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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Zhiming Ma, Tiejun Zhao, Jianzhuang Xiao and Ting Guan

Rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete is the major reason for the durability degradation, especially under harsh environment. This paper presents an experiment conducted…

Abstract

Purpose

Rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete is the major reason for the durability degradation, especially under harsh environment. This paper presents an experiment conducted to investigate the influence of freeze-thaw cycles on the rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete. The purpose of this paper is to provide fundamental information about rebar corrosion under frost environment and improvement measures.

Design/methodology/approach

The related elastic modulus and compressive strength of different concrete specimens were measured after different freeze-thaw cycles. The accelerated rebar corrosion test was carried out after different freeze-thaw cycles; additionally, the value of calomel half-cell potential was determined. The actual rebar corrosion appearance was checked to prove the accuracy of the results of calomel half-cell potential.

Findings

The results show that frost damage aggravates the rebar corrosion rate and degree under freeze-thaw environment; furthermore, the results become more obvious with the freeze-thaw cycles increasing. Mixing the air-entrained agent into fresh concrete to prepare air-entrained concrete, increasing the cover thickness and processing the surface of concrete with a waterproofing agent can significantly improve the resistance to rebar corrosion. From the actual appearance of rebar corrosion, the results of calomel half-cell potential can well reflect the actual rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete.

Originality/value

The durability of reinforced concrete is mainly determined on chloride penetration that brings about rebar corrosion in chloride environments. Furthermore, the degradation of concrete durability becomes more serious in the harsh environment. As the concrete exposure to the freeze-thaw cycles environment, the freeze-thaw cycles accelerate the concrete damage, and the penetration of chloride into the concrete becomes easier because of the growing pore and crack sizes. In addition, rebar corrosion caused by chloride is one of the major forms of environmental attack on reinforced concrete. The tests conducted in this paper will describe the rebar corrosion in reinforced concrete under freeze-thaw environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Jinliang Liu, Yanmin Jia, Guanhua Zhang and Jiawei Wang

In the freeze-thaw zone, the pre-stressed concrete of bridge structure will be damaged by freezing-thawing, the bearing capacity of structure will decrease and the safety…

Abstract

Purpose

In the freeze-thaw zone, the pre-stressed concrete of bridge structure will be damaged by freezing-thawing, the bearing capacity of structure will decrease and the safety will be affected. The purpose of this paper is to establish the time-dependent resistance degradation model of structure in the freeze-thaw zone, and analysis the structural reliability and remaining service life in different freeze-thaw zones.

Design/methodology/approach

First, according to the theory of structural design, a calculation model of the resistance of pre-stressed concrete structures in f freeze-thaw zone is established. Second, the time-dependent resistance model was verified by the test beam bending failure test results done by the research group, which has been in service for 20 years in freeze-thaw zone. Third, using JC algorithm in MATLAB to calculate the index on the reliability of pre-stressed concrete structure in frozen thawed zones, forecasting the s remaining service life of structure.

Findings

First, the calculation model of the resistance of pre-stressed concrete structures in freeze-thaw zone is accurate and it has excellent applicability. Second, the structural resistance deterioration time in Wet-Warm-Frozen Zone is the earliest. Third, once the pre-stressed reinforcement rusts, the structural reliability index will reach limit value quickly. Finally, the remaining service life of structure meets the designed expectation value only in a few of freeze-thaw zones in China.

Originality/value

The research will provide a reference for the design on the durability of a pre-stressed concrete structure in the freeze-thaw zone. In order to verify the security of pre-stressed concrete structures in the freeze-thaw zone, engineers can use the model presented in this paper for durability checking, it has an important significance.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Ning Wang, Haitao Zhang and Huizhong Xiong

In order to unravel the evolution of microstructure characteristics and the change of mechanical properties of bituminous mixture in the freezing and thawing environment…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to unravel the evolution of microstructure characteristics and the change of mechanical properties of bituminous mixture in the freezing and thawing environment in cold region, this study starts from macroscopic experiments and analyzes the changes in mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures before and after freezing and thawing in detail. On this basis, the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture under the action of external forces (before and after freezing and thawing) is simulated through the combination macroscopic and microscopic methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The climate in China exhibits high complexity and diversity, divided into five zones based on the temperature difference from south to north. Considering that the significant effect of geography and natural climate on the design, construction and maintenance of asphalt pavement, the criterion for the road construction at different areas should be highly different.

