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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Josef Kunc, Vlastimil Reichel and Markéta Novotná

Effective management of shopping centres requires a good understanding of the consumers' behaviour and preferences as well as meeting the demand-side needs. The purpose of

Abstract

Purpose

Effective management of shopping centres requires a good understanding of the consumers' behaviour and preferences as well as meeting the demand-side needs. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the factors affecting the frequency of shopping centres' visits, providing implications for shopping centre managers from the perspective of a Czech consumer.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out in one of the Czech shopping centres in Brno due to its potentially standardisable common characteristics derived from the observation in the scatter plot. The standardized questionnaire survey on consumer shopping behaviour was conducted on a sample of more than 1,000 customers. The linear probability model and the logit model were applied to estimate impacts of included sociodemographic variables on the outcome.

Findings

The findings on the frequency of visits give an overview of the sociodemographic and spatial determinants increasing the visit regularity. From the managerial point of view, the importance of customers' activities and purposes is highlighted.

Practical implications

The implications can be provided to managers challenging to demand management and considering the investment projects. We come up with certain suggestions in terms of market segmentation, based on sociodemographic characteristics and shopping behaviour.

Originality/value

The paper provides insights into the preferences of the Czech consumers and extends the previous analysis of shopping behaviour by developing the statistical properties and demonstrating the variables and their influence on the frequency of visit.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Tz-Li Wang, Phuong Thi Kim Tran and Vinh Trung Tran

This paper aims to examine the effects of gender and visit frequency as moderating variables on the relationships among destination perceived quality, tourist satisfaction…

3302

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of gender and visit frequency as moderating variables on the relationships among destination perceived quality, tourist satisfaction and word-of-mouth (WOM).

Design/methodology/approach

This study incorporated several previous research models to propose a conceptual model that fully explains the relationships among destination perceived quality, tourist satisfaction, visit frequency and WOM. One important thing to consider is whether gender and visit frequency impact on the relationships among these factors. In addition, this study was able to generate measurement items for the dimensions by analyzing specific tourism conditions in Danang City and referring to the scales of these factors in previous studies. Quantitative research was conducted to test the scales of the research model and hypotheses through data collected from 303 domestic tourists.

Findings

Structural equation modeling and a multi-group analysis were used to test the hypotheses and the invariance of structural coefficients across groups. The results indicate that destination perceived quality has significant, positive and direct effect on tourist satisfaction; WOM is positively influenced by destination perceived quality and tourist satisfaction; and there is significant relationship between visit frequency and WOM. In particular, when exploring the impact of moderating variables such as gender and visit frequency, this study also found that the impacts of destination perceived quality on WOM are different between genders, and this impact is stronger for female rather than male tourists; and the effect of destination perceived quality on tourist satisfaction is stronger for the first visit than for later visits.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited in its ability to gather a larger sample to more generally represent the complete domestic market, as well as in its lack of a comparison of online versus offline WOM effects by gender.

Originality/value

This paper was conducted to have a better understanding of how tourist demographic characteristics such as gender and visit frequency are important contributors that influence the relationships among these three factors. This paper has important implications for marketers and managers of Danang, such as local tourism authorities, commercial association managers, hotel owners, restaurant owners and tour managers working to improve the quality of this destination, and thus better satisfying tourists and competing with other destinations.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Gary L. Hunter

The purpose of this paper is to identify variables that intervene in the relationship between shopping center image and frequency of visits to that shopping center…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify variables that intervene in the relationship between shopping center image and frequency of visits to that shopping center. Variables investigated as intervening are desires, intentions, and positive anticipated emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The method uses a two wave mail survey. One wave gathers intentions and variables antecedent to intentions while a second wave gathers behavioral data.

Findings

Findings suggest that desire (i.e. motivation), intention, and positive anticipated emotions intervene between shopping center image and frequency of shopping center visits. Positive anticipated emotions are not emotions felt while shopping but are the expected emotional consequences of achieving a goal, in this case visiting a shopping center. Visiting a shopping center might be a goal in itself or it could be the means to goal attainment (e.g. shopping to get a product).

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that results are aggregated across types of shopping centers and across respondent classifications.

Practical implications

Results provide evidence that desire, intention, and positive anticipated emotions intervene between shopping center image and frequency of visits to the shopping center. Implications for shopping center managers are guidance for allocating resources towards increasing desire, intention, and positive anticipated emotions.

Originality/value

The value of this study is investigation of the process by which shopping center image impacts the frequency of visits to a shopping center. Focusing on this process should allow shopping center managers to more efficiently allocate resources. The value of this study is offering resource allocation guidance to shopping center managers.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Marsela Thanasi-Boçe, Piotr Kwiatek and Lasha Labadze

The purpose of this paper is to establish mall attractiveness factors in Kuwait, examine the relationship between mall dimensions and mall patronage and explore the impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish mall attractiveness factors in Kuwait, examine the relationship between mall dimensions and mall patronage and explore the impact of mall size and distance on mall patronage.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 190 shopping mall visitors were analyzed using Stata software. Factor analysis was used to identify the mall attraction factors, and regression models were run to analyze their relationships with people’s frequency of visits to shopping malls and the amount of time spent per visit.

