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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Pramod P. Iyer, Audhesh K Paswan and Arezoo Davari

– The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which love cues are used by brands targeted at multiple decision-makers in a family, specifically the mother and child.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which love cues are used by brands targeted at multiple decision-makers in a family, specifically the mother and child.

Design/methodology/approach

First, secondary database (SmartyPants, 2013) is used to identify clusters of brands with similar benefit groups (i.e. health and nutrition food, indulgence food, entertainment and technology for entertainment and learning) that are most loved by mothers and/or children. Next, a content analysis of the ads for brands in these clusters is used to identify the common positioning cues across these clusters. The data from the content analysis are used to explore the extent to which love cues (along with functional and hedonic) are used by these brands loved by mothers and children.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that functional cues dominate the ads for the brands in functional product categories, as well as hedonic product categories. Love cues dominate the ads for functional brands preferred by only either moms or kids, whereas for hedonic brands, love cues dominate the ads targeted at both moms and kids.

Research limitations/implications

The authors hope that this study provides an impetus for more empirical work toward understanding the role of love in positioning brands aimed at multiple family members.

Practical implications

Love, the underlying thread that connects a family, can be used by brand managers to appeal to multiple family members.

Social implications

Families are fundamental to the society. The authors hope that this study helps marketers appreciate that and do a better job of marketing to the families, as families also form the fundamental units of purchase and consumption.

Originality/value

This study uses value congruency framework to look at the notion of love as a positioning theme for brands targeted at multiple decision-makers. Hence, the study contributes to the development of family decision-making behavior.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Ridwan Adetunji Raji, Sabrina Rashid and Sobhi Ishak

This study aims to answer an important question of how brand-related communications, including advertising and sales promotion contents, which are disseminated on social…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to answer an important question of how brand-related communications, including advertising and sales promotion contents, which are disseminated on social media platforms, can enhance positive brand image and evoke favourable behavioural intention from consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveys 615 consumers of automotive brands across Malaysia. The data were analysed with AMOS, which was used to specify both the measurement and structural models. The mediating effect of both hedonic and functional brand images was tested using the bootstrapping approach in AMOS and Sobel test.

Findings

The findings reported in this research demonstrate that there are positive and significant relationships between social media advertising content, social media sales promotion content, hedonic brand image, functional brand image and behavioural intention. Both hedonic and functional brand images have significant mediating effects on social media advertising content, social media sales promotion content and behavioural intention. However, the relationship between social media advertising content and behavioural intention is insignificant.

Practical implications

This paper proffers insights to brand managers and marketers on how to leverage on social media contents by unearthing the roles of traditional marketing communications such as social media advertising and promotional information in enhancing brand preference and improving consumers’ purchase intention.

Originality/value

This research advances the discussions in the realm of social media communications and branding by examining the mediating effects of both hedonic and functional brand images of automotive brands. In addition, this study focuses on two essential marketing communications, advertising and sales promotions, which are commonly disseminated by brand managers on social media platforms.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Nazuk Sharma

This research aims to investigate the impact of incorporating product shadows in brand advertising on consumer brand evaluations.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate the impact of incorporating product shadows in brand advertising on consumer brand evaluations.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies were designed using experimental approach to demonstrate how the presence of a product’s cast shadow in a brand’s promotional frame implicitly influences brand evaluations differently for experiential vs functional brands.

Findings

The presence of a product’s cast shadow in a visual frame implicitly complements abstract processing of an experiential brand but hurts a functional brand’s concrete gestalt by acting as visual noise, thereby improving an experiential brand’s overall evaluation in comparison to a functional brand.

Research limitations/implications

Current findings highlight the importance of using appropriate visual elements (especially subtle elements such as product shadows) to ensure communication consistency between the firm-formulated brand concept and the consumer-perceived brand image.

Practical implications

Experiential (vs functional) brand images are harder to build and maintain. Current findings show that a mere presence of the product’s shadow in an experiential (vs functional) brand’s ad frame reinforces the experiential brand image by acting as a consistent element in the experiential brand’s ad frame that enhances the overall ease of product evaluation. Hence, product shadows should be used as strategic tools by brand managers, rather than a random ad-execution choice.

