THE basis of all navigation is the compass. It will therefore be readily understood that for years the greatest efforts have been made to improve the compass, to make it…
THE basis of all navigation is the compass. It will therefore be readily understood that for years the greatest efforts have been made to improve the compass, to make it come up to all the requirements of flight. Unfortunately, this is only possible by means of a compromise, because the qualities required in a good compass, as far as construction is concerned, tend to contradict one another. These desiderata are:
Describes briefly the personal histories and important professionalassociation of Gustav Schmoller and Friedrich Althoff emphasizing theirinnovatory period 1870‐1882 at Strasburg.
Describes briefly the personal histories and important professional association of Gustav Schmoller and Friedrich Althoff emphasizing their innovatory period 1870‐1882 at Strasburg.
This article compares the mobility experience of Austria, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom post-enlargement. In all four countries, migrant inflows from the new EU…
This article compares the mobility experience of Austria, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom post-enlargement. In all four countries, migrant inflows from the new EU member states account for the bulk of contemporary labour mobility. At the same time, issues of wage dumping have arisen everywhere, raising questions about compliance and the ‘re-embedding’ of mobility flows. Hence the article examines the labour market impact of recent East-West migration as well as policy responses by the social partners and public authorities that are geared towards the re-regulation of employment standards. Some commonalities are identified, especially in relation to the broadening of national wage floors and the growing role of the state in enforcing labour standards. However, some differences remain, especially whether re-regulation happens on the basis of collective agreements or statutory minimum rights. In this regard, different bargaining traditions, the power resources of labour market actors and the capacity of unions to build political coalitions with the state and employers are identified as crucial factors in shaping national and sectoral response strategies.
Germany has become one of the major destination countries for labour migration within the European Union. The German government introduced temporary restrictions on labour…
Germany has become one of the major destination countries for labour migration within the European Union. The German government introduced temporary restrictions on labour migration after the eastern enlargement rounds of 2004 and 2007. These barriers had little impact on the overall volume of labour mobility. Rather they were accompanied by new “atypical” forms of mobility through the posting of workers, self-employment and seasonal workers, which according to EU rules are covered only by a minimum of host country regulations. The combination of temporary restrictions on regular migration and the opportunities through atypical mobility created strong incentives for companies to engage in ‘regime shopping’ strategies. This contributed to a considerable growth in outsourcing, subcontracting and flexible use of external labour added to pre-existing dynamics of low-wage competition, segmentation and fragmentation in the German labour market. Using data on the different forms of intra-EU migration to Germany, the article analyses the different paths that labour migration has frequently used since the fall of the Iron Curtain. First, it maps the changes in magnitude, character and direction of intra-EU labour mobility to Germany and the relative weight of the different channels through which such movements occurred from 2000 to 2015. Second, the article discusses the various responses by the government by the extension of collective agreements and the statutory minimum wage.
I have taken this essay on Mark Bevirʼs latest book as an opportunity to critically reflect on diverse perspectives within radical democratic theory. My first aim here is…
I have taken this essay on Mark Bevirʼs latest book as an opportunity to critically reflect on diverse perspectives within radical democratic theory. My first aim here is to simply describe Bevirʼs historical and interpretive account of governance in general, interdisciplinary terms. My second aim is the more specific, disciplinary one of comparing the scholarly contributions of Mark Bevirʼs Democratic Governance with those of Chantal Mouffeʼs The Democratic Paradox and Archon Fungʼs Empowered Participation, two influential publications in contemporary political theory. I conclude by discussing the relative powers and limits of Bevirʼs genealogical, Mouffeʼs deconstructive, and Fungʼs procedural approaches to radical democratic theory.
Presents an annotated bibliography of journals and magazines useful to students and professors of German studies. The publications listed are suitable for academic and large public libraries.
The significance of literature in nation-building in two “second generation” nations, Germany and Norway, is discussed. In both countries a specific national literature…
The significance of literature in nation-building in two “second generation” nations, Germany and Norway, is discussed. In both countries a specific national literature was constituted parallel to the political institutions during the latter half of the 19th century. Yet there are clear differences in political effects in the two cases. In Norway, the struggle for national independence up to 1905 entailed a significant democratization of society. Germany, in the wake of the revolution of 1848, developed into a politically authoritarian regime, fully established under Prussian leadership in 1871.
These processes are mirrored in the position of literature. In Norway, where artistic traditions were absent, the national literature was a product of the 19th century, and emerged in close connection to ongoing political debates. In Germany, the Weimar heritage had gained classical status during the 1850s. Thus, the problem was foremost that of redefining the spiritual heritage to fit the history of the German Reich.
A related difference is found in the diffusion of literature through its most important channel – the school system. Norway developed a modern, uniform school, where the nation’s new literature was accorded a central place. In Germany, a more class-based school system was cemented, and the idea of diffusing the cultural heritage to the population at large held a weak position.
Along with these institutional factors, the development of national literatures in the two countries is seen in the light of regional specificities, constellations of literary genres with high and low prestige, and the social and political position of writers.
Cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with tannin (T) in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The purpose of this study is to produce eco-friendly…
Cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with tannin (T) in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The purpose of this study is to produce eco-friendly tannin-modified cyclohexanone resins (TCFR) with a one-step method that has higher decomposition temperature than CFR. The solubility, molecular weight and thermal properties of the product were investigated.
Cyclohexanone, formalin (37 per cent aqueous solution) and tannin were mixed and 20 per cent aqueous NaOH solution was added to produce the resin. Tannin has environmentally friendly bio-based phenolic compounds that the tannin structure has been incorporated into the structure of the cyclohexanone formaldehyde resin during the in situ modification of resin, such as resole resin.
The improvement of the properties of the TCFRs produced from condensed tannin. TCFRs were soluble in common organic solvents. The product TCFR has a dark red colour.
The reaction mixture must be stirred continuously. Subsequently, 37 per cent formalin was added drop-wise in total while refluxing. The amount of aqueous NaOH solution of it is limited, as the formed resin may become insoluble in common organic solvents. At the end of the reaction, a water-soluble resin is obtained. Then, the water of water phase was removed from TCFR reaction system, successively by evaporating with rotary evaporator.
This study provides the application of ketonic resins. The TCFR containing tannin groups may also promote the adhesive strength of a coating.
These resins may be used for the preparation of adhesive. Condensed tannin, with a large amount of Catechol groups was considered for reducing the formaldehyde emission level on the adhesive system.
TCFR has been synthesised in the presence of a base catalyst. Environmental and ecological concerns have increased the attention paid by chemical industry to renewable raw materials.