Findings

The results unearth five important factors, namely, performance of buying, entertainment, social activities, physical atmosphere and location. Analysis reveals that the performance of buying and social activities factors had a significant impact on the frequency of visits, while the amount of time spent per visit was significantly affected only by the social activities factor. Furthermore, mall size is more important than distance to the mall. Finally, gender differences in shoppers’ mall preferences and behaviors were reported.

Practical implications

On the practical level, shopping mall developers and managers can use the attraction scale to develop attractive malls and effective marketing strategies. Researchers can use findings to confirm the factors extracted in the study and for further research on the topic.

Originality/value

This study extends theories on consumers’ preferences and behaviors. It provides empirical evidence about the impact of attractive mall dimensions on shoppers’ patronage in Kuwait, an understudied context.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Dong Xiaozhou

The purpose of this paper is to initially use a stochastic model to fit data of customer behavior stickiness and customer value, then estimate the corresponding parameters…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to initially use a stochastic model to fit data of customer behavior stickiness and customer value, then estimate the corresponding parameters and use Bayesian rule to calculate its mathematical expectation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use expectations of customer behavior stickiness as an independent variable, expectations of customer value as a dependent variable, motivations of consumption as moderator and conduct regression analysis to research the relationship among the three. First, we will use the data of behavior for customer network shopping in the questionnaire to establish the random probability model and forecast. Second, we calculate the expected customer behavior stickiness and customer value. Finally, we use resurvey data of 100 subjects after three months (selected randomly from 373 objects) to test the model prediction.

Findings

The findings show that customer behavior stickiness has a significant effect on customer value, and the moderating effect of the hedonic motivation of consumption on the relationship above is proved. The value of customers who hold high hedonic motivation of consumption is mainly driven from website’s single visit time, whereas the value of customers who hold low or middle hedonic motivation of consumption is mainly driven from a website’s visit frequency.

Originality/value

The paper proves and quantifies the effects of the customer behavior stickiness for customer value in times of behavior. The results prove the moderation role of consumer motivation of the customer for the path of customer behavior stickiness→customer value, and make clear that the hedonic motivation is a necessary condition of average site visit time that has a significant impact on customer value.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Vipul Pare and Naser Pourazad

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Indian consumers of different demographic groups vary in terms of shopping mall visits (frequency of visit

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which Indian consumers of different demographic groups vary in terms of shopping mall visits (frequency of visit, hours spent in the mall, and number of shops visited) and purchase behaviour (total money spent, number of shops purchased from and number of items purchased).

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a self-administered survey of 400 Indian mall shoppers to examine Indian shoppers’ behaviour with respect to visiting and buying behaviour. Descriptive analyses and χ2 tests were conducted to identify patterns and capture the significant relationships in shopping behaviour across different demographic segments.

Findings

The results show that shoppers of different age cohorts and from different household sizes behave differently from one another in a significant manner. In terms of gender, however, men and women tend to behave in a similar manner in terms of visit frequency, time and money spent per visit. The study also provides insight into where the differences occur and between which specific groups.

Research limitations/implications

Data comes from one major city of India which limits the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

For mall managers and retailers, the study findings indicate that the stores that serve recreational needs should focus more on younger segments, where men and women share similar buying patterns. Findings from this study could also be used for segmentation exercises and to build strategies to convert footfall into actual purchase, especially within the rapidly growing Indian mall market.

Originality/value

The study adds value to the body of retail literature and provides empirical evidence from the rapidly developing Indian market. The study also provides insight into where differences occur and between which specific groups. By highlighting the differences in greater detail, the study benefits retailers in general and specifically, mall managers.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Grzegorz Mazurek, Anna Miotk and Artur Maciorowski

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are…

Abstract

It seems that the Internet boom, which started at the end of the 1990s and finished with the spectacular collapse of the so-called dotcoms, is probably over. We are currently enjoying a period of fast and stable growth. This is manifested by the growing number of both Internet users and companies which – to an ever-increasing extent – use the Internet as a form of communication (both internal and external), promotion, sales etc. Expenditures on Internet advertising are growing continuously and now constitute more than 25% of all advertising expenditure. A natural consequence of this development is the need for the standardisation and organisation of the world of the Internet. These activities will result in a greater awareness of the benefits which this medium provides, increasing the possibilities of its use, and – most importantly – the opportunity to evaluate the return on investments made on the Internet. Nowadays, it is clear that many companies are striving to increase the quality of their activities on the Internet or to improve the effectiveness of such activities. As a consequence, the number of companies that look for indices which would enable the making of more precise and effective decisions in the scope of online operations is growing.