Originality/value

This research makes an initial attempt to explore the relationship between product shadows and consumer brand perceptions. It provides a deeper understanding of the underlying process (based on associative networks memory model, construal level theory and processing fluency model) that influence specific brand perceptions (experiential vs functional) when a product is showcased with its shadow in a promotional frame.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Subodh Bhat and Srinivas K. Reddy

Some brand strategists have distinguished between symbolic and functional brands, i.e. brands that basically satisfy consumers’ functional or product‐related needs and…

46201

Abstract

Some brand strategists have distinguished between symbolic and functional brands, i.e. brands that basically satisfy consumers’ functional or product‐related needs and brands bought to enhance self‐ or social esteem. It has been suggested that brands should be positioned as either functional or symbolic but not both. However, empirical research on the dimensionality of brand symbolism/functionality has been lacking. In this study, scales were developed to assess a brand’s symbolic or functional association with consumers. Subsequent data analysis suggests that brand symbolism and functionality are separate phenomena and, further, that symbolism comprises two dimensions, termed prestige and personality expression. Thus, contrary to current thinking, it seems that brands can be successfully positioned as both symbolic and functional and, if a symbolic brand concept is desired, prestige or upscaleness is just one of the possible positioning options available.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Elena Delgado-Ballester and Estela Fernandez Sabiote

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relative higher impact of brand experiential value over brand functional value in generating brand equity, consumer–brand

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relative higher impact of brand experiential value over brand functional value in generating brand equity, consumer–brand identification and positive word-of-mouth (WOM). It also analyzes whether the impact of these brand values in building brand outcomes depends on consumers’ age.

Design/methodology/approach

Information was collected from a sample of 332 consumers by personal interviews. Respondents provide information about their consumption experiences with a specific brand from a stated list of 14 experiential and non-experiential brands.

Findings

Results suggest that the effect of brand experiential value on brand equity and consumer-brand identification was higher than that of brand functional value. By contrast, positive WOM was more influenced by brand functional value. Furthermore, the results also confirm that as consumers age, brand experiential value exhibits a significant higher effect than brand functional value on brand outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

A potential shortcoming is the common method bias. As far as one questionnaire was used to measure all study constructs, the strength of the causal relationships among constructs may have been inflated.

Practical implications

For brand managers, the key implications concern on how to effectively allocate brand investment to build stronger brand equity and consumer-brand identification and stimulated positive WOM.

Originality/value

Despite the greater importance that the experiential perspective is gaining in the brand literature and the voices proclaiming that experiential value will matter most, this is the first empirical research paper that analyzes that the relative superiority of experiential value over functional value depends on the brand outcomes pursued and consumers’ age.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Jeff Hess and John Story

To propose and test a multi‐dimensional model of relationship commitment defined by personal and functional connections which are, in turn, driven by trust and satisfaction.

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Abstract

Purpose

To propose and test a multi‐dimensional model of relationship commitment defined by personal and functional connections which are, in turn, driven by trust and satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

A model is proposed to define relationship constructs better within marketing practice and to evaluate the relationships between these constructs. Structural equation modeling was employed to validate the model using data from two case studies.

Findings

Satisfaction is antecedent to trust, but primarily contributes to functional connections. Personal connections, on the other hand, stem from trust. The relative strengths of personal and functional connections determine the nature and outcomes of relationship commitment. This trust‐based model is statistically superior to previous models and explains customer‐brand relationships much more extensively.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation of this research is that it explores only two product/service categories, potentially limiting the generalizability to other domains.

Practical implications

These results have extensive implications for brand building, establishing customer relationships, and incorporating relationships into brand strategies.

Originality/value

These results improve our understanding of customers' relationships with brands and provide managers with guidance on developing, nurturing, and utilizing these relationships.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 July 2022

Cecilia Ugalde, Natalia Vila-Lopez and Ines Kuster-Boluda

Fashionable brands need to develop brand attachment so that their consumers become fans and act as apostles by recommending them. But how can companies develop brand

Abstract

Purpose

Fashionable brands need to develop brand attachment so that their consumers become fans and act as apostles by recommending them. But how can companies develop brand attachment? This paper aims to investigate, on the one hand, the role of four drivers of brand attachment (perceived quality, brand personality, credibility and awareness) and three effects (loyalty, buying intention and perceived risk). On the other hand, three groups of fashionable brands with different positioning strategies are compared to analyze if the brand positioning strategy moderates the proposed relationships in the analyzed country.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the two objectives, surveys with the same instrument were conducted twice, and a sample of 1,922 consumers from the three most populated cities of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca) took part in the study. They chose fashionable brands with functional (n = 1,066), hedonic (n = 463) and symbolic (n = 393) positioning strategies. They mentioned, for example, functional brands such as Avon, La Lechera, Nokia or Converse; hedonic brands such as Christian Dior, Oreo, Apple or Timberland and symbolic brands such as Axe, Coca-Cola/Coke, Motorola or DBond.

Findings

The results of this study show that (1) brand positioning affects attachment, (2) a functional positioning leads to higher consumers' loyalty, (3) a hedonic positioning leads to the strongest brand personality and credibility and (4) a symbolic positioning seems to be the less useful option in terms of desired effects.

