduction measures in cyclone prone areas of Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine people's preferences for alternative cyclone vulnerability reduction measures in cyclone prone areas of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A choice experiment (CE) method has been implemented based on the pressure and release (PAR) vulnerability model. Data were collected from a sample of households in two districts of Bangladesh in winter 2008.

Findings

The results of a choice experiment (CE) method conducted in selected areas of Bangladesh prone to cyclone hazards indicated that access to resources is viewed as the most influential factor in cyclone vulnerability reduction options. Findings support the pressure and release model (PAR) of vulnerability analysis. Access to training and education and cyclone warning systems are also found to have significant impacts on households' choices of cyclone vulnerability reduction. Structural mitigation measures and access to power and decision making, though significant, were found to have the least impact.

Research limitations/implications

The paper shows that the choice experiment method is a good technique for understanding people's preferences for vulnerability reduction measures.

Practical implications

The paper concludes with a policy recommendation for governmental and non‐governmental agencies to focus on vulnerability reduction measures that tackle the root causes of vulnerability.

Originality/value

This is the first time that the choice experiment method has been used for cyclone vulnerability analysis, and it provides quantitative supports for the PAR model.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Nimmy J.S., Arjun Chilkapure and V. Madhusudanan Pillai

The purpose of this paper is to create an understanding on the magnitude and dimension of supply chain collaboration (SCC) reported in the literature. The detailed review…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create an understanding on the magnitude and dimension of supply chain collaboration (SCC) reported in the literature. The detailed review discusses various indicators that help companies to implement collaboration successfully and create awareness on the barriers faced while initiating collaboration in supply chain (SC).

Design/methodology/approach

The meta-analysis includes full-text papers retrieved from the Web of Science database using verified keywords. The articles are reviewed for identifying the performance indicators used to evaluate the SC. The systematic review is performed for the collaborative techniques in the following categories: information sharing (IS); vendor managed inventory; and collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment. The papers are then comprehensively analyzed for the approaches, and the key findings are mentioned along with the future scope.

Findings

The review suggests that the SC relationship, trust, quality of IS and technological involvement are to be focused for successful implementation of the collaborative technique. Proper collaboration helps SC partners to enhance their technique of operations in an effective manner which results in high business turnovers.

Originality/value

The review paper provides a quantitative study of SCC. A bird’s eye view of the scopes and benefits of using SCC for the academic scholars and industrial personnel are the primary concern discussed.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Jane S. VanHeuvelen and Tom VanHeuvelen

Improving the nutritious quality of diets for individuals and populations is a central goal of many public health advocates and intergovernmental organizations. Yet the…

Abstract

Purpose

Improving the nutritious quality of diets for individuals and populations is a central goal of many public health advocates and intergovernmental organizations. Yet the outcome of healthy eating has been shown to systematically vary across individual-level socioeconomic lines, and across countries in different locations of the food system. We therefore assess variation in the association between eating nutritionally dense fresh fruits and vegetables and both self-rated health (SRH) and body mass index (BMI) across individual income and country locations in the food system.

Methodology/approach

We use nationally representative survey data from 31 countries drawn from the International Social Survey Programme’s 2011 Health module. We estimate the effect of the frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables using random-intercept, random-coefficient multilevel mixed-effects regression models.

Findings

We confirm that eating nutritionally dense fresh fruits and vegetables frequently associates with more positive health outcomes. However, this general conclusion masks substantial individual- and country-level heterogeneity. For both SRH and BMI, the largest beneficial associations are concentrated among the most affluent individuals in the most affluent countries. Moving away from either reduces the positive association of healthy eating.

Social and practical implications

Our results provide an important wrinkle for policies aimed at changing the nutritional quality of diets. Adjustments to diets without taking into account fundamental causes of socioeconomic status will likely be met with attenuated results.

