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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2022

Salvatore Polizzi, Fabio Lupo and Sara Testella

Quality Assurance and Improvement Program (QAIP) is defined as “an ongoing and periodic assessment of the entire spectrum of audit and consulting work performed by the…

Abstract

Purpose

Quality Assurance and Improvement Program (QAIP) is defined as “an ongoing and periodic assessment of the entire spectrum of audit and consulting work performed by the internal audit (IA) activity”. QAIP is an important component of internal auditors’ commitment to improve internal audit (IA) quality. The pressure towards improvement is urgent for central banks, in light of the vulnerabilities of their IA functions identified by the International Monetary Fund. The authors analyse the professional standards and the literature on IA and QAIP, aiming to propose general considerations to enhance IA quality and to develop and maintain a QAIP, with reference to central banks, also shedding light on the synergies among IA, QAIP and total quality management (TQM).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the most relevant professional standards in light of the professional and academic literature regarding IA quality, QAIP and their relationship with TQM. The analysis of these sources represents an important step to identify general measures to improve IA quality and develop effective QAIP in central banks.

Findings

This analysis shows that it is important to understand the rationale behind the development of an IA function and its theoretical and practical foundation, especially for complex organisations such as central banks. In addition, the authors show that QAIP represents an important tool to exploit the synergies between TQM and IA. These synergies could result in higher levels of quality for the IA function and more effective implementation of TQM within the whole organisation. Lastly, the authors provide practical suggestions to support the implementation of an effective QAIP in central banks and to spread TQM philosophy within the organisation.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the scant literature on IA quality and QAIP by focusing on central banks and shedding light on the relationship with TQM. Regardless of their importance, these topics have been largely neglected by the extant literature.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2008

Thomas Ritter and Achim Walter

Managers and academics alike focus on value creation in business relationships. This paper adds to existing literature by analyzing functions of business relationships and…

Abstract

Managers and academics alike focus on value creation in business relationships. This paper adds to existing literature by analyzing functions of business relationships and their impact on value perception. Applying a customer perspective, direct relationship functions are concerned about payment, quality, and volume. Indirect functions include innovation, access, and scouting. Furthermore, trust and number of alternative suppliers are included in the study. The empirical results illustrate the important role of direct and indirect functions for value creation. Understanding these functions is instrumental for driving customer value, both for the supplier and the seller. Direct functions do have a much stronger impact on value than indirect functions that still do have a significant impact. Thus, increasing direct function fulfillment is much more effective in order to gain key supplier status than relying only on indirect functions. But indirect functions may offer ample differentiation opportunities. Being a strong driver of relationship value, trust is also driven by function fulfillment. Thus, relationship value depends on rational elements (functions) and social elements (trust). Availability of alternative suppliers increases the importance of relationship function fulfillment on customer value and customer trust. In highly competitive markets, suppliers need clear understanding and communication of relationship value in order to succeed.

Details

Creating and managing superior customer value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-173-2

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2022

Suk Chong Tong and Fanny Fong Yee Chan

Based on both quantitative and qualitative analyses, this study revisits public relations (PR) and marketing practitioners' perceptions of PR function and its relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on both quantitative and qualitative analyses, this study revisits public relations (PR) and marketing practitioners' perceptions of PR function and its relationship with marketing function in the digital context.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey targeting 234 PR and marketing practitioners was first conducted, followed by a total of 27 in-depth interviews with PR and marketing practitioners.

Findings

Results from the two phases of analysis show that both PR and marketing practitioners perceive market functions as sales-oriented, whereas media relations is interpreted as more of a PR function. Content marketing and influencer marketing via digital communication channels help to enhance the convergence of PR and marketing functions. PR and marketing practitioners believe that PR and marketing functions are integrative, and they are willing to work flexibly for both functions within workplaces.

Originality/value

This study presents a continuum of PR and marketing functions in the digital era that illustrates the role of digital communication in the convergence of PR and marketing functions. The results help to advance the theoretical discussion on both the functional (excellent PR practices and relationship management) and critical (the social role of PR in the participatory culture) approaches of PR in the digital context. Managerial implications are also discussed in addition to the theoretical contributions.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Dong Lyu, Dirk Moosmayer, Hao Ding and Jia Jin

This paper aims to explore when and why consumers hold inconsistent and consistent choices between self- and gift-purchases.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore when and why consumers hold inconsistent and consistent choices between self- and gift-purchases.

Design/methodology/approach

Across three paper-based questionnaire experiments, the authors examine how consumers’ preferences for desirability and feasibility vary with purchase types (self- vs gift-purchases) based on the functional theories of attitudes. The authors examine consumers’ attitude functions and their self-monitoring closely associated with chronic attitude functions.