Findings

The results show that the mechanical properties of asphalt mixture greatly decrease due to the influence of freeze-thaw, and the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture (several representative particle sizes were selected through experiments) is obviously observed because of the action of external force. By analyzing the variation of several key particle sizes after freezing-thawing cycle, the gradation standard of asphalt mixture aggregate suitable for cold area was obtained. The research results have certain theoretical and practical value for the design and application of asphalt mixture in cold area.

Originality/value

The results show that the mechanical properties of asphalt mixture greatly decrease due to the influence of freeze-thaw, and the displacement of key particles in the structure of asphalt mixture (several representative particle sizes were selected through experiments) is obviously observed because of the action of external force. By analyzing the variation of several key particle sizes after freezing-thawing cycle, the gradation standard of asphalt mixture aggregate suitable for cold area was obtained. The research results have certain theoretical and practical value for the design and application of asphalt mixture in cold area.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Alex Wegmann

Epoxy resin emulsions are used in water‐based coatings for surface protection of concrete and metal. An unfortunate drawback for most emulsions is their poor freeze‐thaw

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Abstract

Epoxy resin emulsions are used in water‐based coatings for surface protection of concrete and metal. An unfortunate drawback for most emulsions is their poor freeze‐thaw stability. Epoxy emulsions are indeed unstable below 0°C, ‐5°C or ‐10°C, depending on the type of resin. In this study, other factors capable of influencing the freeze‐thaw behaviour were investigated: e.g. solids content, amount and type of emulsifiers, solvents, protective colloids. Discusses methods for testing the quality of thawed emulsions as well as the physics involved in their destabilization. Freeze‐thaw performance can be improved by different means but mostly not without sacrificing resistance properties of the coating. Therefore, avoiding temperatures below 0°C is still the best advice.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

H’mida Hamidane, Ayman Ababneh, Ali Messabhia and Yunping Xi

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for predicting the chloride ingress into concrete structures, with an emphasis on the low temperature range where…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for predicting the chloride ingress into concrete structures, with an emphasis on the low temperature range where freeze-thaw cycles may cause damage.

Design/methodology/approach

The different phenomena that contribute to the rate and amount of transported chlorides into concrete, i.e., heat transfer, moisture transport and chloride diffusion are modeled using a two-dimensional nonlinear time dependent finite element method. In modeling the chloride transport, a modified version of Fick’s second law is used, in which processes of diffusion and convection due to water movement are taken into account. Besides, the effect of freeze-thaw cycles is directly incorporated in the governing equation and linked to temperature variation using a coupling term that is determined in this study. The proposed finite element model and its associated program are capable of handling pertinent material nonlinearities and variable boundary conditions that simulate real exposure situations.

Findings

The numerical performance of the model was examined through few examples to investigate its ability to simulate chloride penetration under freeze-thaw cycles and its sensitivity to factors controlling freeze-thaw damage. It was also proved that yearly temperature variation models to be used in service life assessment should take into account its cyclic nature to obtain realistic predictions.