Originality/value

We compare two important health outcomes across a wide variety of types of countries. We demonstrate that our main conclusions are only detectable when employing a flexible multilevel methodological design.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Katie Kerstetter and John J. Green

This study tests the first two tenets of the fundamental causes theory – that socioeconomic status influences a variety of risk factors for poor health and that it affects…

Abstract

Purpose

This study tests the first two tenets of the fundamental causes theory – that socioeconomic status influences a variety of risk factors for poor health and that it affects multiple health outcomes – by examining the associations between adverse socioeconomic circumstances and five measures of health.

Methodology/approach

We employ bivariate and logistic regression analyses of data from the Centers Disease Control and Prevention 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to test the individual and cumulative associations between three measures of socioeconomic position and five measures of health risk factors and outcomes.

Findings

The analysis demonstrates support for the fundamental causes theory, indicating that measures of adverse socioeconomic conditions have independent and cumulative associations with multiple health outcomes and risk factors among U.S. adults aged 18–64.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this chapter are generalizable to adults aged 18–64 living in the United States and may not apply to individuals living outside the United States, older Americans, and children.

Originality/value of chapter

Adverse socioeconomic circumstances are not only associated with self-rated health but are also associated with the two leading causes of death in the United States (cancer and heart disease) and risk factors that contribute to these causes of death (smoking and high blood pressure). Improving access to socioeconomic resources is critical to reducing health disparities in leading causes of death and health risk factors in the United States.

Details

Technology, Communication, Disparities and Government Options in Health and Health Care Services
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-645-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Xiang Dai and Erzhen Zhang

This paper aims to conceptually argue that China's trade surplus with the USA is good by clarifying its fundamental forces from specific perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptually argue that China's trade surplus with the USA is good by clarifying its fundamental forces from specific perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

China's trade surplus with the USA is simply the result of comparative advantage under the background of international intra‐product specialization. Being the consequence of global resources optimization allocation, China's trade imbalance, including trade surplus with the USA, is certainly a win‐win game in international trade.

Findings

There are strong reasons to believe that China's trade surplus with the USA is beneficial to both China and the USA.

Originality/value

The forces causing China's trade surplus with the USA are complex and multiple different conclusions may be reached from different perspectives. This paper argues that one of the fundamental forces driving China's trade surplus with the USA is international intra‐product specialization, and from this perspective, it can help us understand that China's trade surplus with the USA is good for both nations to some extent.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

FR. Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas, S.J.

Morality is primarily a system of values, meanings, convictions, beliefs, principles, and drivers of good behavior and good outcomes in any organization. Using systems…

Abstract

Executive Summary

Morality is primarily a system of values, meanings, convictions, beliefs, principles, and drivers of good behavior and good outcomes in any organization. Using systems thinking concepts and applications introduced and developed during the last 50 years or so by various scholars from MIT, Stanford, and Wharton, such as Chris Argyris, Russell Ackoff, G. K. Forrester, Peter Senge, Stephen Covey, and Jim Collins, this chapter seeks to explore various past and contemporary market systems and challenges in terms of specific inputs, processes, and outputs. Systems thinking reckons everything in the cosmos (usually classified as subjects, objects, properties, and events) as a system (composed of two or more interactive parts with individual and interactive effects) that is connected to every other system in the universe. Various systems thinking laws and archetypes that have been developed thus far by systems thinkers will be introduced in order to identify basic patterns, structures, and constraints of human thinking and reasoning that create market phenomena. The academic and managerial challenge is to identify, explore, and capitalize such nonobvious connections for creating and developing new markets and corporate growth opportunities in the highly turbulent markets of today. In a globalized, digitized, and networked planet and universe, systems thinking is a very effective tool for analyzing turbulent market systems holistically and in an inclusive and integrated manner, with their specific inputs, processes, and outcomes. Several contemporary market cases will be included to illustrate the contents of this chapter.

Details

Corporate Ethics for Turbulent Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-187-8

1 – 10 of over 60000