This chapter is dedicated to the phenomenon of the increasing role of the Internet in business, including the scale of its use by Polish and international companies. We present the most commonly used measures of marketing activities on the Internet and in social media. This group includes the indices which make it possible to determine whether a company actually needs a website. Other measures allow for the improvement in the effectiveness of the activity on the Internet, whereas others specify the costs of activities on the Internet and often serve as the basis for settlements between a company and advertising agencies or companies specialising in website design. It is worth emphasising that the Paid, Earned, Shared, Owned (PESO) model, worked out by Don Bartholomew,1 is the basis for creation and description of indices concerning social media. This model has gained certain popularity in the social media industry. It does not, however, specify how individual indices should be named and calculated. It maps already existing indices and adapts them to specific levels of marketing communication measurement. All the measures indicated by the author of the model have been grouped into five major areas: exposure, engagement, brand awareness, action and recommendations. This model– similarly to all models of performance measurement – inspired by the sales funnel concept, adjusts certain standard indices and proposals of measurements for specific levels. Additionally, the measures are divided into four types, depending on who the owner of the content is: Paid (P) – refers to all forms of paid content; Owned (O) – all websites and web properties controlled by a company or brand; Earned (E) – the contents about a given brand created spontaneously by Internet users; and Shared (S) – the contents shared by Internet users.

Details

Mastering Market Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-835-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński, Michał Medowski, Jacek Pogorzelski and Marcin Ostachowski

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of

Abstract

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of good pieces of advice and tips for sales representatives have been presented along with hundreds of sales methods and techniques. Probably the largest number of indicators and measures are applied in sales and distribution. On the one hand, this is a result of the fact that sales provide revenue and profit to a company; on the other hand, the concept of management by objectives turns out to be most effective in regional sales teams with reference to sales representatives and methods of performance evaluation. As a result, a whole array of indices has been created which enable the evaluation of sales representatives’ work and make it possible to manage goods distribution in a better way.

The indices presented in this chapter are rooted in the consumer market and are applied most often to this type of market (particularly in relation to fast-moving consumer goods at the level of retail trade). Nevertheless, many of them can be used on other markets (services, means of production) and at other trade levels (wholesale).

Although the values of many indices presented herein are usually calculated by market research agencies and delivered to companies in the form of synthetic results, we have placed the emphasis on the ability to determine them independently, both in descriptive and exemplifying terms. We consider it important to understand the genesis of indices and build the ability to interpret them on that basis. What is significant is that the indices can be interpreted differently; the same index may provide a different assessment of a product’s, brand or company’s position in the market depending on the parameters taken into account. Therefore, we strive to show a certain way of thinking rather than give ready-made recipes and cite ‘proven’ principles. Sales and distribution are dynamic phenomena, and limiting them within the framework of ‘one proper’ interpretation would be an intellectual abuse.

Article
Publication date: 6 April 2021

Phuong Kim Thi Tran, Phong Dong Nguyen, Angelina Hanh Nhat Le and Vinh Trung Tran

This study aims to examine the direct and indirect relationship between self-congruity and destination brand loyalty (DBL) based on the conceptual linkages of cognition…

1038

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the direct and indirect relationship between self-congruity and destination brand loyalty (DBL) based on the conceptual linkages of cognition, affect and conation. A multiple-step, multiple mediator model is investigated to explain the indirect effect of self-congruity on DBL through perceived destination quality (PDQ) and tourist satisfaction (TS). The moderating impact of visit frequency in these relationships is also proposed and empirically evaluated.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model and research hypotheses were assessed by applying covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM), mediating and multi-group analysis. An online survey was used to collect data from 347 domestic tourists visiting a destination in Vietnam.

Findings

The results support the link from self-congruity to PDQ, TS and then to DBL. Visit frequency was found to moderate the links between the research concepts.

Research limitations/implications

Future research would benefit from considering other self-congruity components (e.g. social self-congruity and ideal social self-congruity) and moderating variables (e.g. cultural distance). This would provide insights into the relationships between self-congruity and tourist behaviors and could be based on comparisons in different destinations to achieve more wide-ranging results.

Originality/value

The effect of self-congruity on DBL that evolves from linking self-congruity to PDQ and TS to increase DBL was examined within a tourism destination context. This study is valuable to destination managers as it provides suggestions to improve DBL.

