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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1987

Mayday

A means to alert the flightcrew of an aircraft's potentially unsafe low fuel quantity was the subject of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued earlier this year…

Abstract

A means to alert the flightcrew of an aircraft's potentially unsafe low fuel quantity was the subject of a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued earlier this year. It was emphasised that there have been several recent fuel depletion incidents involving loss of power or thrust on all engines that could have resulted in forced landings and injury or loss of life. Most of these incidents resulted from improper fuel management techniques and this proposal from the FAA would require new transport category aircraft designs to incorporate a low fuel quantity alert to the flightcrew that would allow either correction of certain fuel management errors or the opportunity to make a safe landing prior to engine fuel starvation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 59 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Vahid Mohamad Taghvaee, Mehrab Nodehi, Abbas Assari Arani, Mehrnoosh Rishehri, Shahab Edin Nodehi and Jalil Khodaparast Shirazi

This study aims to develop a price policy for fossil fuel consumption, as it is an effective instrument to manage the demand-side of energy economics.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a price policy for fossil fuel consumption, as it is an effective instrument to manage the demand-side of energy economics.

Design/methodology/approach

This research estimates the demand elasticities of diesel, gasoline, fuel oil and kerosene by using static, dynamic and error-correction models in log-linear form.

Findings

The findings show that fossil fuel demand responds to price changes less than income changes, as fuel price is inelastic, but income is elastic. In that respect, the impact of price change decreases constantly with increasing energy price, followed by subsidy reform. Subsidy removal and price policy reformation is the UN recommendation for subsidizing countries, including Iran, to reduce fossil fuel consumption, whose intensity depends on the price elasticities.

Practical implications

As a result of this price policy, diesel, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas prices should increase at least 1.8%–7.3%, 4.4%–6.4% and 7%–8.6%, respectively, and gradually within 2018–2030. The price policy improves all the pillars of sustainable development, including economy, environment and social (health). Overall, such a target can potentially save 3%–29% of diesel, 34%–56% of gasoline and 15%–20% of liquefied petroleum gas, as well as reduce 15%–40% of CO2 emissions annually, and can save potentially more than 510,000 lives annually. Thus, the energy price policy can fundamentally improve sustainability.

Originality/value

The estimated elasticities outline the required prices to decrease the fossil fuels, according to the UN mitigation targets, as price policy recommendation.

Graphical abstract

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2022

Sakiru Adebola Solarin

The aim of this empirical study is to examine the determinants of income inequality with particular concentration on the impact of fossil fuel subsidies, while controlling…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this empirical study is to examine the determinants of income inequality with particular concentration on the impact of fossil fuel subsidies, while controlling for corruption, economic uncertainty and democratisation in developing nations.

Design/methodology/approach

Generalised method of moments (GMM) is the principal method used in this study due to time and cross-sectional dimensions of the series under observation. Augmented mean group (AMG) method has been used as an alternative estimator.

Findings

The results revealed that increase in fossil fuel subsidies causes greater income inequality. The results indicate that corruption and uncertainty aggravate the impact of fossil fuel subsidies on inequality. The results are not materially different when an alternative estimation technique is used to estimate the regressions.

Research limitations/implications

This study uses data for 31 developing countries. So, with availability of more datasets in the future, further studies can include more countries in their analyses.

Practical implications

Price reforms resulting in a major decrease in the fossil fuel subsidies is needed in these developing countries. The authorities must ensure that fiscal savings, structural adjustment and enhanced efficiency in production resulting from energy price reforms serve as catalyst to promote income distribution in these countries.

Originality/value

The author’s first addition to the literature is that the study has concentrated on the fossil fuel subsidies and income inequality relationship, which has not been sufficiently treated in the existing literature. Without adequately knowing the key factors determining income inequality, it may be difficult to use appropriate programmes that will safeguard appropriate income distribution.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-11-2021-0675

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Ibrahim Yildiz and Hakan Caliskan

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy and exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel considering 12 months data for an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy and exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene (Jet A-1) fuel considering 12 months data for an air craft used in the air transport sector in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

In the selection of the energy resources, one of the most important factors besides the need is the price of the energy resources. To use and save the energy resources efficiently, the prices should be evaluated in terms of exergy too. In this context, the exergy prices and carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene fuel have been examined.

