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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2008

Thomas Ritter and Achim Walter

Managers and academics alike focus on value creation in business relationships. This paper adds to existing literature by analyzing functions of business relationships and…

Abstract

Managers and academics alike focus on value creation in business relationships. This paper adds to existing literature by analyzing functions of business relationships and their impact on value perception. Applying a customer perspective, direct relationship functions are concerned about payment, quality, and volume. Indirect functions include innovation, access, and scouting. Furthermore, trust and number of alternative suppliers are included in the study. The empirical results illustrate the important role of direct and indirect functions for value creation. Understanding these functions is instrumental for driving customer value, both for the supplier and the seller. Direct functions do have a much stronger impact on value than indirect functions that still do have a significant impact. Thus, increasing direct function fulfillment is much more effective in order to gain key supplier status than relying only on indirect functions. But indirect functions may offer ample differentiation opportunities. Being a strong driver of relationship value, trust is also driven by function fulfillment. Thus, relationship value depends on rational elements (functions) and social elements (trust). Availability of alternative suppliers increases the importance of relationship function fulfillment on customer value and customer trust. In highly competitive markets, suppliers need clear understanding and communication of relationship value in order to succeed.

Details

Creating and managing superior customer value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-173-2

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Kazhal Gharibi and Sohrab Abdollahzadeh

To maximize the network total profit by calculating the difference between costs and revenue (first objective function). To maximize the positive impact on the environment…

Abstract

Purpose

To maximize the network total profit by calculating the difference between costs and revenue (first objective function). To maximize the positive impact on the environment by integrating GSCM factors in RL (second objective function). To calculate the efficiency of disassembly centers by SDEA method, which are selected as suppliers and maximize the total efficiency (third objective function). To evaluate the resources and total efficiency of the proposed model to facilitate the allocation resource process, to increase resource efficiency and to improve the efficiency of disassembly centers by Inverse DEA.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of a closed-loop logistics network for after-sales service for mobile phones and digital cameras has been developed by the mixed-integer linear programming method (MILP). Development of MILP method has been performed by simultaneously considering three main objectives including: total network profit, green supply chain factors (environmental sustainability) and maximizing the efficiency of disassembly centers. The proposed model of study is a six-level, multi-objective, single-period and multi-product that focuses on electrical waste. The efficiency of product return centers is calculated by SDEA method and the most efficient centers are selected.

Findings

The results of using the model in a case mining showed that, due to the use of green factors in network design, environmental pollution and undesirable disposal of some electronic waste were reduced. Also, with the reduction of waste disposal, valuable materials entered the market cycle and the network profit increased.

Originality/value

(1) Design a closed-loop reverse logistics network for after-sales services; (2) Introduce a multi-objective multi-echelon mixed integer linear programming model; (3) Sensitivity analysis use Inverse-DEA method to increase the efficiency of inefficient units; (4) Use the GSC factors and DEA method in reverse logistics network.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Augusto Sales, Steffen Roth, Michael Grothe-Hammer and Ricardo Azambuja

The literature on Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A), cultural differences between organizations have frequently been identified as one of the main challenges in the process…

Abstract

Purpose

The literature on Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A), cultural differences between organizations have frequently been identified as one of the main challenges in the process of post-merger integration (PMI). Existing research has explored a broad variety of cultural differences in perceptions, such as those relating to expectations, norms, values and beliefs within the respective organizations, and how these affect the process and success of PMI. However, less attention has been paid to the relevance of the macro-societal context to PMI. The ambition of this article is, therefore, to advance our understanding of how macro-level societal factors define organizational cultures and affect the success of PMI.

Design/methodology/approach

We draw on social systems theory as devised by Niklas Luhmann, assuming that organizations are always embedded in the macro-level societal context of distinctive realms of social reality—such as the economy, politics, religion and the arts—that make up the so-called “function systems”. Looking at the case of the integration of a Brazilian technology start-up into a market-leading corporation, we analyze the dominant orientations towards these function systems, and the changes in these orientations over time.

