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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2011

Tiedan Huang and Alexander W. Wiseman

The purpose of this study is to review the landscape of empirical evidence on school leadership preparation and subsequent school-level effectiveness while conceptually…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to review the landscape of empirical evidence on school leadership preparation and subsequent school-level effectiveness while conceptually exploring how societal transformations and educational changes shaped leadership development within the mainland of the People's Republic of China. Conceptually, this study is informed by Murphy and Vriesenga's (2006) comprehensive review of empirical work on leadership preparation, evaluative work on the pathway from preparation to school-level practice (cf, the UECA taskforce on evaluating the effectiveness of leadership preparation; Orr & Kottkamp, 2003; Orr & Orphanos, 2011) and empirical literature on school improvement. Data come from extensive reviews of English and Chinese language articles, conference papers, doctoral and master's theses, and other reports of research on the preparation of school leaders in Mainland China. Using a combination of inductive and deductive strategies, the lead author analyzed all selected sources using a three-pronged framework: who is being prepared for school leadership positions in China, by what design and delivery methods they are being prepared, and how well they are fulfilling leadership practices and expectations for which they are being prepared. The current analysis adds to the international knowledge base of the pathway between preparation and practice. It also highlights the importance of considering the cultural, social, and political context that shapes conceptions of leadership and the design and implementation of educational leadership preparation programs.

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The Impact and Transformation of Education Policy in China
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-186-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Victor Wong and Sammy Chiu

This article discusses the reasons and discourses adopted by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (Hong Kong SAR Government), with Mr Tung Chee Hwa as…

Abstract

This article discusses the reasons and discourses adopted by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government (Hong Kong SAR Government), with Mr Tung Chee Hwa as the Chief Executive, in preparing young people to become more mature and responsible. In the Hong Kong context this means they should be willing to fulfil community obligations and opt for consultation rather than confrontation should individual or community rights be sought. Confucianism, named after Confucius (551‐479 BCE), has been and still is a vast and complicated system of philosophies, morals, rituals, and ideas, which for well over 2,000 years has informed and inspired the thinking and practice of countless people in Chinese societies and Asian countries in all important areas, including the economy and the polity (Tu, 1998a; Berthrong & Berthrong, 2000; Yao, 2002). Put simply, the goal of Confucian life is to create a peaceful world, with its ethical emphasis placed on the cultivation of the self and the promotion of harmonious and respectful relations with other people in different spheres of human activities.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

CHRIS BROOKS, ANDREW D. CLARE and GITA PERSAND

This article investigates the effect of modeling extreme events on the calculation of minimum capital risk requirements for three LIFFE futures contracts. The use of…

Abstract

This article investigates the effect of modeling extreme events on the calculation of minimum capital risk requirements for three LIFFE futures contracts. The use of internal models will be permitted under the European Community Capital Adequacy Directive II and will be widely adopted in the near future for determining capital adequacies. Close scrutiny of competing models is required to avoid a potentially costly misallocation of capital resources, to ensure the safety of the financial system. The authors propose a semi‐parametric approach, for which extreme risks are modeled using a generalized Pareto distribution, and smaller risks are characterized by the empirically observed distribution function. The primary finding of comparing the capital requirements based on this approach with those calculated from both the unconditional density and from a conditional density (a GARCH(1,1) model), is that for both in‐sample and out‐of‐sample tests, the extreme value approach yields superior results. This is attributable to the fact that the other two models do not explicitly model the tails of the return distribution.

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The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Article
Publication date: 17 April 2007

Chung‐Ching Chiu, Chih‐Hung Tsai and Yi‐Chan Chung

In the early industrial age which with high intensity of machine and labor, using financial measurement index was good enough to tie in company’s mechanization and…

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Abstract

In the early industrial age which with high intensity of machine and labor, using financial measurement index was good enough to tie in company’s mechanization and philosophy of management and been in efficiency. But being comply with “New Economic age,” a new economic environment is full of knowledge and information, the enterprise competition had changed from tangible assets, plants to intangible innovation ability of knowledge. As recognizing the new tendency by enterprise, they value gradually the growth and influence from learning. Practice of organization learning not only needs firm structure and be in coordination with both hardware and software, but also needs an affect measurement model to offer enterprise to estimate learning performance. It’s a good instrument of financial performance measure mold in the past years, But it’s for measuring the past, couldn’t formulate enterprise trend to future, hard to estimate investment for future, such as development of products, organization learning, knowledge management etc, as which intangible assets and knowledge ability just the key factors of being win around competition environment in the future. In 1992, Kaplan and Norton brought up Balance Scorecard (BSC) on Harvard Business Review, as an instrument helping enterprise to measure performance, which is being considered to be a most influence management instrument. It added non‐financial index such as customer, internal process and learning growth besides traditional financial index, as offering enterprise an index to measure and manage intangible assets and intellectual property. As being aware of organization learning is hard to be ignored in the new economic age, this research is based on learning and growth of BSC, and citing one national material company try to let the most difficult measurement performance of organization learning, to be estimate through BSC, analyze of factor and individual case, to discuss the company how to make the related strategy and vision of organization learning to develop learning and growth of the structure of BSC, subject the matter of out put factors to be discussed, and measure the outcomes as a result of research. The research affect offers (1) the base implement procedure of carrying out BSC; (2) the reference of formulating measurement index while enterprise using BSC to estimate performance of organization learning; (3) the possibility bottleneck maybe forcing while carrying out BSC, to be an improvement or preventive for enterprise.

