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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2019

Peng Cai, Zhongfan Luo, Xuhua Duan and Xinshao Qin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of reciprocating and unidirectional sliding motions on friction and wear of phenolic resin-based composite.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of reciprocating and unidirectional sliding motions on friction and wear of phenolic resin-based composite.

Design/methodology/approach

The phenolic resin-based composite was fabricated by hot press molding, and then the tribological properties were tested on a CSM tribometer with two types of friction motion modes – reciprocating friction and unidirectional friction.

Findings

The results showed that the composite exhibited low friction coefficient in unidirectional test. However, the wear factor recorded under unidirectional sliding condition was 12-16 times higher than the reciprocating friction results. The SEM and optical microscopy test results showed that changing the relative motion mode resulted in different topography of transfer film, which is responsible for the different friction and wear characteristics of the composite under reciprocating and unidirectional friction conditions.

Originality/value

Effect of different friction modes, reciprocating friction and unidirectional friction, on friction characteristics of the composite is sought. Different topography of transfer film formed under reciprocating and unidirectional friction conditions contributed to the different friction characteristics.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Alicja Laber

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research into using an additive to SAE 15W/40 engine oil during operation and its influence on lubricating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research into using an additive to SAE 15W/40 engine oil during operation and its influence on lubricating properties (normalised tests) on weld point Pz, non-seizure load Pn, load wear index Ih and on seizure load Pt. The friction pair consisted of a group of four balls and the tested lubricant. Moreover, the author tested the influence of an additive to engine oil (non-normalised tests) on tribological properties, including friction force, wear and the temperature of friction area for the C45 steel/210Cr12 steel friction joint. She also determined the influence of an additive to engine oil on the formation of the operating surface layer. The research results helped to build the model of the boundary layer that was formed as a result of adding an additive to engine oil.

Design/methodology/approach

The lubricant properties of engine oil and engine oil to which an additive was added during operation were determined according to PN-76/C-04147. The following are the indexes of lubricant properties: weld point Pz, load wear index Ih, non-seizure load Pn, seizure load and average scar diameter. The Pz, Pn and Ih indexes were determined at abruptly increasing load to the moment of welding of the friction pair. The Pt index was determined at the increasing load of the friction pair from 0 to 800 daN at the speed of 408.8 N/s. The tests of tribological properties (friction force, wear and the temperature of friction area) were conducted for the C45/210 Cr12 friction pair in the presence of a lubricant and a lubricant with an additive.

Findings

The modification of SAE 15W/40 engine oil with the additive added during operation resulted in improved indexes of lubricant properties Pz, Pn, Ih and Pt and average scar diameter. The boundary layer for the modified oil breaks after a longer time and at lesser friction force. The modification of the engine oil reduced the wear of the friction pair. After the friction process, element composition in the surface layer of the wear trace and its distribution were determined in relation to applied lubricants. A significant amount of sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen, as well as an insignificant amount of copper, was observed in the wear trace after the friction process in the presence of the lubricant medium. The distribution of elements in the wear trace when the engine oil with the additive was used is steady in the wear trace and outside it. Some sulphur, phosphorus and chlorine were found in the wear trace.

Originality/value

The results of tests on tribological properties (non-normalised tests) confirmed the positive affect of the additive to engine oil on lubricant properties (normalised tests). The modification of the engine oil caused reduced friction force and the reduced wear of the friction pair. The reduction of friction force and wear was the result of the formation of the surface of a greater amplitude density of unevenness tops in the friction process. Moreover, the operating surface layer, created in the friction process when the additive was added to the engine oil, had greater load participation at 50 per cent C. This operational surface layer improved tribological properties, i.e. it reduced value of friction force and wear. The test results were used to build a model of the boundary layer created as a result of the additive added to engine oil.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 66 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Kang Yang, Hongru Ma, Xiyao Liu and Yangming Zhang

This paper aims to study the micro-structure evolution of friction layers to optimize the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-based material. It further enlarges the scope…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the micro-structure evolution of friction layers to optimize the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-based material. It further enlarges the scope of using TiAl alloys and increase in the service life of TiAl alloy-made mechanical components, especially under some extreme conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

To study the structure evolution of friction layers, the HT-1000 tribometer is used to study the friction and wear properties of as-prepared samples. With the assistance of field emission scanning electron microscopy and an electron probe micro-analyzer, the stratified structures in cross-sections and a surface morphology of the wear scars are well characterized. A ST400 surface profiler helps in better understanding of the three-dimensional texture profiles of wear scars. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) is also used to analyze phases in the as-prepared samples.