Originality/value

The model proved promising and suitable for chloride penetration in cold climates.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

A.E. Richardson

From recent laboratory research monofilament and fibrillated polypropylene fibres were used in structural concrete and have been tested against 150 freeze/thaw cycles. The…

Abstract

From recent laboratory research monofilament and fibrillated polypropylene fibres were used in structural concrete and have been tested against 150 freeze/thaw cycles. The findings show monofilament fibres to play a significant role in protecting the concrete matrix against the forces encountered. External cube integrity was shown to be a poor indicator of structural condition. A significant aspect of the work is the range of tests applied to the freeze/thaw concrete cubes against the control sample. Strong evidence of condition was obtained from ultrasonic, compressive strength and weight loss. Surface scaling was not a satisfactory indication of the structural condition of the concrete.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 21 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Svetlana Butylina, Ossi Martikka and Timo Kärki

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of water immersion‐freeze‐thaw treatment on the physical properties, flexural strength (FS) and morphology of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of water immersion‐freeze‐thaw treatment on the physical properties, flexural strength (FS) and morphology of wood‐polypropylene composites containing pigments.

Design/methodology/approach

Wood‐polypropylene composites containing brown, green and grey pigments were compounded in a conical twin‐screw extruder. A composite manufactured without any pigment addition was used as a reference. The amount of pelletized wood, polypropylene and coupling agent (MAPP) was kept constant. The moisture content, thickness swelling (TS), FS and surface colour of the composites were measured before and after water immersion‐freeze‐thaw cycling. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the composites.

Findings

FS and dimensional stability were reduced after exposure to water immersion‐freeze‐thaw cycling for all composites. The surface properties (colour and roughness) of the composites also changed after exposure to water immersion‐freeze‐thaw cycling. The degree of change depended on the presence of pigment and the type of polypropylene (neat or recycled), however.

Research limitations/implications

This study is a part of an ongoing study on weathering of wood‐polymer composites (WPC) containing different additives. The results of this study were obtained from accelerated laboratory experiments.

Practical implications

Inorganic pigments are widely used as additives in plastics, because they have an excellent UV absorption, good IR‐reflective properties and heat stability. The research revealed that metal‐containing pigments had an effect on degradation in quality of wood‐polypropylene composites exposed to water immersion‐freeze‐thaw cyclic treatment. The addition of metal‐containing pigments to composite formulation resulted in a higher susceptibility of wood‐polypropylene composites to water absorption, and as a consequence to a higher drop of FS compared to composites made without pigment. The polymer matrix plays an important role in the protection of WPC against weathering.

Originality/value

This paper will help in understanding possible problems in the durability of wood‐polypropylene composites compounded with metal‐based pigments when they are exposed to water immersion‐freeze‐thaw cyclic treatment.

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

W.H. Wang, Q.W. Wang, H. Xiao and J.J. Morrell

To investigate the effects of moisture and freeze‐thaw cycling on the absorption and flexural properties of rice‐hull‐polyethylene (PE) composite.

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the effects of moisture and freeze‐thaw cycling on the absorption and flexural properties of rice‐hull‐polyethylene (PE) composite.

Design/methodology/approach

Various rice‐hull‐PE composite specimens were submerged in water at various temperatures and subjected to various freeze‐thaw cycles. Various characterisations including water absorption, bending strength and stiffness, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope imaging were performed.

Findings

High temperatures accelerated the water sorption of the rice‐hull‐PE composite and increased the equilibrium moisture content. The uncoated surface was not significantly more easily permeated than the coated surface, contrary to expectations. However, more water was absorbed from the cut surface than from the original extruded surface. This was attributed to the tiny checks left on the surface by the sawing action, which indicated the importance of protecting the original surface layer from scraping or other damage. Bending strength and stiffness of the rice‐hull‐PE composite decreased significantly after the freeze‐thaw cycling treatment. The modulus of elasticity decreased more than the modulus of rupture. Compared to the effect of water immersion alone, freeze‐thaw cycling treatment slightly accelerated this decrease.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study were obtained from accelerated laboratory experiments. Further research could be carried out to evaluate the properties of this rice‐hull‐PE composite in practical application.

Practical implications

The research revealed a possible degradation in quality when the rice‐hull‐PE composite is used in moist or freezing conditions. The resin layer on the extruded surface provides an important protection.

