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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2019

Manoj Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to explore automobile fuel efficiency policies in the presence of two externalities: a global environmental problem and international…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore automobile fuel efficiency policies in the presence of two externalities: a global environmental problem and international innovation spillovers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a simple model with two regions, the authors show that both a fuel tax and a tax on vehicles based on their fuel economy rating are needed to decentralize the first best.

Findings

If standards are used instead of taxes, the authors find that spillovers may alleviate free-riding. Under some conditions, a strict standard in one region may favor the adoption of a strict standard in the other one.

Originality/value

The authors also show that if policies are not coordinated between regions, the resulting gas taxes will be set too low and each region will use the tax on fuel rating to reduce the damage caused by foreign drivers.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Balagopal G. Menon and Biswajit Mahanty

The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the effects of fuel efficiency improvements on four‐wheeler ownership, fuel consumption, fuel imports and…

1036

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of the effects of fuel efficiency improvements on four‐wheeler ownership, fuel consumption, fuel imports and emissions for personal transportation in the context of India. The paper also aims to measure the rebound effect induced by this policy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on a system dynamics model to analyse the problem. A causal loop model was developed initially, which was transformed to a stock and flow diagram. Simulation was carried out to capture the effects of fuel efficiency improvements in the four‐wheeler sector of India.

Findings

The study has revealed that a policy of fuel efficiency improvements is favourable to the Indian four‐wheeler sector growth, but this policy could result in an increase in fuel consumption and therefore a corresponding increase in the fuel imports and emissions in the country. This policy also induces direct rebound effect that adds up to the already alarming fuel consumption levels.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to four‐wheeler passenger cars in India and gasoline as the transport fuel.

Originality/value

The paper offers a system dynamics model that can aid the government, vehicle manufacturers, and environment protection groups to further analyse policies regarding fuel efficiency improvements, fuel price adjustments, four‐wheeler ownership, energy consumption and emission, and to obtain some useful policy insights before those policies are implemented.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1993

Alan C. McKinnon, Iain Stirling and Justin Kirkhope

Concern about increasing fuel prices and levels of environmentalpollution is forcing firms to improve the fuel efficiency of theirtransport operations. Assesses the extent…

Abstract

Concern about increasing fuel prices and levels of environmental pollution is forcing firms to improve the fuel efficiency of their transport operations. Assesses the extent to which British road hauliers have implemented a range of fuel‐saving measures and examines their general attitudes to fuel utilization. Good vehicle maintenance and driver training are believed to offer the greatest potential, with improved aerodynamics and vehicle replacement policy also considered important. Operators are sceptical, however, about the value of speed limiters and driver incentive schemes. Outlines the experience of a distribution contractor who has implemented a broadly‐based fuel conservation programme. Overall, the research highlights the importance of managerial initiatives, particularly in the areas of driver monitoring and training, and the need to develop a well co‐ordinated package of fuel efficiency measures.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 23 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Energy Security in Times of Economic Transition: Lessons from China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-465-4

Expert briefing
Publication date: 10 May 2017

The Trump administration has targeted rules and regulations implemented by former President Barack Obama's government on the environment and climate change as he looks to…

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2017

Anandajit Goswami, Kaushik Ranjan Bandyopadhyay and Atul Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of rural energy transition in cooking options in India. Although India is aiming to achieve a double-digit economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of rural energy transition in cooking options in India. Although India is aiming to achieve a double-digit economic growth, a large share of rural households still rely on firewood for cooking which not only has serious repercussions of increasing indoor pollution but also has a concomitant adverse effect on women and child morbidity and mortality. However, transition to clean energy options like improved cookstoves for these households may not be necessarily linear. It is often driven or resisted by latent factors such as caste, trust, social capital, information flow, social positioning of clusters that are deeply embedded in the social and cultural norms and values specific to local rural contexts. This has been shown in the present case study that pertains to eight villages in the remote and deprived Purnea district of Bihar and the need for internalizing them in the macro energy policymaking has been established in the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies a macro foundation research that is complemented by micro foundation tools of fuzzy cognitive mapping-based mental model framework to achieve the purpose of the study. Focused-group discussions and interviews are also conducted to establish the narrative of the paper.

Findings

Caste, socio-political position, asset structure, remoteness, culture and technology access affect rural households’ decision making capability that is related to shifting from using the traditionalmeans of firewood and biomass based traditional cookstoves for cooking to adopting improved clean cooking stoves which will enable the transition toward the use of clean rural energy in the eight villages in Bihar chosen for this study.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of the paper have larger implications for the broader macro energy policymaking in the country by taking into account the non-linear, latent factors of village contexts.

Practical implications

The research will help energy policymakers in decision-making and will guide the implementation process of national- and state-level policies on rural energy transition in India.

Social implications

The findings of the paper will help the smoother implementation of national- and state-level rural energy transition policies for cooking, creating developmental dividends for rural Indian households.

Originality/value

The research is new with regard to the application of non-deterministic fuzzy cognitive mapping-based mental model approach to contribute to the country’s national- and state-level rural energy transition policies.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2018

Jorge Alejandro Silva Rodríguez de San Miguel

The purpose of this paper is to review the management of air pollution in Mexico and strategies that have been considered to correct the issues, including potential future…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the management of air pollution in Mexico and strategies that have been considered to correct the issues, including potential future directions to further improve air quality for Mexico’s environment and people.