Findings

According to analysis results, after January 2020, a steady decline in energy prices has been obtained until April 2020. In this regard, directly proportional changes have been obtained in exergy prices. The minimum exergy price of the fuel is calculated as 74.36 US cents/kWh for April 2020, while the maximum exergy price of the fuel is calculated as 150.02 US cents/kWh for September 2019. The minimum exergy price based carbon emission equivalents for the jet kerosene fuel is determined as 1,099.98 US cents/kg for April 2020, while the maximum exergy price based carbon emission equivalents for the jet kerosene fuel is found to be 2,219.29 US cents/kg for September 2019.

Originality/value

The new contribution has been made to the open literature by examining the energy and exergy prices of the jet kerosene fuel. In addition, the carbon emission equivalents of the jet kerosene fuel have been determined not only energy but also exergy methods.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Booma Devi, Venkatesh S., Rakesh Vimal and Praveenkumar T.R.

This paper aims to investigate the effect of additives in Jet-A fuel blends, especially on performance, combustion and emission characteristics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of additives in Jet-A fuel blends, especially on performance, combustion and emission characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Jet-A fuel was formed by using Kay’s and Gruenberg–Nissan mixing rules by adding additive glycerol with TiO2. While measuring the combustion performance, the amount of oxygen content present in fuel and atomization are the key factors to consider. As such, the Jet-A fuel was created by adding additives at different proportion. A small gas turbine engine was used for conducting tests. All tests were carried out at different load conditions for all the fuel blends such as neat Jet-A fuel, G10T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%), G20T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%) and G30T (glycerol 10% with 50 ppm TiO2 and Jet-A 90%).

Findings

From tests, the G20T and G10T produced better results than other blends. The thermal efficiency of the blends of G20T and G10T are 22% and 14% higher than neat Jet-A fuel. Further, the improved static thrust with less fuel consumption was noticed in G20T fuel blend.

Originality/value

The G20T blends showed better performance because of the increased oxygenated compounds in the fuel blends. Moreover, the emission rate of environmentally harmful gases such as NOx, CO and HC was lower than the neat Jet-A fuel. From the results, it is clear that the rate of exergy destruction is more in the combustion chamber than the other components of fuel.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1967

J.D. Smith

The effects of a number of metals and alloys on the thermal stability of Avtur 50 have been evaluated from ASTM‐CRC and high temperature coker tests. The materials tested…

Abstract

The effects of a number of metals and alloys on the thermal stability of Avtur 50 have been evaluated from ASTM‐CRC and high temperature coker tests. The materials tested are used in current aircraft fuel systems or are possible alternatives for fuel systems of supersonic aircraft where they will be in contact with hot fuel. The alloys currently used in aircraft fuel systems have been classified and their probable effects on the stability of hot fuel listed. A number of the materials affected stability adversely, particularly alloys containing significant amounts of copper, and the use of these should be avoided. The pick‐up of copper by Avtur 50 at ambient temperature from alloys such as brass and gun‐metal has also been investigated. The results indicated that sufficient copper to affect thermal stability adversely is readily picked up from these alloys.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Changduk Kong, Myoung‐cheol Kang, Chang‐ho Lee and Dong‐ju Han

To set‐up a specific design procedure for the smart unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fuel supply system which has been developed by Korean Aerospace Research Institute, and…

1810

Abstract

Purpose

To set‐up a specific design procedure for the smart unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fuel supply system which has been developed by Korean Aerospace Research Institute, and to design it preliminarily with the fuel system requirement and target reliabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The fuel system layout and fuel tank were determined through consideration of total fuel volume, fuel flow rate, reliability, weight, centre of gravity, etc. In sizing of components such as booster pumps, jet pumps, piping system, vent subsystem, refuelling and defuelling subsystem, engine fuel flow requirement, pressure loss, component failure rate, weight and centre of gravity were considered. Finally, the reliability analysis of the preliminary designed fuel system was carried out.

Findings

According to the reliability analysis and weight estimation results, it was confirmed that the proposed fuel system agreed well with the design specifications and target reliabilities required by the vehicle system.

Research limitations/implications

In current preliminary design phase, the most important consideration is the reliability of the fuel system. Therefore, the weight estimation of the designed fuel system to meet this reliability requirement could not meet partially the system's requirements. In the next design step, the proper fuel system for weight reduction will be performed through an optimization process between weight and reliability.

