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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

P. Sathiya, N. Siva Shanmugam, T. Ramesh and R. Murugavel

Friction stir welding (FSW), a process that involves joining of metals without fusion of filler materials. It is used already in routine, as well as critical application…

Abstract

Friction stir welding (FSW), a process that involves joining of metals without fusion of filler materials. It is used already in routine, as well as critical application for the joining of structural components made of Aluminum and its alloys. Indeed it has been convincingly demonstrated that the process results in strong and ductile joints, some times in systems, which have proved difficult using conventional welding techniques. The process is most suitable for components that are flat & long (plates & sheets) but it can be adapted for pipes, hollow sections and positional welding. The welds are created by the combined action of frictional heating and mechanical deformation, due to a rotating tool. Recently, a new technology called friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been developed that has a several advantages over the electric resistance welding process widely used in automotive industry in terms of weld quality and process efficiency. This welding technology involves a process similar to FSW, except that, instead of moving the tool along the weld seam, the tool only indents the parts, which are placed on top of each other. The conditions under which the deposition process in FSSW is successful are not fully understood. However, it is known that only under specific thermo‐mechanical conditions does a weld formation occur. The objective of the present work is to analyze the primary conditions under which the cavity behind the tool is filled. For this, a fully coupled thermo‐mechanical three‐dimensional FE model has been developed in ABAQUS/Explicit using the adaptive meshing scheme and the Johnson‐Cook material law. The contact forces are modeled by Coulomb’s law of friction, making the contact condition highly solution dependent. Temperature graph in the radial direction as well as stress, strain plots are presented.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Esraa Saleh Abdel-All, Matthew Charles Frank and Iris Violeta Rivero

This paper aims to present a friction stir molding (FSM) method for the rapid manufacturing of metal tooling. The method uses additive and subtractive techniques to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a friction stir molding (FSM) method for the rapid manufacturing of metal tooling. The method uses additive and subtractive techniques to sequentially friction stir bond and then mill slabs of metal. Mold tooling is grown in a bottom-up fashion, overcoming machining accessibility problems typically associated with deep cavity tooling.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the feasibility of FSM in building functional molds, a layer addition procedure that combines friction stir spot welding (FSSW) with an initial glue application and clamping for slabs of AA6061-T651 was investigated. Additionally, FSSW parameters and the mechanical behavior of test mold materials, including shear strength and hardness, were studied. Further, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/elemental map analysis (EDS) of the spot weld zones was carried out to understand the effect of FSSW on the glue materials and to study potential mixing of glue with the plate materials in the welded zone.

Findings

The results indicate that FSM provides good layer stacking without gaps when slabs are pre-processed through sand blasting, moistening, uniform clamping and FSSW using a tapered pin tool. The tensile shear strength results revealed that the welded spots were able to withstand cutting forces during machining stages; however, FSSW was found to cause hardness reduction among spot zones because of over-aging. The SEM/EDS results showed that glue was not mixed with slab materials in spot zones. The proposed process was able to build a test tooling sample successfully using AA6061-T651 plates welded and machined on a three-axis computer numerical control (CNC) mill.

Originality/value

The proposed FSM process is a new process presented by the authors, developed for the rapid manufacturing of metal tooling. The method uses additive and subtractive techniques to sequentially friction stir bond and then mill slabs of metal. The use of FSSW process for materials addition is an original contribution that enables automatic process planning for this new process.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

Christine Connolly

To review the capabilities of a new method of welding aluminium sheets for car body construction.

Abstract

Purpose

To review the capabilities of a new method of welding aluminium sheets for car body construction.

Design/methodology/approach

Describes the friction spot joining technique, and how it differs from friction stir welding. Describes the tests carried out at the University of Warwick to compare this with other aluminium sheet joining techniques.

Findings

Compared with resistance spot welding, this technique is simple, and physically and electromagnetically clean. Its low energy requirement per joint and low running costs give it advantages in joining thin materials, and eventual recycling is much easier than with self‐piercing riveting joints.

Originality/value

Describes the motivation behind the continuing development of an all‐aluminium joining technique, and compares spot friction joining with self‐pierce riveting and resistance spot welding.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Isam Tareq Abdullah and Sabah Khammass Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the welding parameters: rotating speed and plunging depth of carbon steel and pure copper joints using friction stir spot welding

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the welding parameters: rotating speed and plunging depth of carbon steel and pure copper joints using friction stir spot welding (FSSW) with the aid of the design of experiments (DOE) method.

Design/methodology/approach

Carbon steel and pure copper sheets were welded using the FSSW technique with a cylindrical tool and without a probe. The welding parameters were: rotating speed: 1,120, 1,400 and 1,800 RPM and plunging depth: 0.2 and 0.4 mm. The welding process was carried out both with and without pre-heating. The welded specimens were analyzed using a shear tensile test. A microstructural investigation at the optimum conditions was carried out. The results were analyzed and optimized using the statistical software Minitab and following the DOE method.

