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Article

Qing-Xing Qu, Fu Guo and Vincent G. Duffy

The evaluation of website usability is the precondition and a critical step for website design and optimization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and provide…

Abstract

Purpose

The evaluation of website usability is the precondition and a critical step for website design and optimization. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and provide empirical evidence of the interrelationships between human physiological metrics and website usability. This study examines how eye-movement metrics and heart rate variability (HRV) evaluate website usability, and then affect users’ online surfing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A physiological measurement experiment is designed to collect participants’ physiological metrics. This paper proposes an objective measurement model for website usability, and partial least squares is used to analyze the measurement and structural models, based on data collected from 200 participants who had experienced online surfing at least four times.

Findings

The analysis supports partially or fully 28 of the 31 hypotheses formulated. The study reveals that human physiological metrics (i.e. fixation duration, fixation count, blink count, HRV) have a strong explanatory ability for website usability.

Research limitations/implications

Data for this study were collected only from mainland China. Therefore, participants may have been influenced by Chinese cultures. The generalizability of this study may be enhanced by collecting data from more diverse samples and validating the model on different cultures.

Originality/value

This study contributes significantly to the industry by providing empirical evidence of the interrelationship between human physiological metrics and website usability. The findings also provide managers with valuable insight into better understanding of the nature of these interrelationships.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 69 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

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Book part

Gilmar Masiero, Francisco Urdinez and Mario Henrique Ogasavara

The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate that, despite the extensive literature on firm-specific advantages (FSAs) and country-specific advantages (CSAs) produced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate that, despite the extensive literature on firm-specific advantages (FSAs) and country-specific advantages (CSAs) produced since Rugman’s classic matrix (1981), little progress has been made in empirically operationalizing the second concept.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a review of the international business (IB) literature that refers to the CSA concept, we identify the “vagueness” in the usage of this concept. First, we present a concise literature review of the CSA construct, with a link to the “double diamond” theoretical model of Rugman and D’Cruz (1993) and Rugman and Verbeke (1993). Second, we present the results of the bibliographic analysis on the use of the construct by a variety of authors.

Findings

We demonstrate the weak conceptual grounding of the CSA concept by reviewing the literature on host-CSAs attracting Chinese overseas foreign direct investment (OFDI). Apart from the fact that various authors use different sources of data, an important reason for contradictory results is the fact that each author tests host-CSA through different indicators. Here, we propose a list of variables and indicators based on the “double diamond” model and test these empirically.

Originality/value

IB researchers should start conducting serious studies on home-CSAs and host-CSAs instrumental to attracting investments, defining clear indicators and using replicable data based on publicly available information. This chapter is the first to show that the concepts developed by Rugman (1981) and expanded by Rugman, A. M. and Verbeke, A. (2008) (Internalization theory and its impact on the field of international business. Research in Global Strategic Management, 14, 155–174) are relevant to advance in the quantitative operationalization of concepts within IB theory.

Details

Multinational Enterprises, Markets and Institutional Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-421-4

Keywords

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Article

Rongying Zhao, Fengjiao Guo and Zhuheng Fu

The purpose of this paper is to generalize the teaching characteristics of some typical colleges in China which offer Informetrics courses, and to propose useful…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to generalize the teaching characteristics of some typical colleges in China which offer Informetrics courses, and to propose useful suggestions for the course construction of Informetrics through empirical investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

The statuses of Informetrics curriculum education of the top ten universities in Library and Information Science and Archives Management in Chinese mainland as well as Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan have been investigated and analyzed through a network survey and a telephone survey. Wuhan University and Fu Jen Catholic University are considered as the typical examples.

Findings

The educational development of Informetrics in China has gone through three stages: the initial stage, the developing stage and the improving stage. Based on the empirical investigation and analysis, some meaningful conclusions are drawn concerning the education system, teaching objectives, teaching contents and teaching methods of Informetrics courses.

