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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2015

Pierre A. Balthazard and Robert W. Thatcher

Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet…

Abstract

Through a review of historically famous cases and a chronicle of neurotechnology development, this chapter discusses brain structure and brain function as two distinct yet interrelated paths to understand the relative contributions of anatomical and physiological mechanisms to the human brain–behavior relationship. From an organizational neuroscience perspective, the chapter describes over a dozen neuroimaging technologies that are classified under four groupings: morphologic, invasive metabolic, noninvasive metabolic, and electromagnetic. We then discuss neuroimaging variables that may be useful in social science investigations, and we underscore electroencephalography as a particularly useful modality for the study of individuals and groups in organizational settings. The chapter concludes by considering emerging science and novel brain technologies for the organizational researcher as we look to the future.

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Organizational Neuroscience
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-430-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2009

Victoria Tischler, Emma Bronjewski, Katherine O'Connor and Tim Calton

We report the findings from a study exploring the experiences of individuals undergoing MRI scanning for research. Semi‐structured interviews took place before and after…

Abstract

We report the findings from a study exploring the experiences of individuals undergoing MRI scanning for research. Semi‐structured interviews took place before and after scanning with 17 participants; 12 were healthy volunteers and five were patients with a diagnosis of remitted depression. Themes of apprehension and curiosity prior to scanning were common in both groups. Patients were often confused about the procedure. Negative feelings were an issue at the outset, characterised by shock related to the physical surroundings, after which positive feelings, for example relaxation, were often experienced, and in the case of patients, learning more about their brain. Written information about imaging was deemed satisfactory; however the ability to ‘experience’ aspects of scanning beforehand was suggested. Scanning may be viewed as a process beginning prior to the procedure itself and involving positive and negative emotions. Increased information, reassurance and a more interactive intervention to reduce anxiety may be beneficial and may improve individuals' experience of this widely used procedure.

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Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Peter Kenning, Hilke Plassmann and Dieter Ahlert

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the methodology of several brain imaging techniques and in particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging

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5831

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the methodology of several brain imaging techniques and in particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and its potential implications for market research. The aim is to enable the reader both to understand this emerging methodology and to conduct independent research in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

A short introduction on current neuroimaging methods used in behavioral neuroscience is provided by means of a literature review. The ensuing discussion focuses on fMRI as the currently most popular neuroimaging technique. Having described the fMRI methodology, an outline of the analysis of functional neuroimaging data follows, after which there is a discussion of some key research issues.

Findings

Although in its infancy, fMRI seems to be a useful and promising tool for market researchers. Initial studies in the field reveal that fMRI is able to shed light on subconscious processes such as affective aspects of consumer behavior.

Practical implications

Because brand positioning, advertising strategies and even pricing strategies are often based on constructs such as emotions, neuropsychological findings and methods should have important implications for practitioners in the field of brand management and advertising. Nonetheless, far more basic research is needed before fMRI can be adopted for marketing practice.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first in the marketing literature to provide a methodological overview of fMRI and discuss the potential implications for marketing research.

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Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Jose Paulo Marques dos Santos, Marisa Martins, Hugo Alexandre Ferreira, Joana Ramalho and Daniela Seixas

This paper aims to explore brain-based differences in national and own-label brands perceptions. Because price is a differentiating characteristic, able to discriminate…

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1253

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore brain-based differences in national and own-label brands perceptions. Because price is a differentiating characteristic, able to discriminate between national and own-label brands, its influence is also studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the Save Holdings Or Purchase (SHOP) task with functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore the differences in brain functioning for national versus own-label branded products.

Findings

For the same product, the higher priced national brands and the lower priced own-label brands lead to more buying decisions. It is also found that there are brain structures that are more active/deactive for national than for own-label brands, both marked with real market prices. Price is a powerful driver of buying decisions and has its neural correlates. Parietal regions activate when brand information is subtracted from brand-plus-price information. The most surprising finding is that visual and visual associative areas are involved in the contrasts between branded products marked with switched prices and marked with real market prices.