Findings

Pre-heating the sample and increasing the rotating speed and plunging depth increased the tensile shear force of the joint. The plunging depth has the biggest effect on the joint efficiency compared with the rotating speed. The optimum shear force (4,560 N) was found at 1,800 RPM, 0.4 mm plunge depth and with pre-heating. The welding parameters were modified so that the samples were welded at 1,800 RPM and at plunging depths of 0.45–1 mm in 0.05 mm steps. The optimized shear force was 5,400 N. The fractured samples exhibited two types of failure mode: interfacial and nugget pull-out.

Originality/value

For the first time, pure copper and carbon steel sheets were welded using FSSW and a tool without a probe with ideal joint efficiency (95 percent).

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Sabah Khammass Hussein, Isam Tareq Abdullah and Abbas Khammas Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to join AA5052 to AISI 1006 steel sheets using the spot friction forming technique.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to join AA5052 to AISI 1006 steel sheets using the spot friction forming technique.

Design/methodology/approach

A steel sheet was pre-holed with a diameter of 4.8 mm and pre-threaded with a single internal M6 thread. Lap joint configuration was used so that the aluminium specimen was put over steel. A rotating tool with a 10 mm diameter was used for the joining process. A Taguchi method was used to design three process parameters (plunging tool depth, rotating speed and preheating time), with three levels for each parameter. The effect of the process parameters on the joint shear strength was analysed. The macrostructure, microstructure and scanning electron microscope of the joint were investigated. The temperature distribution during the joining process was recorded.

Findings

The formed aluminium was extruded through the steel hole and penetrated through the thread slot. A mechanical interlock was achieved between the extruded aluminium and the steel. The plunging depth of the tool exhibited a significant effect on the joint shear strength. The joint efficiency increased gradually as the plunging depth increased. Two modes of failure were found shear and pull-out. The maximum temperature during the process reached 50 per cent of aluminium’s melting point.

Originality/value

For the first time, AA5052 was joined with AISI 1006 steel using a friction spot forming technique with an excellent joint efficiency.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

John Mortimer

Describes how Jaguar Cars is evaluating a technology roadmap to assess future manufacturing processes.

Abstract

Purpose

Describes how Jaguar Cars is evaluating a technology roadmap to assess future manufacturing processes.

Design/methodology/approach

Describes the major production line technologies that are under close scrutiny for the next ten years for use in the Jaguar Cars' production plants at Castle Bromwich and at Halewood, Merseyside, both in the UK. Technologies under review include ultrasonic welding, friction stir spot welding, laser welding and self‐piercing rivets.

Findings

The use of self‐piercing rivets is already used in production at Jaguar for the aluminium‐bodied XJ saloon. But developments of the process are already underway in readiness for the next new model. However, at the same time, engineers are examining other techniques including ultrasonic joining and friction stir spot welding, both of which at the subject of research work in the US and the UK. Use of pedestal guns and blow feeding devices is expected to bring improvements in cost.

Research limitations/implications

Engineers at Jaguar are carrying out research and development, both in‐house and with various research bodies and universities to establish the most beneficial processes for the joining of aluminium sheet, extrusion and cast components that go to form an aluminium car body. For successful joining aluminium requires low heat input solutions. At present, self‐piercing rivets offer the best solution, but Jaguar engineers are looking at other processes including ultrasonic joining and friction stir spot welding. The aim is to find processes that are fast and cost‐effective. In the meantime, Jaguar will continue to use self‐piercing rivets for aluminium structures.

Practical implications

The practical implications of the work will lead to reduced cycle times which in turn will help to make the manufacture of aluminium car bodies more cost‐effective.

Originality/value

BMW claims it is the first car maker to make use of bowl‐feeding self‐piercing rivets for the manufacture of aluminium body‐in‐white.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2013

M. Selvaraj, Vela Murali and S.R. Koteswara Rao

The purpose of this paper is to propose a three‐dimensional thermal model for friction stir welding of AISI 1018 mild steel to predict the thermal cycle, temperature…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a three‐dimensional thermal model for friction stir welding of AISI 1018 mild steel to predict the thermal cycle, temperature distribution, the effect of welding parameters on power required, heat generation and peak temperature during the friction stir welding process.

Design/methodology/approach

The mathematical expressions for heat generation during the friction stir welding process were derived. The simulations for various welding and rotational speeds were carried out on ANSYS software employing temperature and radius dependent moving heat source and applying the boundary conditions.

Findings

The predicted thermal cycle, torque required and temperatures were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The heat generation and peak temperatures were found to be directly proportional to rotational speed and inversely proportional to welding speed. The rate of increase in heat generation and peak temperature were found to be higher at lower rotational speeds and lower at higher rotational speeds. The heat generation during friction stir welding was found to be 71.4 per cent at shoulder, 23.1 per cent at pin side and 5.5 per cent at bottom of the pin.