链接自洽性、感知质量以及对旅游目的地品牌忠诚度的满意度:游览频率的调节作用。

这项研究旨在基于认知、影响和意图的概念链路, 并检验自洽性和目的地品牌忠诚度之间的直接和间接关系。研究了一个多步骤、多媒介模型之后, 该模型通过感知的目的地质量和游客的满意度来解释自洽性对目的地品牌忠诚度的间接影响。在这些关系中, 游览频率的调节作用也被提出并通过经验评估。

设计/方法/接触方式

应用基于协方差的SEM(CB-SEM), 中介和多群组分析对概念模型以及研究假设进行了评估。一项在线调查被用来收集来自347个游览越南目的地的国内游客的数据。

结果

结果显示从自洽性到感知的目的地质量, 然后是游客满意度, 最后是目的地品牌忠诚度的链接。从此发现游览频率可以缓和研究概念之间的关系。

研究的局限性/含意

未来的研究将通过考虑其他自洽性组成的要素(例如:社会自洽性和理想的社会自洽性)以及自洽性和游客关系之间的其他调节变量(例如:文化距离)而受益, 基于在不同目的地进行比较的行为, 以获得更广泛的结果。

原创性/价值

在旅游目的地背景下, 研究了自洽性对目的地品牌忠诚度的影响, 这种影响从链路自洽性与感知到的目的地质量和游客满意度联系起来, 从而, 提高了目的地品牌忠诚度。 这项工作对目的地管理者而言是有价值的, 因为该工作可提供有关提高目的地品牌忠诚度的建议。

关键词 自洽性, 感知的目的地质量, 游客满意度, 目的地品牌忠诚度, sem, 中介分析, 多群组分析

文章类型: 研究型论文

Vinculación de la autocongruencia, la calidad percibida y la satisfacción con la lealtad a la marca en un destino turístico: El papel moderador de la frecuencia de visita

Resumen

Propósito

Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar la relación directa e indirecta entre la autocongruencia y la lealtad a la marca del destino basado en los vínculos conceptuales de cognición, afecto y conación. Se investiga un modelo de múltiples pasos y múltiples mediadores para explicar el efecto indirecto de la autocongruencia en la lealtad a la marca del destino a través de la calidad percibida del destino y la satisfacción del turista. El impacto moderador de la frecuencia de visita en estas relaciones también se propone y evalúa empíricamente.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El modelo conceptual y las hipótesis de investigación se evaluaron a través de la aplicación de SEM basado en covarianza (CB-SEM), mediación y análisis multigrupo. Se utilizó una encuesta en línea para recopilar datos de 347 turistas nacionales que visitaban un destino en Vietnam.

Hallazgos

Los resultados respaldan el vínculo entre la autocongruencia y la calidad percibida del destino, la satisfacción del turista y luego a la lealtad a la marca del destino. Se encuentra que la frecuencia de visita modera los vínculos entre los conceptos de investigación.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Las investigaciones futuras se beneficiarían de considerar otros componentes de la autocongruencia (por ejemplo, la autocongruencia social y la autocongruencia social ideal) y otras variables moderadoras (por ejemplo, la distancia cultural) entre la relación de la autocongruencia y los comportamientos del turista basado en comparación en diferentes destinos para lograr resultados más amplios.

Originalidad/valor

El efecto de la autocongruencia en la lealtad a la marca del destino que evoluciona desde la vinculación de la autocongruencia con la calidad percibida del destino y la satisfacción del turista para aumentar la lealtad a la marca del destino se examina en el contexto del destino turístico. Este trabajo es valioso para los administradores del destino, ya que brinda consejos para mejorar la lealtad a la marca del destino.

Palabras clave

Autocongruencia, Calidad percibida del destino, Satisfacción del turista, Lealtad de la marca de destino, structural equation modeling (SEM), Análisis de mediación, Análisis multigrupo

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Mario Miranda

This paper aims to get an understanding of the determinants of unscheduled store visits during daylight‐saving time so that retail service providers may be able to…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to get an understanding of the determinants of unscheduled store visits during daylight‐saving time so that retail service providers may be able to encourage shoppers to expand their purchases during their sporadic store visits.

Design/methodology/approach

From the survey data, two econometric models were constructed, which predicted frequencies and times of shoppers' unscheduled grocery purchases. Based on the findings and behavioural principles, a conceptual model is defined for motivating shoppers to expand their purchases during their intermittent store visits.

Findings

A considerable number of consumers make unscheduled grocery store visits to their principal grocery stores when the store is kept open during daylight‐saving time. Shoppers are, however, not likely to make significant purchases during these irregular visits.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could examine changes in shopping behaviour from the switch back of the clock when DST is over.

Practical implications

Grocery stores who employ more resources, hoping to take advantage of the increased consumer inclination to visit stores during daylight‐saving time, may struggle to recover their operating costs.

Originality/value

The preparedness of consumers to break out of their work and social activities and visit their principal grocery service providers after business hours during daylight‐saving time suggests that these consumers could be motivated, based on the principle of hierarchy of needs, to elaborate on the benefits of the store's augmented and engaging services at this time and expand their purchases during these visits.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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