Originality/value

A specific design procedure components' sizing to meet system requirement target reliability for UAV vertical take‐off/landing was proposed.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 78 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

De-Xing Peng

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of biodiesel additive in fuel system of diesel engines to reduce wear characteristics. Biofuels are environmentally friendly and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of biodiesel additive in fuel system of diesel engines to reduce wear characteristics. Biofuels are environmentally friendly and renewable alternatives to mineral-based fuels and cause low pollution; thus, they can be used to comply with future emission regulations to safeguard environmental and human health.

Design/methodology/approach

Two types of diesel fuel, pure petrodiesel and soybean oil, were compared for their fuel properties and tribological performance. The ball-on-disk wear testing method was used as an analytical tool for this purpose. The lubricating efficiency of the fuels was estimated using a photomicroscope to measure the average diameter of the wear scar produced on the test ball.

Findings

The wear experiments showed that the wear scar diameters were 1.13 and 0.94 mm for lubrication of the pure petro-diesel and soybean oil, respectively. However, fatty acids containing biodiesel typically have thicker molecular layers than mineral pure petro-diesel, and thus can reduce the wear rate of the sliding metals. This improved the boundary lubrication conditions and the lubricity of the fuel. Biodiesel fuels are effective lubricity enhancers and have greater lubricity enhancing properties than petro-diesel.

Originality/value

The ability of biodiesel to be highly biodegradable and its superior lubricating property when used in compression ignition engines make it an excellent fuel. Biofuel is an attractive alternative fuel to various energy sectors, particularly the transportation sector. Biofuel has immense potential for use in a sustainable energy mixture in the future.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1980

John Butson

The declared aim of this paper is to explore the possible effects of the need for energy conservation (and in particular the need for economy in the use of oil‐based fuels

Abstract

The declared aim of this paper is to explore the possible effects of the need for energy conservation (and in particular the need for economy in the use of oil‐based fuels) on road vehicle development in the UK over the next few decades. In the absence of the author, his colleague, R J Francis, also of Harwell, presented this paper at the conference held by the Institute of Management Services in London, September 1980. He stressed the fact that the views here are those of ETSU, and may not necessarily be regarded in any way as “government policy”. ETSU is the Energy Technology Support Unit, which is based at Harwell, and was established in 1974 to formulate and manage research, development and demonstration programmes in the technology of renewable energy sources and conservation under contract to the Department of Energy. There are approximately 45 professional staff at ETSU (mainly scientists and engineers) working in three main areas: strategic planning of research and development, management of R&D on the renewable energy sources, and research, development and demonstration in energy conservation. When introducing this paper, Richard Francis said that it set out to establish the need for conservation in general, as well as to explain how this is to be achieved in practice. This subject, he commented, leads on to the special task of improving fuel economy and achieving wider fuel flexibility within road transport, which itself has wide implications for road vehicle technology. This paper reviews all the more realistic alternatives, and then attempts to identify those which seem most promising and also to quantify the impact they might have in reducing our dependence on oil‐based fuels.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 8 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Elena Carcadea, H. Ene, D.B. Ingham, R. Lazar, L. Ma, M. Pourkashanian and I. Stefanescu

This paper aims to present a three‐dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that simulates the fluid flow, species transport and electric current flow in PEM…

4022

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a three‐dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that simulates the fluid flow, species transport and electric current flow in PEM fuel cells.

Design/methodology/approach

The model makes use of a general‐purpose CFD software as a basic tool incorporating fuel cell specific submodels for multi‐component species transport, electrochemical kinetics, water management and electric phase potential analysis in order to simulate various processes that occur in a PEM fuel cell.

Findings

Three dimensional results for the flow field, species transport, including waster formations, and electric current distributions are presented for two test flow configurations in the PEM fuel cell. For the two cases presented, reasonable predictions have been obtained, and this provides an insight into the effect of the flow designs to the operation of the fuel cell.

Research limitations/implications

It is appreciated that the CFD modeling of fuel cells is, in general, still facing significant challenges due to the limited understanding of the complex physical and chemical processes existing within the fuel cell. The model is now under further development to improve its capabilities and undergoing further validations.

Practical implications

The model simulations can provide detailed information on some of the key fluid dynamics, physical and chemical/electro‐chemical processes that exist in fuel cells which are crucial for fuel cell design and optimization.

Originality/value

The model can be used to understand the operation of the fuel cell and provide and alternative to experimental investigations in order to improve the performance of the fuel cell.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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