Findings

The results suggest that differences in organizational culture in PMI can be partly explained by differences in orientations to the function systems. Moreover, forcing dramatic changes of orientations towards the function systems within a merged entity can severely damage its raison d'etre in the first place, potentially leading to, in some sense, an account of “culture murder”.

Originality/value

This article is unique in demonstrating that organizations are multifunctional systems whose culture is defined by the highly specific and potentially varying degrees of importance they place on individual function systems and that knowledge or neglect of these functional profiles may seriously affect the success of post-merger integration. Against this backdrop, the article presents a multifunctional profiling method that may easily translate into PMI management tools.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Abhijit Banerjee and Arpita Roy

The paper aims to build the relationship between an entire function of restricted hyper-order with its linear c-shift operator.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to build the relationship between an entire function of restricted hyper-order with its linear c-shift operator.

Design/methodology/approach

Standard methodology for papers in difference and shift operators and value distribution theory have been used.

Findings

The relation between an entire function of restricted hyper-order with its linear c-shift operator was found under the periphery of sharing a set of two small functions IM (ignoring multiplicities) when exponent of convergence of zeros is strictly less than its order. This research work is an improvement and extension of two previous papers.

Originality/value

This is an original research work.

Details

Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-5166

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Ming K. Lim, Weiqing Xiong and Chao Wang

In the last decade, cloud manufacturing (CMfg) has attracted considerable attention from academia and industry worldwide. It is widely accepted that the design and…

Abstract

Purpose

In the last decade, cloud manufacturing (CMfg) has attracted considerable attention from academia and industry worldwide. It is widely accepted that the design and analysis of cloud manufacturing architecture (CMfg-A) are the basis for developing and applying CMfg systems. However, in existing studies, analysis of the status, development process and internal characteristics of CMfg-A is lacking, hindering an understanding of the research hotspots and development trends of CMfg-A. Meanwhile, effective guidance is lacking on the construction of superior CMfg-As. The purpose of this paper is to review the relevant research on CMfg-A via identification of the main layers, elements, relationships, structure and functions of CMfg-A to provide valuable information to scholars and practitioners for further research on key CMfg-A technologies and the construction of CMfg systems with superior performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study systematically reviews the relevant research on CMfg-A across transformation process to internal characteristics by integrating quantitative and qualitative methods. First, the split and reorganization method is used to recognize the main layers of CMfg-A. Then, the transformation process of six main layers is analysed through retrospective analysis, and the similarities and differences in CMfg-A are obtained. Subsequently, based on systematic theory, the elements, relationships, structure and functions of CMfg-A are inductively studied. A 3D printing architecture design case is conducted to discuss the weakness of the previous architecture and demonstrate how to improve it. Finally, the primary current trends and future opportunities are presented.

Findings

By analyzing the transformation process of CMfg-A, this study finds that CMfg-A resources are developing from tangible resources into intangible resources and intelligent resources. CMfg-A technology is developing from traditional cloud computing-based technology towards advanced manufacturing technology, and CMfg-A application scope is gradually expanding from traditional manufacturing industry to emerging manufacturing industry. In addition, by analyzing the elements, relationships, structure and functions of CMfg-A, this study finds that CMfg-A is undergoing a new generation of transformation, with trends of integrated development, intelligent development, innovative development and green development. Case study shows that the analysis of the development trend and internal characteristics of the architecture facilitates the design of a more effective architecture.

Research limitations/implications

This paper predominantly focuses on journal articles and some key conference papers published in English and Chinese. The reason for considering Chinese articles is that CMfg was proposed by the Chinese and a lot of Chinese CMfg-A articles have been published in recent years. CMfg is suitable for the development of China’s manufacturing industry because of China’s intelligent manufacturing environment. It is believed that this research has reached a reliable comprehensiveness that can help scholars and practitioners establish new research directions and evaluate their work in CMfg-A.