Findings

An analysis method on the micro-structure evolution can provide better views to understand the influence of friction layers on the tribological behavior, at different wear stages. It finds that the micro-structure evolution of friction layers has an immediate effect on the friction coefficients and wear rates of TiAl-based material. It also proves to be a useful tool for evaluating the behaviors in friction and wear of TiAl-based material.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper provide better assistance to explore the effect of friction layers on the friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-based materials. The results help in deep understanding of the micro-structure evolution of friction layers. It also increases the service life of TiAl-based mechanical components.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Wang Chengmin, Yang Xuefeng, Cai Xiguang, Ma Tao, Li Yunxi and Song Peilong

This paper aims to thrash out friction and wear properties of automobile brake lining reinforced by lignin fiber and glass fiber in braking process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to thrash out friction and wear properties of automobile brake lining reinforced by lignin fiber and glass fiber in braking process.

Design/methodology/approach

ABAQUS finite element software was used to analyze thermo-mechanical coupled field of friction materials. XD-MSM constant speed friction testing machine was used to test friction and wear properties of friction material. Worn surface morphology and mechanism of friction materials were observed by using scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The results show that when the temperature was below 350°C, worn mechanism of MFBL was mainly fatigue wear and abrasive wear, and worn mechanism of GFBL was mainly fatigue wear because MFBL contained lignin fiber. Therefore, it exhibits better mechanical properties and friction and wear properties than those of GFBL.

Originality/value

Lignin fiber can improve mechanical properties and friction and wear properties of the automobile brake lining.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2019

Yanxin Zheng, Ying Liu, Feng Zheng, Qingsong Song, Caili Zhang, Jian Wang, Nan Dong, Aijuan Shi and Peide Han

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of iron content on the friction and wear performances of Cu–Fe-based friction materials under dry sliding friction

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of iron content on the friction and wear performances of Cu–Fe-based friction materials under dry sliding friction and wear test condition.

Design/methodology/approach

Cu–Fe-based friction materials with different iron content were prepared by powder metallurgy route. The tribological properties of Cu–Fe-based friction materials against GCr15 steel balls were studied at different applied loads and sliding speeds. Meanwhile, microstructure and phases of Cu–Fe-based friction materials were investigated.

Findings

Cu–Fe-based friction materials with different iron content are suitable for specific applied load and sliding speed, respectively. Low iron content Cu–Fe-based friction material is suitable for a high load 60 N and low sliding speed 70 mm/min and high iron content Cu–Fe-based friction material will be more suitable for a high load 60 N and high sliding speed 150 mm/min. The abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism for two kinds of Cu–Fe-based friction materials.

Originality/value

The friction and wear properties of Cu–Fe-based friction materials with different iron content were determined at different applied loads and sliding speeds, providing a direction and theoretical basis for the future development of Cu–Fe-based friction materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Kezban Banu Sugozu, Behcet Daghan, Ahmet Akdemir and Necati Ataberk

Among the components used for a car brake lining, the chemical and structural properties of the abrasives, jointly with the morphology and size of the particles influence…

Abstract

Purpose

Among the components used for a car brake lining, the chemical and structural properties of the abrasives, jointly with the morphology and size of the particles influence the friction parameters and stability of the composite. This paper aims to investigate the effect of nano SiO2 particles in brake pads on friction and wear properties.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the effects of SiO2 (Silica) particles of varying size on the friction-wear properties of polymeric friction composites are investigated. Four friction composites were prepared containing (5, 10 Wt.%) micro silica (MS) particles and (5, 10 Wt.%) nano silica (NS) particles. The samples were produced by a conventional procedure for a dry formulation following dry-mixing, pre-forming and hot pressing. Friction and wear characteristics of the specimens against to a disk made of cast iron were studied. Friction coefficient, specific wear rate and hardness of specimens were obtained. Detailed examinations on the worn surface were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope.

Findings

The results of test showed that the inclusion of nano silicon carbide (SiC) powder improved the wear performance significantly. Friction coefficient (μ) of NS samples was higher than the MS samples. Micro-SiC showed poor performance and μ. High wear performance was exhibited in materials containing 5 Wt.% NS and 10 Wt.% NS.

Originality/value

This paper emphasizes the importance of nano-composites in the automotive industry and helps to industrial firms and academicians working on wear of materials.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Hüsamettin Kus and Duran Altiparmak

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of fly ash content on the frictionwear performance of bronze-based brake lining material.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of fly ash content on the frictionwear performance of bronze-based brake lining material.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, bronze-based brake linings containing 0-12 weight per cent fly ash were produced by the hot-pressing process. The friction-wear properties of the unreinforced bronze matrix brake lining material and fly ash reinforced samples were investigated using a Chase-type friction tester. The hardness and density of the samples were also determined. The microstructures and friction surfaces of the samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

Findings

The experimental results showed that the fly ash content significantly affects the friction-wear properties of the brake lining material. It was found that the friction coefficient increases with the increase in the fly ash content for the brake lining materials studied. Moreover, the mass losses in the wear test were lower for the brake linings containing over 4 weight per cent fly ash than unreinforced bronze-based lining material.