Originality/value

The activation/deactivation brain patterns suggest that accepted models of brain functioning are not suitable for explaining brand decisions. Also, to our knowledge, this is the first time that a study directly addresses the brain’s functioning when subjects are stimulated with national versus own-label brands. It paves the way for a new approach to understanding how such brand categories are perceived, revealing the neural origins of the associated psychological processes.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2007

Carl Senior, Hannah Smyth, Richard Cooke, Rachel L. Shaw and Elizabeth Peel

To describe the utility of three of the main cognitive neuroscientific techniques currently in use within the neuroscience community, and how they can be applied to the…

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3860

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the utility of three of the main cognitive neuroscientific techniques currently in use within the neuroscience community, and how they can be applied to the emerging field of neuromarket research.

Design/methodology/approach

A brief development of functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation are described, as the core principles are behind their respective use. Examples of actual data from each of the brain imaging techniques are provided to assist the neuromarketer with subsequent data for interpretation. Finally, to ensure the neuromarketer has an understanding of the experience of neuroimaging, qualitative data from a questionnaire exploring attitudes about neuroimaging techniques are included which summarize participants' experiences of having a brain scan.

Findings

Cognitive neuroscientific techniques have great utility in market research and can provide more “honest” indicators of consumer preference where traditional methods such as focus groups can be unreliable. These techniques come with complementary strengths which allow the market researcher to converge onto a specific research question. In general, participants considered brain imaging techniques to be relatively safe. However, care is urged to ensure that participants are positioned correctly in the scanner as incorrect positioning is a stressful factor during an imaging procedure that can impact data quality.

Originality/value

This paper is an important and comprehensive resource to the market researcher who wishes to use cognitive neuroscientific techniques.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Book part
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Sebastiano Massaro

In light of the growing interest in neuroscience within the managerial and organizational cognition (MOC) scholarly domain at large, this chapter advances current…

Abstract

In light of the growing interest in neuroscience within the managerial and organizational cognition (MOC) scholarly domain at large, this chapter advances current knowledge on core neuroscience methods. It does so by building on the theoretical analysis put forward by Healey and Hodgkinson (2014, 2015), and by offering a thorough – yet accessible – methodological framework for a better understanding of key cognitive and social neuroscience methods. Classifying neuroscience methods based on their degree of resolution, functionality, and anatomical focus, the chapter outlines their features, practicalities, advantages and disadvantages. Specifically, it focuses on functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability, and skin conductance response. Equipped with knowledge of these methods, researchers will be able to further their understanding of the potential synergies between management and neuroscience, to better appreciate and evaluate the value of neuroscience methods, and to look at new ways to frame old and new research questions in MOC. The chapter also builds bridges between researchers and practitioners by rebalancing the hype and hopes surrounding the use of neuroscience in management theory and practice.

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Methodological Challenges and Advances in Managerial and Organizational Cognition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-677-0

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2011

Iain Jordan and Declan Murphy

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied as a neurodevelopmental disorder since Leo Kanner's early observations of abnormal head circumference in autistic children…

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330

Abstract

Purpose

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been studied as a neurodevelopmental disorder since Leo Kanner's early observations of abnormal head circumference in autistic children. In the past few years, there has been much progress made in elucidating the anatomical and functional abnormalities in ASD. This paper aims to summarise the extant research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides a summary of relevant research findings in the neuroimaging of autism for the past 12 month period. Papers were identified using the Medline search terms: autism; ASD (functional); magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); neuroimaging; diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); and endophenotype.

Findings

Relatively recent techniques such as functional MRI and DTI have furthered the initial work derived from early histological and structural imaging studies. Even newer techniques, such as DTI tractography and support vector machine analysis, and other computer‐based learning methods have allowed us to move beyond regional variations in grey and white matter volume and study ASD as a disorder of connectivity, and of regional cerebral function and neural circuitry. Brain regions and neural circuits that are implicated in the core symptoms of ASD (deficits in social reciprocity, language and communication, and restricted and stereotyped interests) have been repeatedly shown to be abnormal in those individuals.