Originality/value

Prior studies ignore the identification and analysis of development process and internal characteristics for the current development of CMfg-A, including the main layers identification of different CMfg-As and the transformation process analysis of these main layers, and in-depth analysis of the inner essence of CMfg-A (such as its elements, relationships, structure and functions). This study addresses these limitations and provides a comprehensive literature review.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 121 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Holt Zaugg and Brian Rennick

Four years after the release of a responsive design website that provides a dynamic screen layout across three access devices (computer, tablet and smartphone), a repeat…

Abstract

Purpose

Four years after the release of a responsive design website that provides a dynamic screen layout across three access devices (computer, tablet and smartphone), a repeat study was conducted to determine changes in the way that library website functions are and are not accessed.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey, similar to the original study, was used to determine the rate of access of 20 website functions by three access devices (computer, tablet and smartphone) and a “did not use” (DNU) category. A two-proportion Z-test was used to determine significant differences in the rate of access for each website function and the “did not use” (DNU) category by each access device from 2014 to 2018.

Findings

The computer is still the primary tool used to access website functions, but its rate of use is declining, while access via the smartphone is increasing, including research and for learning functions traditionally accessed only by computer. Access by tablet, with poor website function access rates in 2014, declined in use, with some rates approaching zero. Increases in the DNU category for website functions occurred, but reasons why were not determined. The increases raised questions about the relevance of some of the website functions and if other actions are needed to increase use.

Originality/value

Repeating the 2014 study provided insights into the changing landscape of device preferences for accessing library website functions. The number of significant changes identified demonstrates the importance of recurring studies to determine how online access to library website functions evolves over time.

Details

Performance Measurement and Metrics, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-8047

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 June 2021

Zhiwei Liu, Jianjun Chen, Yifan Xia and Yao Zheng

Sizing functions are crucial inputs for unstructured mesh generation since they determine the element distributions of resulting meshes to a large extent. Meanwhile…

Abstract

Purpose

Sizing functions are crucial inputs for unstructured mesh generation since they determine the element distributions of resulting meshes to a large extent. Meanwhile, automating the procedure of creating a sizing function is a prerequisite to set up a fully automatic mesh generation pipeline. In this paper, an automatic algorithm is proposed to create a high-quality sizing function for an unstructured surface and volume mesh generation by using a triangular mesh as the background mesh.

Design/methodology/approach

A practically efficient and effective solution is developed by using local operators carefully to re-mesh the tessellation of the input Computer Aided Design (CAD) models. A nonlinear programming (NLP) problem has been formulated to limit the gradient of the sizing function, while in this study, the object function of this NLP is replaced by an analytical equation that predicts the number of elements. For the query of the sizing value, an improved algorithm is developed by using the axis-aligned bounding box (AABB) tree structure.

Findings

The local operations of re-meshing could effectively and efficiently resolve the banding issue caused by using the default tessellation of the model to define a sizing function. Experiments show that the solution of the revised NLP, in most cases, could provide a better solution at the lower cost of computational time. With the help of the AABB tree, the sizing function defined at a surface background mesh can be also used as the input of volume mesh generation.

Originality/value

Theoretical analysis reveals that the construction of the initial sizing function could be reduced to the solution of an optimization problem. The definitions of the banding elements and surface proximity are also given. Under the guidance of this theoretical analysis, re-meshing and ray-casting technologies are well-designed to initial the sizing function. Smoothing with the revised NLP and querying by the AABB tree, the paper provides an automatic method to get a high-quality sizing function for both surface and volume mesh generation.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Vennan Sibanda, Khumbulani Mpofu and John Trimble

In manufacturing, dedicated machine tools and flexible machine tools are failing to satisfy the ever-changing manufacturing demands of short life cycles and dynamic nature…

Abstract

Purpose

In manufacturing, dedicated machine tools and flexible machine tools are failing to satisfy the ever-changing manufacturing demands of short life cycles and dynamic nature of products. These machines are limited when new product designs are introduced. The solution lies in developing responsive machines that can be adjusted or be changed functionally when these change requirements arise. These machines are reconfigurable machines which are becoming the new focus, as they rapidly respond to product variety and volume changes. A sheet metal working machine known as a reconfigurable guillotine shear and bending press machine (RGS&BPM) has been developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology, function-oriented design approach (FODA), which was developed for the design of the RGS&BPM.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the machine is based on the six principles of reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), namely, modularity, scalability integrability, convertibility, diagnosability and customisability. The methodology seeks to optimise the design process of the RGS&BPM through a design of modules that make up the machine, enable its conversion and reconfiguration. The FODA is focussed on function identification to select the operational function required. Two main functions are recognised for the machine, these being cutting and bending; hence, the design revolves around these two and reconfigurability.