Findings

The findings show that the social adjustive function moderates whether consumers hold consistent or inconsistent preferences across the two purchases. Specifically, consumers generally rely more on desirability in gift-purchases than self-purchases, whereas this inconsistent preference only exists when the social adjustive function is comparable or advantaged to the utilitarian function. When the social adjustive function is significantly disadvantaged relative to the utilitarian function, consumers consistently prefer feasibility irrespective of self- or gift-purchases.

Research limitations/implications

The research contributes to the familiar topic of consumers’ choice trade-offs between self- and gift-purchases. It documents the moderating role of the social adjustive function of consumers’ attitudes in whether they hold consistent or inconsistent choices across the two purchases. This extends the extensive research on self-other decisions.

Practical implications

The findings strongly suggest retailers identify or manipulate consumers’ attitude functions to make the attitude functions align with the purchase type when recommending products.

Originality/value

Most relevant literature focuses on exploring choice differences between self- and gift-purchases. This research not only explores the choice differences but also attempts to find the condition under which people’s choices do not differ between the two purchases.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 56 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 September 2022

Lin Jia, Chen Lin, Yiran Qin, Xiaowen Pan and Zhongyun Zhou

With the rapid development of paid online social question and answer (Q&A) communities, monetary social functions have been introduced and have potential benefits for both…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid development of paid online social question and answer (Q&A) communities, monetary social functions have been introduced and have potential benefits for both platforms and users. However, these functions' impact on knowledge contribution remains uncertain. This study proposes a conceptual model based on the stimulus–organism–response framework, according to which monetary and non-monetary social functions can help nurture short-term and long-term relationships among community users, and thereafter improves social identity and knowledge-sharing intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study selects Zhihu, a famous online social Q&A community in China, and conducts an online survey to collect data from its frequent users. A sample of 286 valid questionnaires was collected to test our research model by using a structural equation modeling method. In addition, a bootstrapping approach is used to test the mediation effect.

Findings

Results indicate that monetary social functions help nurture short-term and long-term relationships among community users. However, non-monetary social functions only affect short-term relationships directly. Short-term and long-term relationships both have a positive relationship with social identity and thereafter improve users' knowledge-sharing intentions.

Originality/value

This study focuses on users' knowledge-sharing intentions in Q&A communities from the perspective of social. Specifically, we separated social functions in Q&A platforms into monetary and non-monetary ones and explored their impact on the development of short-term and long-term relationships. Results demonstrate the importance of monetary social functions and explain how monetary and non-monetary social functions affect users' knowledge-sharing intentions in different approaches.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 September 2022

Fei Wang and Tat Leung Chan

The purpose of this study is to present a newly proposed and developed sorting algorithm-based merging weighted fraction Monte Carlo (SAMWFMC) method for solving the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a newly proposed and developed sorting algorithm-based merging weighted fraction Monte Carlo (SAMWFMC) method for solving the population balance equation for the weighted fraction coagulation process in aerosol dynamics with high computational accuracy and efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

In the new SAMWFMC method, the jump Markov process is constructed as the weighted fraction Monte Carlo (WFMC) method (Jiang and Chan, 2021) with a fraction function. Both adjustable and constant fraction functions are used to validate the computational accuracy and efficiency. A new merging scheme is also proposed to ensure a constant-number and constant-volume scheme.

Findings

The new SAMWFMC method is fully validated by comparing with existing analytical solutions for six benchmark test cases. The numerical results obtained from the SAMWFMC method with both adjustable and constant fraction functions show excellent agreement with the analytical solutions and low stochastic errors. Compared with the WFMC method (Jiang and Chan, 2021), the SAMWFMC method can significantly reduce the stochastic error in the total particle number concentration without increasing the stochastic errors in high-order moments of the particle size distribution at only slightly higher computational cost.

Originality/value

The WFMC method (Jiang and Chan, 2021) has a stringent restriction on the fraction functions, making few fraction functions applicable to the WFMC method except for several specifically selected adjustable fraction functions, while the stochastic error in the total particle number concentration is considerably large. The newly developed SAMWFMC method shows significant improvement and advantage in dealing with weighted fraction coagulation process in aerosol dynamics and provides an excellent potential to deal with various fraction functions with higher computational accuracy and efficiency.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2022

Ramazan Ozkan Yildiz and Soner Esmer

The primary purpose of this study was to identify and conceptualize talent management (TM) functions by combining management and human resources functions, based on a…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study was to identify and conceptualize talent management (TM) functions by combining management and human resources functions, based on a rigorous, in-depth literature review. The secondary purpose was to identify the most common TM strategies and classify them in terms of TM functions to provide a more systematic foundation for the concept of TM.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review supported by qualitative content analysis was used to determine the main TM strategies in the current literature and to classify them under basic TM functions.