Originality/value

This paper provides curricular information about Informetrics courses in China.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article

Hongyan Shi and Hui Li

The purpose of this paper is to present a clear picture of the challenges of micro drill bit and the developments of novel micro‐drill bits for flexible circuit boards…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a clear picture of the challenges of micro drill bit and the developments of novel micro‐drill bits for flexible circuit boards, environmental‐friendly printed circuit boards (PCBs), high aspect ratio drill bit and ultra‐small micro drill bit, as well as the developments of geometry design of micro drill bit.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper details the developments trend and challenges of micro drill and PCBs first. Then the current research status of novel micro drill bits for flexible circuit boards, environmental‐friendly PCBs, high aspect ratio drill bit, ultra‐small micro drill bit are described. Finally, the developments of geometry design and drilling process are reviewed.

Findings

To achieve excellent performance for drilling flexible PCB, a large helical angle, large flute/land ratio and small web thickness that guarantee the sharp evacuation capability, are adopted in drill bit design. A small helix angle and an appropriate primary face angle are employed for drill bit to process environmental‐friendly printed circuit boards. It is beneficial to implement big helix angle, small primary face angles and small point angles in the design of ultra‐small micro drill bit. An optimum web thickness and step feed should be taken into consideration in high aspect ratio drill bits design.

Originality/value

The paper reviews different solutions of micro drill bits for the state‐of‐the‐art PCB and the developments of geometry design of drill bit for printed circuit boards.

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Article

Huailing Wang, Jie Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Zhigang Liu

Blueberry contains bioactive compounds which are beneficial to organisms, such as phenolics and flavonoids. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

Blueberry contains bioactive compounds which are beneficial to organisms, such as phenolics and flavonoids. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potential protective effects of blueberry extracts (BE) on H2O2-induced HepG2 cells.

Design/methodology/approach

Cell protection was evaluated via the survivals of the cell. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant enzyme and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected. Western blot was carried out to analysis protein which was related to the cell apoptosis pathway. Changes in morphology including: cell total apoptosis/necrosis and G0/G1 cycle arresting were also concomitant.

Findings

The levels of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) reduced after the BE treatment while the contents of superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased in HepG2 cells induced by H2O2. Furthermore, mechanistic studies indicated that BE regulated the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis signal-regulating (Bcl-2, Bax). Qu was used as a positive control group. All these results demonstrated that the BE have a potential against oxidative stress in vitro.

Originality/value

Few studies have focused on the bioactivities of blueberry on oxidative stress. Taken together, the results confirm that polyphenol-enriched BE have the ability to protect against oxidative stress in cells. It has a great potential as a functional food ingredient to health benefits. Furthermore, this work showed the value of using simple biological models to screen for compounds that are of interest for food and pharmacological industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Lyuyuan Wang, Jian Huang, Yong Peng, Yang Jia and Rong Ni

This paper aims to evaluate the corrosion resistance of fusion zones in different heat treated condition from laser welded Mg-Gd-Y alloys and analyze their intrinsic…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the corrosion resistance of fusion zones in different heat treated condition from laser welded Mg-Gd-Y alloys and analyze their intrinsic corrosion mechanism.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behavior of fusion zone from laser-welded Mg-Gd-Y alloy joints in the as-welded, ageing and solution + ageing conditions was investigated in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by immersion tests.

Findings

The corroded surface of as-welded fusion zone consists of dark and bright regions, and the bright regions were composed of high-density needle-like products, whereas some different extended direction of the cracks with lots of long ultrafine needle-shaped corrosion products appeared in the dark regions. The corrosion resistance of the fusion zone is slightly decreased after the ageing treatment.