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Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2005

D.A. Reisman

Singapore devotes less than 4% of its GDP to healthcare in part because its average citizen is young. As the country has become developed, the birth rate has fallen…

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Abstract

Singapore devotes less than 4% of its GDP to healthcare in part because its average citizen is young. As the country has become developed, the birth rate has fallen, life‐expectancy has lengthened and the cost of care has shown signs of escalation. This has occurred despite the extensive cost‐control measures built into the mandatory system of medical savings and the opt‐in supplement of medical insurance. The threat of care inflation is that much greater because of Singapore’s attempt to position itself as a regional treatment hub, because of rising incomes and expectations, and because of a shortage of doctors and nurses which is driving wages up. Old age is contributing to the problem but, the article shows, is not the only cause.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Yan He and Fu Long

Attempts to establish a decision‐making model by which multinational enterprises (MNEs) front‐end financial target can be evaluated and determined. Explains and defines…

Abstract

Attempts to establish a decision‐making model by which multinational enterprises (MNEs) front‐end financial target can be evaluated and determined. Explains and defines the financial range. Identifies their strategic concerns in order to do this. Continues by exploring the pattern of front‐end financial target variation and the process of its determination, constructing an international joint venture investment supply‐demand model. Elaborates upon how contingency factors in international operations exert direct impact on this matter and gives some considerations for future research.

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Management Research News, vol. 24 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1998

Scott R. Rosner and Brian H. Kleiner

Looks at planning, use of resources, labour relations, management style, and the concept of change in Malaysia, comparing management techniques with those employed in the…

1045

Abstract

Looks at planning, use of resources, labour relations, management style, and the concept of change in Malaysia, comparing management techniques with those employed in the USA. Concludes that there are some similarities and some differences in the two countries’ management techniques and philosophies, but points out that Malaysians are actively trying to upgrade their management skills by seeking help from Japan and the USA.

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Management Research News, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Fu Long

Considers the reasons why the insurance industry began to target the Asian American population. Looks at the strategies employed and the changes which were required in…

2500

Abstract

Considers the reasons why the insurance industry began to target the Asian American population. Looks at the strategies employed and the changes which were required in operational approaches, product design and organizational structure. Examines the impact of social economic demographic changes on the industry in the 1980s. Characterizes the development of differentiation of focus strategy in an attempt to shed light on the market effectiveness of strategic development for industrial organizations.

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Management Research News, vol. 24 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Yim‐Yu Wong, Thomas E. Maher, James Li‐Hsing Wang and Fu Long

States that competitive advantage is like a moving target, changing over time as market conditions, consumer demand and resource availability vary. Provides a case study…

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States that competitive advantage is like a moving target, changing over time as market conditions, consumer demand and resource availability vary. Provides a case study of Taiwan’s present advantages within the heights of the Asian economic growth and the recent economic crisis. Considers the ability of the country to sustain its remarkable growth rate and ask whether it needs to develop a new set of advantages. Uses Porter’s Diamond model in the “Competitive Advantage of Nations” (1990) to examine this issue. Concludes that the biggest threat is that of China’s claim to Taiwan’s territory.

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Management Research News, vol. 24 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

George K. Chacko

The dominating role of corporate memory/corporate culture in instituting/impeding dramatic changes is highlighted in the first‐person narrative of Louis V. Gerstner, Jr…

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Abstract

The dominating role of corporate memory/corporate culture in instituting/impeding dramatic changes is highlighted in the first‐person narrative of Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. of his tenure as IBM CEO (1993‐2002). Gerstner, who had never worked in the computer business, was brought in to rescue IBM which had lost $16 billion in three years, and half its share value in eight years in which 175,000 employees lost their jobs. “I came to see in my time at IBM that culture is not just one aspect of the game‐it is the game... [When the original environment institutionalized in the corporate culture] shifts, it becomes an enormous impediment to the institution’s ability to adapt.” To overcome the impediment, Gerstner had to employ Draconian Measures to replace/rebuild the institutional memory: [1] organizationally by ripping power out of the entrenched bureaucracy, and giving it to 12 newly‐constituted customer‐centered industries, [2] operationally by tying Pay and Promotion to IBM stock performance (instead of individual units), [3] motivationally by rewarding individuals on their accomplishment of their plans to implement the Gerstner triad: “Win, Execute, Team,” and [4] strategically by making big bets on unproven technologies of CMOS and Net work‐centered e‐business. Our Memory Management Disequilibria Dimensions (MD)2 Pro ‐ to colanalyzes the Gerstner narrative accurately.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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