Findings

This study identified seven core TM functions that were previously addressed in the TM literature but not labeled and conceptualized as TM functions. These seven core functions (talent planning, talent identification, talent attraction, talent acquisition, talent development, talent deployment and talent retention) structure the TM system, influence each other and operate as a cycle through their respective strategies in identifying, formulating and achieving business objectives (e.g. enhanced firm performance and sustainable competitive advantage). The findings also indicate that talent retention strategies were the most discussed topic within this field between 2006 and July 2022, followed by talent planning and talent development strategies.

Originality/value

TM is still a young and developing field that needs more conceptual work for its development and recognition as a discipline. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this unique study is one of the first attempts to comprehensively define TM functions and offer a framework for the detailed and systematic classification of TM strategies under seven core TM functions. This framework makes clear the multidimensional concept and system of TM and reveals, through the notion of TM functions, the main lines and structural factors necessary to implement the strategies effectively. Based on the strategies presented in this study, TM is an important source of ideas for organizations that want to implement TM and provides a bench-marking tool for organizations that are currently implementing TM.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2022

Maria Francesca Freda, Daniela Lemmo, Ersilia Auriemma, Raffaele De Luca Picione and Maria Luisa Martino

Consistent with current literature, which highlights the role of narration as a key tool for exploring the processes by which people construct the meaning of their…

Abstract

Purpose

Consistent with current literature, which highlights the role of narration as a key tool for exploring the processes by which people construct the meaning of their critical experiences the authors propose a theoretical and methodological model to analyse the narratives of illness and identify any innovative aspects. The generative model of mind presented refers to a semiotic, narrative and socio-constructivist perspective according to which narration constitutes one of the possible processes by which the affective and pre-verbal sense of experience is transformed into a meaning that can be symbolized and shared.

Design/methodology/approach

The onset of an illness represents a critical event which interrupts a person's life narrative, shattering his/her biographical continuity and undermining any assumptions of him/herself and the world. In particular, the model proposes a method of analysis, currently absent in literature, of the narrative interview Narrative Function Coding System (NFC) in order to grasp the ways by which four main narrative functions, namely psychic functions, are classified: the search for meaning, the expression of emotions, the temporal organization and the orientation to action.

Findings

NFC appears to be able to capture the complexity of the narrative process of construction of illness' sense-meaning making process, identifying both representative modalities of good functioning, which express a gradual process of connection with the variability of the experience, and modalities that express moments of disorganization and rigidity, which can persist throughout the time of treatment. The NFC represents not only a method for analysing illness narratives but also a method for tracking and monitoring the process of clinical intervention and change.

Originality/value

The sense-meaning making process perspective within the narrative socio-constructivist and semiotic framework of analysis proposed by NFC is currently absent in the literature. NFC can be a device for analysing the narrative process of sense-meaning making both for its use for clinical and preventive purposes. In addition we believe that this method, which focuses on the “form” and “way” of narratively constructing the subjective experience, rather than on the specific thematic content, can be used with all types of illness narratives, in particular the longitudinal one to explore the changes in sense-meaning making process.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2022

Fernando Antonio Moala and Karlla Delalibera Chagas

The step-stress accelerated test is the most appropriate statistical method to obtain information about the reliability of new products faster than would be possible if…

Abstract

Purpose

The step-stress accelerated test is the most appropriate statistical method to obtain information about the reliability of new products faster than would be possible if the product was left to fail in normal use. This paper presents the multiple step-stress accelerated life test using type-II censored data and assuming a cumulative exposure model. The authors propose a Bayesian inference with the lifetimes of test item under gamma distribution. The choice of the loss function is an essential part in the Bayesian estimation problems. Therefore, the Bayesian estimators for the parameters are obtained based on different loss functions and a comparison with the usual maximum likelihood (MLE) approach is carried out. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the proposed procedure in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

A Bayesian inference is performed and the parameter estimators are obtained under symmetric and asymmetric loss functions. A sensitivity analysis of these Bayes and MLE estimators are presented by Monte Carlo simulation to verify if the Bayesian analysis is performed better.

Findings

The authors demonstrated that Bayesian estimators give better results than MLE with respect to MSE and bias. The authors also consider three types of loss functions and they show that the most dominant estimator that had the smallest MSE and bias is the Bayesian under general entropy loss function followed closely by the Linex loss function. In this case, the use of a symmetric loss function as the SELF is inappropriate for the SSALT mainly with small data.

Originality/value

Most of papers proposed in the literature present the estimation of SSALT through the MLE. In this paper, the authors developed a Bayesian analysis for the SSALT and discuss the procedures to obtain the Bayes estimators under symmetric and asymmetric loss functions. The choice of the loss function is an essential part in the Bayesian estimation problems.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Functional Structure and Approximation in Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44450-861-4

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