Originality/value

The solution + ageing treated fusion zone exhibits the highest corrosion resistance than that of the as-welded and ageing treated state because of the full dissolution of the cathodic coarse eutectic compound, grains growth and relatively compact protective films. The inhomogeneous distribution of the β′ can somewhat improve the corrosion rate of solution + ageing treated fusion zone when compared with base metal.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

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Article

Jingfu Liu, Behrooz Jalalahmadi, Y.B. Guo, Michael P. Sealy and Nathan Bolander

Additive manufacturing (AM) is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry due to several advantages and capabilities, including use of rapid prototyping, fabrication of…

Abstract

Purpose

Additive manufacturing (AM) is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry due to several advantages and capabilities, including use of rapid prototyping, fabrication of complex geometries, reduction of product development cycles and minimization of material waste. As metal AM becomes increasingly popular for aerospace and defense original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), a major barrier that remains is rapid qualification of components. Several potential defects (such as porosity, residual stress and microstructural inhomogeneity) occur during layer-by-layer processing. Current methods to qualify AM parts heavily rely on experimental testing, which is economically inefficient and technically insufficient to comprehensively evaluate components. Approaches for high fidelity qualification of AM parts are necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

This review summarizes the existing powder-based fusion computational models and their feasibility in AM processes through discrete aspects, including process and microstructure modeling.

Findings

Current progresses and challenges in high fidelity modeling of AM processes are presented.

Originality/value

Potential opportunities are discussed toward high-level assurance of AM component quality through a comprehensive computational tool.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article

Lianyu Fu, Xueguang Li and Qiang Guo

The purpose of this paper is to present key points relating to the development of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios and to provide a solution for high aspect ratio…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present key points relating to the development of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios and to provide a solution for high aspect ratio hole drilling.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of challenges in high aspect ratio hole drilling, key points for the development of micro drills bit with high aspect ratio are discussed. A design example of a micro drill bit with 0.3 mm diameter and a 7.2 mm flute length is presented. Experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the developed micro drill bit.

Findings

Helix angle, web thickness and flute land ratio are three key parameters that significantly influence the behaviour of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios. Large helix angle, web thickness and flute land ratio are beneficial in terms of improving the performance of high aspect ratio micro drill bits. Step drilling is essential to prevent drill breakage and to ensure smooth debris evacuation. Meanwhile, proper steps and drilling parameters are of great importance to complete high aspect ratio hole drilling.

Originality/value

The paper highlights key points relating to the development of micro drill bits with high aspect ratios that can provide a satisfactory solution for high aspect ratio micro drill bit design.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article

Lianyu Fu, Jian Wang and Qiang Guo

The purpose of this paper is to provide the method and system to conduct online measurement and the characterization of temperature during printed circuit board (PCB…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the method and system to conduct online measurement and the characterization of temperature during printed circuit board (PCB) routing process as well as the optimization of router design based on the investigation of routing temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The background of this research is introduced first. Then the method to measure the routing temperature on-line by using an infrared camera is presented. The routing process is characterized by investigating the routing temperature. Tool design optimization is conducted based on the temperature in processing PCB with aluminum substrate. Finally the concluding remarks of this research are presented.

Findings

The routing temperature can be accurately measured by an infrared camera. Routing temperature is sensitive to properties of PCB, types of router and routing parameters. Very high temperature is experienced if non-appropriate routers are used to process board with aluminum substrate. It is demonstrated by the experiments that two fluted tool, three fluted tool and coated tool with three flutes are suitable for aluminum substrate processing by considering the low temperature and the nice surface finish.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the key points to measure the routing temperature on-line by an infrared camera and characterize the routing process and optimize the tool design by investigating the measured temperature as well.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article

Lianyu Fu and Qiang Guo

The purpose of this paper is to present a method and a system for measuring drill bit temperature on‐line in the micro drilling process and to characterize drilling…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a method and a system for measuring drill bit temperature on‐line in the micro drilling process and to characterize drilling processes via drill bit temperature.

Design/methodology/approach

The drill bit temperature measurement system was first established by the utilization of an infrared camera. Then the drill bit temperature in a drilling cycle was characterized. The temperatures of an ultra‐small micro drill bit and a coated drill bit were measured and compared.

Findings

The temperature of an ultra‐small drill bit can be measured on‐line via the proposed temperature measurement system. The drilling process can be characterized by the drill bit temperature. The drill bit temperature decreased when a coated drill bit was used.

Originality/value

The paper highlights key points for measuring the drill bit temperature on‐line by an infrared camera and characterizes PCB drilling processes by measuring the drill bit temperature.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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