Originality/value

In China, rice‐hull powder is widely used as a reinforcing component in plastic composite. However, the durability of rice‐hull/PE composites has rarely been investigated. Results from this study will help users apply rice‐hull‐PE composites correctly and encourage the development of other agro‐fibre/polymer materials.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Wuman Zhang, Jingsong Zhang and Shuhang Chen

Ethylene glycol (EG) solution is a common deicing fluid of the aircrafts. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) used in the runway and the parking apron will be subjected to…

Abstract

Purpose

Ethylene glycol (EG) solution is a common deicing fluid of the aircrafts. Roller compacted concrete (RCC) used in the runway and the parking apron will be subjected to freeze-thaw cycles in EG solution. The purpose of this study is to find whether RCC can be damaged by the action of freeze-thaw cycles or long-term immersion in EG solution.

Design/methodology/approach

Freeze-thaw cycles test and immersion test in EG solution by weight were used to accelerate the degradation of RCC. A compression test and a three-point bending test were carried out in the laboratory to evaluate mechanical properties of RCC. The changes of microstructure were monitored by using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.

Findings

The results show that RCC specimens have little weight change in both freeze-thaw cycles test and immersion test. The dynamic modulus of elasticity, the compressive strength and the flexural strength of RCC with 250 freeze-thaw cycles in EG solution are decreased by 4.2, 15 and 39 per cent, respectively. The compressive strength is decreased by 35 per cent after 12 months of immersion in EG solution. Micro-cracks occur and increase with the increase in freeze-thaw cycles and immersion test.

Originality/value

The mass ratio of the elements in the crystal is very close to the proportion of elements in CaC2O4 (C:O:Ca = 1:1.26:1.6). More attention should be paid to using EG in practical engineering because both the freeze-thaw cycles and the complete immersion in EG solution damage the mechanical properties of RCC.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2019

Wang Lijun and Li Qingbo

Asphalt mixture is widely used in road engineering, and its performance research is particularly important. But the study of asphalt mixture performance needs a lot of…

Abstract

Purpose

Asphalt mixture is widely used in road engineering, and its performance research is particularly important. But the study of asphalt mixture performance needs a lot of tests, such as bending test, splitting test and so on. It also needs a lot of time and material resources. The purpose of this paper is to obtain test results through finite element numerical simulation, and show that this saves a lot of manpower and material resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The mechanical parameters of the material are obtained through uniaxial compression tests. The true stress and plastic strain are calculated according to nominal stress and nominal strain. A constitutive model is established. Then a finite element model of asphalt mixture is established. The numerical simulation and performance study of asphalt mixture bending test is carried out. At the same time, according to the above method, the asphalt mixture is subjected to freeze-thaw cycles and ultraviolet aging, and the mechanical parameters are obtained by a uniaxial compression test. A numerical model is established to simulate the bending characteristics of asphalt mixture after freeze-thaw cycles and ultraviolet aging.

Findings

A uniaxial compression test of the asphalt mixture is conducted to obtain nominal stress and nominal strain. The true stress and plastic strain are calculated and the elastic modulus is established with Poisson’s ratio as the elastic part, and the true stress and plastic strain as the plastic part. The model is constructed, the finite element model is established and the bending test is numerically simulated. The verified trend is consistent, and the method is feasible. According to the above method, the concrete is subjected to freeze-thaw cycle and ultraviolet aging, and the finite element model is established by using uniaxial compression test to obtain parameters. The bending test is simulated and the verification method is feasible. With the increase of the number of freeze-thaw cycles and the increase of UV aging time, the maximum bending strain of SBS modified asphalt mixture and matrix asphalt mixture is decreased .The low-temperature performance of SBS modified asphalt mixture is better than that of matrix asphalt mixture.

Originality/value

A method of simulating asphalt mixture test by finite element method numerical simulation is established. By using this method, the performance of asphalt mixture is studied, which saves a lot of manpower and material resources. At the same time, this method can be used to study the characteristics of asphalt mixture under complex conditions.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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