Design/methodology/approach

Different serious academic databases were searched for material regarding the issue of air pollution in Mexico, such as Scopus and Social Science Citation Index. Regional concern was an important factor that was considered in this review. Material was considered based on its recency, academic importance and veracity. The studies selected mainly ranged from the mid-1990s to 2018.

Findings

Air pollution in Mexico has been a primary issue for the country’s administration and that of Mexico’s North American neighbour, the USA. It has contributed significantly to climate change and has had detrimental effects on both the environment and on the health of Mexican citizens in various ways. While efforts to ameliorate the situation have been relatively strong, it is hoped that ongoing cooperation between Mexico, the USA and Canada will influence the development of stricter emissions standards.

Originality/value

This paper considers current circumstances and whether enough has been done to mitigate Mexico’s significant air pollution problem. It also considers several recommendations made by commentators as to potential future directions to rectify the issues, as no similar review has been made for a developing Country.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 January 2012

Wolfgang Schade, Fabian Kley, Jonathan Köhler and Anja Peters

Purpose – Electric vehicles are very topical in developed countries. The breakthrough of new battery technologies and changing conditions driven by climate policy and…

Abstract

Purpose – Electric vehicles are very topical in developed countries. The breakthrough of new battery technologies and changing conditions driven by climate policy and growing fossil fuel prices has caused all major car manufacturing countries in the developed world to initiate R&D programmes to gain competitive advantage and to foster market diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs). This chapter looks at developments in China and compares them with observations from developed countries to draw conclusions about differences in their future paths of development.

Methodology – This chapter escribes the potentials and R&D approaches for different types of EVs in developing countries, using China as example, in comparison with developed countries. It looks at innovation strategies, policy framework and potential diffusion of EVs.

Findings – Market diffusion strategies in developed countries and China may differ, since, in the former manufacturers try to implement a premium strategy (i.e. offer high-price sophisticated EVs), while in the latter market, diffusion will probably appear at the lower end of vehicle types, i.e. via electric scooters and small urban vehicles. It is concluded that the market introduction strategies of EVs in developing countries and developed countries could converge because signs of downsizing of vehicles can be observed in the developed world, while upscaling from bikes and electric scooters can be expected for China, so that large-scale market introduction could occur via small city cars.

Implications for China – Instead of following the Western motorisation path, an option for China could be to develop a new one-stop-shop mobility concept integrating small EVs into such a concept.

Details

Sustainable Transport for Chinese Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-476-3

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 20 January 2017

David Besanko and Saahil Malik

Although the federal gasoline tax played multiple roles in financing surface transportation infrastructure in the United States, experts did not agree on the tax's…

Abstract

Although the federal gasoline tax played multiple roles in financing surface transportation infrastructure in the United States, experts did not agree on the tax's purpose. Some argued that it was essentially a fee for users of the nation's federally supported highways. Others suggested that it should play a more prominent role in environmental, energy, and transportation policy by correcting for driving-related externalities. Still others suggested that it should be used to reduce the federal budget deficit. Finally, the tax itself had remained at the same level since 1993, and with the Highway Trust Fund virtually insolvent, many experts believed it was time for an increase. The case presents a background on the U.S. federal gasoline tax, an overview of the market for gasoline in the United States, and survey of gasoline taxes in U.S. states as well as several other countries around the world.

The case can be used to discuss the incidence of the gasoline tax, as well as its role as a Pigouvian tax to deal with negative externalities related to gasoline consumption and driving. There is sufficient data in the case to enable students to analyze the incidence of the federal gasoline tax and to determine the socially efficient level of the tax in light of externalities related to gasoline consumption and driving.

Details

Kellogg School of Management Cases, vol. no.
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2474-6568
Published by: Kellogg School of Management

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 August 2018

Paul A. Pautler

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the…

Abstract

The Bureau of Economics in the Federal Trade Commission has a three-part role in the Agency and the strength of its functions changed over time depending on the preferences and ideology of the FTC’s leaders, developments in the field of economics, and the tenor of the times. The over-riding current role is to provide well considered, unbiased economic advice regarding antitrust and consumer protection law enforcement cases to the legal staff and the Commission. The second role, which long ago was primary, is to provide reports on investigations of various industries to the public and public officials. This role was more recently called research or “policy R&D”. A third role is to advocate for competition and markets both domestically and internationally. As a practical matter, the provision of economic advice to the FTC and to the legal staff has required that the economists wear “two hats,” helping the legal staff investigate cases and provide evidence to support law enforcement cases while also providing advice to the legal bureaus and to the Commission on which cases to pursue (thus providing “a second set of eyes” to evaluate cases). There is sometimes a tension in those functions because building a case is not the same as evaluating a case. Economists and the Bureau of Economics have provided such services to the FTC for over 100 years proving that a sub-organization can survive while playing roles that sometimes conflict. Such a life is not, however, always easy or fun.

Details

Healthcare Antitrust, Settlements, and the Federal Trade Commission
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-599-9

Keywords

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