Originality/value

This study has proven to be useful in exploring fly ash particles as low cost reinforcing materials in improving the frictionwear performance of bronze-based brake lining material. In addition, the use of fly ash particles in the manufacture of brake lining materials contributes to reducing the production cost of brake linings and to a sustainable environment.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Ting Xie, Junjie Lai and Huaping Yang

This paper aims to simulate the effect of counterface roughness on the friction transfer and wear of the polymer material sliding against steel.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to simulate the effect of counterface roughness on the friction transfer and wear of the polymer material sliding against steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic process of friction transfer and wear of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sliding against steel 45 was simulated by the software of particle flow code in two dimensions and a discrete element method. The effect of the counterface roughness was considered in the simulation. The definitions of the transferred particle and worn particle were given.

Findings

The simulation results showed that a transferred particle layer was formed on the surface of steel 45 during friction. The wear rate of PTFE can be effectively reduced by the formation of the transferred particle layer. The formation and stability of this particle layer is certainly affected by the counterface roughness (Rz). In this paper, the transferred particle numbers increased with Rz increase. And so did the worn particle numbers. However, there was little effect of Rz on the wear rate of PTFE.

Originality/value

The dynamic process of the friction transfer and wear of the PTFE/ steel 45 friction pair was reproduced at the micro-level. Then, the transfer and wear were quantitatively exhibited. The relations between the transfer or wear and counterface roughness was simulated and discussed. It will be meaningful for the optimization and effective control of friction and wear of polymer/metal sliding system.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 71 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Yazhou Mao, Yang Jianxi, Xu Wenjing and Liu Yonggang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of round pits arrangement patterns on tribological properties of journal bearing. In this paper, the tribological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of round pits arrangement patterns on tribological properties of journal bearing. In this paper, the tribological behaviors of journal bearing with different arrangement patterns under lubrication condition were studied based on M-2000 friction and wear tester.

Design/methodology/approach

The friction and wear of journal bearing contact surface were simulated by ANSYS. The wear mechanism of bearing contact surfaces was investigated by the means of energy dispersive spectrum analysis on the surface morphology and friction and wear status of the journal bearing specimens by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). Besides, the wearing capacity of the textured bearing was predicted by using the GM (1,1) and Grey–Markov model.

Findings

As the loads increase, the friction coefficient of journal bearing specimens decrease first and then increase slowly. The higher rotation speed, the lower friction coefficient and the faster temperature build-up. The main friction method of the bearing sample is three-body friction. The existence of texture can effectively reduce friction and wear. In many arrangement patterns, the best is 4# bearing with round pits cross-arrangement pattern. Its texturing diameters are 60 µm and 125 µm, and the spacing and depth are 200 µm and 25 µm, respectively. In addition, the Grey–Markov model prediction result is more accurate and fit the experimental value better.

Originality/value

The friction and wear mechanism is helpful for scientific research and engineers to understand the tribological behaviors and engineering applications of textured bearing. The wear capacity of textured bearing is predicted by using the Grey–Markov model, which provides technical help and theoretical guidance for the service life and reliability of textured bearing.

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Wengang Chen, Xueyuan Liu and Lili Zheng

This paper aims to clarify the friction properties of 304 steel surface modification. The surface modification includes laser texturing processing and nitriding treatment…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the friction properties of 304 steel surface modification. The surface modification includes laser texturing processing and nitriding treatment on 304 steel surface, and then the friction properties’ test was conducted on different friction directions and different upper test samples by using microfriction and wear testing machine.

Design/methodology/approach

The diameter and spacing of 100-, 150-, 200-, 300-μm pit array on the surface of 304 steel were calculated using a M-DPSS-50 semiconductor laser device. Then, the textured surface was nitriding-treated using a nitriding salt bath device. The chemical composition, surface morphology and surface microhardness of the composite-modified surface were measured by X-ray diffraction and by using an optical microscope and a microhardness tester. The tribological characteristics of the composite-modified surface were tested by MRTR microcomputer-controlled multifunctional friction and wear testing machine.

Findings

The result showed that a rule pit texture surface was obtained by the texture processing. The microhardness of nitriding treatment surface reached 574.27HV0.1, which significantly higher than 222.58HV0.1 of 304 steel. The composite-modified surface has excellent anti-friction and wear resistance properties when the upper specimen was GCr15 steel and ZrO2, respectively. The composite-modified surface has excellent anti-friction and anti-wear properties after long time friction under different angles. However, the friction coefficient and wear morphology of the friction pairs are not affected by the friction angle.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further.

Practical implications

The paper conducted a systematic study of the tribological characteristics of 304 steel composite modification surface and provided a good basis for the extensive application of 304 steel.

Social implications

The study provides a good basis for the extensive application of 304 steel.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study the extensive application of 304 steel.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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