Originality/value

A new temperature dependent slip factor has been used to determine the contribution of slipping and sticking on total heat generation. A temperature and radius dependent moving heat source has been employed.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

C. Rajendran, K. Srinivasan, V. Balasubramanian, H. Balaji and P. Selvaraj

Presently, the materials used in light combat aircraft structures are aluminium alloys and composites. These structures are joined together through riveted joints. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Presently, the materials used in light combat aircraft structures are aluminium alloys and composites. These structures are joined together through riveted joints. The weight of these rivets for the entire aircraft is nearly one ton. In addition to weight, the riveted connection requires a lot of tools, equipments, fixtures and manpower, which makes it an expensive and time-consuming process. Moreover, Al alloy is also welded using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process by proper control of process parameters. This process has limitations such as porosity, alloy segregation and hot cracking. To overcome the above limitations, an alternative technology is required. One such technology is friction stir welding (FSW), which can be successfully applied for welding of aluminium alloy in LCA structures. Therefore, this paper aims to compare the load carrying capabilities of FSW joints with TIG welded and riveted joints.

Design/methodology/approach

FSW joints and TIG welded joints were fabricated using optimized process parameters, followed by riveted joints using standard shop floor practice in the butt and lap joint configurations.

Findings

The load-carrying capabilities of FSW joints are superior than those of other joints. FSW joints exhibited 75 per cent higher load-carrying capability compared to the riveted joints and TIG-welded joints.

Practical implications

From this investigation, it is inferred that the FSW joint is suitable for the replacement of riveted joints in LCA and TIG-welded joints.

Originality/value

Friction stir butt joints exhibited 75 per cent higher load-carrying capability than riveted butt joints. Friction stir welded lap joints showed 70 per cent higher load-carrying capability than the riveted lap joints. Friction stir butt joints yielded 41 per cent higher breaking load capabilities than the TIG-welded butt joints. Moreover, Friction stir lap weld joints have 57 per cent more load-carrying capabilities than the TIG-welded lap joints.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2019

Navneet Khanna, Mahesh Bharati, Prachi Sharma and Vishvesh J. Badheka

The demand for aluminium alloys has been increasing in almost all the fields. In this study, the friction stir welding (FSW) of similar aluminium alloy AA 8011-h14 has…

Abstract

Purpose

The demand for aluminium alloys has been increasing in almost all the fields. In this study, the friction stir welding (FSW) of similar aluminium alloy AA 8011-h14 has been presented using three levels of tool rotational speed (n), tool tilt angle (ϴ) and tool feed (f). The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of welding parameters on various properties and time-temperature plots.

Design/methodology/approach

FSW was carried out using the L-9 orthogonal array of welding parameters generated using the Taguchi approach. Visual inspection and radiography testing were conducted to detect the surface and volume defects, respectively. Taguchi analysis was carried out to get optimised welding parameters for tensile testing. The microstructural analysis was carried out for the specimen possessing maximum tensile strength and the obtained grain structures were compared with the microstructure results of the base material. The peak process temperatures were noted and time-temperature plots were analysed for the varying parameters. The maximum value of hardness was recorded and analysed.

Findings

Visual inspection and radiography testing confirmed defect-free joints. The maximum tensile strength achieved was 84.44 MPa with 64.95 per cent efficiency. The optimised parameters obtained using Taguchi analysis for tensile testing were 1,500 rpm, 1° and 50 mm/min. Microstructure analysis for the specimen possessing maximum tensile strength revealed fine and equiaxed grains in the nugget zone. Time-temperature plots suggested the maximum temperature of 389 °C on the advancing side. A maximum hardness value of 36.4 HV was obtained in the nugget zone.

Originality/value

As per the knowledge of the authors, this study is the first attempt for the detailed experimental analysis on the FSW of this particular aluminium alloy AA 8011-h14.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Ghadanfer Hussein Ali and Sabah Khammass Hussein

The purpose of this paper is to join an anodized aluminium alloy AA6061 sheet with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using friction spot process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to join an anodized aluminium alloy AA6061 sheet with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using friction spot process.

Design/methodology/approach

The surface of AA6061 sheet was anodized to increase the pores’ size. A lap joint configuration was used to join the AA6061 with HDPE sheets by the friction spot process. The joining process was carried out using a rotating tool of different diameters: 14, 16 and 18 mm. Three tool-plunging depths were used – 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm – with three values of the processing time – 20, 30 and 40 s. The joining process parameters were designed according to the Taguchi approach. Two sets of samples were joined: the as-received AA6061/HDPE and the anodized AA6061/HDPE.

Findings

Frictional heat melted the HDPE layers near the lap joint line and penetrated it through the surface pores of the AA6061 sheet via the applied pressure of the tool. The tool diameter exhibited higher effect on the joint strength than processing time and the tool-plunging depth. Specimens of highest and lowest tensile force were failed by necking the polymer side and shearing the polymer layers at the lap joint, respectively. Molten HDPE was mechanically interlocked into the pores of the anodized surface of AA6061 with an interface line of 18-m width.

Originality/value

For the first time, HDPE was joined with the anodized AA6061 by the friction spot process. The joint strength reached an ideal efficiency of 100 per cent.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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