Originality/value

First, this paper considers three different subscenarios in launching a new product: hedonic, functional and symbolic brand positioning. The comparison of these three scenarios makes progress with respect to previous research since the connection between consumers' brand attachment and positioning brand strategy has been scarcely addressed to date. Second, no study has been found that assesses the simultaneous effect of four key antecedents capable of enhancing brand attachment (personality, quality, awareness and credibility), causing three major effects (loyalty, purchase intention and decrease in perceived risk).

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Enrique Bigné, Rafael Currás‐Pérez and Joaquín Aldás‐Manzano

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the dual nature of social cause‐brand fit by studying the influence of two cause‐brand fit categories, functional fit and image…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the dual nature of social cause‐brand fit by studying the influence of two cause‐brand fit categories, functional fit and image fit, on the formation of brand corporate social responsibility consumer perception (CSR perception) in a cause‐brand alliance (CBA) context.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model is proposed, based on previous research, which explains the effect of functional fit and image fit on altruistic attributions, brand credibility and CSR image; these relationships were assessed through structural equation modelling. The model was estimated with a sample of 299 Spanish consumers of toiletries and cosmetics products, randomly selected. Two newly created, printed CBA advertisements served as the basic stimulus of the study.

Findings

This research shows that consumers perceive functional and image fit differently, and each has its own mechanism for influencing brand CSR perception. While functional fit has a direct, although gentle influence on CSR perception, image fit has an indirect influence, as it is used as a cue to evaluate altruistic brand motivations and brand credibility.

Research limitations/implications

The chosen research approach may reduce the generalisability of the results. Further empirical testing using alternative brands and outcome measures is encouraged.

Practical implications

Both types of fit influence the formation of CSR perception, and should therefore be postulated as decision criteria to brand managers for choosing the CBA partner. Specifically, brands which are likely of being perceived as not credible or egoistic when associating with the cause, must pay special attention to image fit.

Originality/value

This work analyses and compares simultaneously the influence of functional fit and image fit on CSR brand perception formation in the context of a CBA strategy.

Article
Publication date: 8 January 2018

S.R. Nikhashemi and Naser Valaei

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impacts of brand personality and functional congruity on various components of brand loyalty (i.e. cognitive, affective, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impacts of brand personality and functional congruity on various components of brand loyalty (i.e. cognitive, affective, and conative) by examining the moderating role of gender.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is examined by considering car as a product brand stimulus. Using a self-structured questionnaire, 263 usable responses are considered for data analysis by applying the structural equation modelling method.

Findings

The findings indicate that all hypotheses on the relationships between brand personality, functional congruity, and stages of brand loyalty are supported except for the relationship between brand personality and conative loyalty, whereby brand personality indirectly have impacts on conative brand loyalty via functional congruity. The outcome of the multi-group analysis shows that the impact of brand personality and functional congruity on cognitive, affective, and conative brand loyalty varies across gender groups.

Practical implications

The results indicate that if marketing managers are willing to create cognitive, affective as well as conative brand loyalty among consumers, they ought to tally their consumers’ purchasing and evaluation criteria with the functional and symbolic attributes. If the target consumers were motivated to purchase the product based on the symbolic attributes (as preferred by females in the present study), more attention should be focussed on communicating and delivering the symbolic attributes during their marketing campaign; on the other hand, if the consumers were inclined to buy product based on the utilitarian functions (as preferred by males in the current study), more emphasis should be placed on the functional values and attributes.

Originality/value

This study is the first to utilise self-congruity and the elaboration likelihood model to explain the influence of brand personality and functional congruity on each component of brand loyalty within the automobile industry’s context. This study on the moderating role of gender shows that the effect of brand personality and functional congruity is different across gender groups. The findings can help marketers to design an effective brand positioning and marketing strategies in order to stay competitive.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2011

Melodena Stephens Balakrishnan, Ramzi Nekhili and Clifford Lewis

This study matches destination brand components with motives and identifies those components that are most important for the consumer during various stages of the decision…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study matches destination brand components with motives and identifies those components that are most important for the consumer during various stages of the decision process. This study also aims to classify various functional and symbolic brand components. The findings take the customers' point‐of‐view in identifying those descriptors that affect consumer choice preference and create destination loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is exploratory. Through a detailed literature review, destination brand components are identified, simplified and then classified as symbolic or functional. They are also classified by motive. The review is followed by a quantitative study that uses open‐ended questions to find the relationship between destination brand components and the stage of decision making. This study also presents a conceptual model with taxonomy of brand components.

Findings

Functional brand components seem to play a major role in a consumer's description of place brands during the various decision making stages. This finding highlights the importance of stressing functional components in the destination's branding strategy.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its type and can serve as a platform for future research, practically helping destinations create more effective communication.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

Keywords

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