Findings

The developed design methodology was tested in the design of a prototype for the reconfigurable guillotine shear and bending press machine. The prototype is currently being manufactured and will be subjected to functional tests once completed. This paper is being presented not only to present the methodology by to show and highlight its practical applicability, as the prototype manufacturers have been enthusiastic about this new approach.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited to the design methodology for the RGS&BPM, the machine which has been designed to completion using this methodology, with prototype being manufactured.

Practical implications

This study presents critical steps and considerations in the development of reconfigurable machines. The main thrust being to explore the best possibility of developing the machines with dual functionality that will assist in availing the technology to manufacturer. As the machine has been development, the success of the design can be directly attributed to the FODA methodology, among other contributing factors. It also highlights the significance of the principles of RMS in reconfigurable machine design.

Social implications

The RGS&BM machine is an answer for the small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs), as the machine replaces two machines with one, and the methodology ensures its affordable design. It contributes immensely to the machine availability by eliminating trial and error approaches.

Originality/value

This study presents a new approach to the design of reconfigurable dual machines using principles of RMS. As the targeted market is the SME, it is not limited to that as any entrepreneur may use the machine to their advantage. The design methodology presented contributes to the body of knowledge in dual reconfigurable machine tool design.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Mohammad B. Hamida and Mohammad A. Hassanain

This paper aims to present a generic lifecycle framework model for guiding architects, engineers, contractors and facilities managers (AEC/FM) practitioners on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a generic lifecycle framework model for guiding architects, engineers, contractors and facilities managers (AEC/FM) practitioners on the effective implementation of adaptive reuse projects.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed approach of qualitative and quantitative techniques was followed in the development of the framework model. A literature review was conducted to comprehend the processes involved in adaptive reuse projects. In total, 90 AEC/FM practitioners were surveyed to identify the current practices in these projects. A generic framework model was then developed to standardize the processes involved, using integration definition for function modeling process modeling methodology. Face-to-face interviews with a targeted group of 30 AEC/FM practitioners were conducted, to validate the developed framework model, by assessing the importance and the frequency of implementing each function in the developed framework model.

Findings

The framework model consisted of four sequential processes, namely, assess the feasibility of the adaptive reuse project, design the adaptive reuse project, construct the adaptive reuse project and operate and maintain the adaptive reuse project. The validation confirmed the importance of all the framework functions and the frequency of their implementation.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature and the AEC/FM professions, through developing a lifecycle and knowledge-oriented framework model for building adaptive reuse. The framework presents clear documentation of adaptive reuse processes. Thus, it holds the potential of endeavoring on adaptive reuse projects to be more efficient.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

T. Rodič and I. Grešovnik

A system for solving a wide variety of inverse and optimization problems in solid mechanics is introduced. The system consists of a general purpose finite element method…

Abstract

A system for solving a wide variety of inverse and optimization problems in solid mechanics is introduced. The system consists of a general purpose finite element method (FEM) analysis system “Elfen” and a shell which controls this system. The shell functions as a stand‐alone programme, so the system is physically divided into two separated parts. The “optimization part”, which corresponds to the shell, possesses optimization and inverse problem solution algorithms. The “analysis part”, which corresponds to an FEM system, serves for the definition of the objective function to which these algorithms are applied. The shell has a user interface implemented in the form of file interpreter which imposes a great flexibility at the definition of various optimization and inverse problems, including parameter identification in constitutive modelling, frictional contact problems and heat transfer. Concepts of the shell are discussed in detail.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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