Originality/value

This paper aims to provide a background for clinicians to the current research and focuses on developments in the field of neuroimaging of ASD from the past year, which have generated further insights into the neurobiology of ASD.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 5 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Osama Sam Al-Kwifi, Allam Abu Farha and Zafar U. Ahmed

Since Islamic markets are growing substantially, there is an urgent need to gain a better understanding of how Muslim consumers perceive products from a religious…

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5017

Abstract

Purpose

Since Islamic markets are growing substantially, there is an urgent need to gain a better understanding of how Muslim consumers perceive products from a religious perspective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the brain responses of Muslim consumers to Halal and non-Halal products using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The research model is a simplified version of the theory of planned behavior. The initial experiment began by asking participants to divide a set of images into two groups: Halal and non-Halal products. The fMRI experiment uses a blocked design approach to capture brain activities resulting from presenting the two groups of images to participants, and to record the strength of their attitudes toward purchasing the products.

Findings

Across all participants, the level of brain activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex increased significantly when Halal images were presented to them. The same results emerged when the Halal images showed raw and cooked meat. The variations in the results may be due to the high emotional sensitivity of Muslim consumers to using religious products.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses a unique approach to monitor brain activity to confirm that consumers from specific market segments respond differently to market products based on their internal beliefs. Findings from this study provide evidence that marketing managers targeting Muslim markets should consider the sensitivity of presenting products in ways that reflect religious principles, in order to gain higher acceptance in this market segment.

Originality/value

Although the literature reports considerable research on Muslim consumers’ behavior, most of the previous studies utilize conventional data collection approaches to target broad segments of consumers by using traditional products. This paper is the first to track the reactions of the Muslim consumer segment to specific types of market products.

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International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Zunpeng Yu and Long Lu

Gliomas are common intracranial tumors with the characteristic of diffuse and invasive growth. The prognosis is poor, and the recurrence rate and mortality are higher…

Abstract

Purpose

Gliomas are common intracranial tumors with the characteristic of diffuse and invasive growth. The prognosis is poor, and the recurrence rate and mortality are higher. With the development of big data technology, many methods such as natural language processing, computer vision and image processing have been deeply applied in the medical field. This can help clinicians to provide personalized and precise diagnosis and therapeutic schedule for patients with different type of gliomas to achieve the best therapeutic effect. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and extract useful information from published research results by conducting a secondary analysis of the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) literature database were used to retrieve published Chinese and English research papers about human gliomas. Comprehensive analysis was applied to conduct this research. The factors affecting survival and prognosis were screened and analyzed respectively in this paper, and different methods for multidimensional data of patients were discussed.

Findings

This paper identified biomarkers and therapeutic modalities associated with prognosis for different grade of gliomas. This paper investigated the relationship among these clinical prognostic factors and different histopathologic tying and grade of gliomas by comprehensive analysis. This paper summarizes the research progress of biomarker in medical imaging and genomics of gliomas to improve prognosis and the current status of treatment in China.

Originality/value

Combined with multimodal data such as genomics data, medical image data and clinical information data, this paper comprehensively analyzed the prognostic factors of glioma and provided guidance and evidence for rational treatment planning and improvement of clinical treatment prognosis.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Osama Sam Al-Kwifi

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of destination images on tourists’ behavioral intention to select a destination for their next vacation. Most of…

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1696

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the influence of destination images on tourists’ behavioral intention to select a destination for their next vacation. Most of previous studies investigated this relationship by interacting with tourists during their stay in the destination. However, this research examines the impact of destination images before tourists visit a destination, using functional technological-oriented magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to track brain activation during the decision to select a destination.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is adopted from the theory of planned behavior. Study participants divide a set of hotel destination images into two groups: attractive and non-attractive destination images. A blocked design experiment was used during fMRI scan to track brain activities resulting from presenting the two groups of images to participants, and record the strength of their intention to visit the attractive destination.

Findings

The level of brain activation at the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) increased when participants were asked to assess the attractive destination images compared with the level of activation for non-attractive ones. Also, the positive attitude toward an attractive destination led to higher intention to visit that destination.

Research limitations/implications

This study enhances the authors’ understanding of how tourists analyze destination images to reach a decision on future action. It can also be used to help destination managers define an advertisement strategy that makes their destination more attractive.

Originality/value

Although the literature reports considerable research on destination image and its influence on tourists intention, this is the first exploratory study to use the fMRI technology to investigate tourists’ attitude toward destination images.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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