Search results

1 – 10 of over 77000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2013

Michael Shaw

This chapter makes the case that school-related material and informally used content need to be considered equally important as complete, higher education (HE)-level…

Abstract

This chapter makes the case that school-related material and informally used content need to be considered equally important as complete, higher education (HE)-level courses when exploring how open education (OE) is used in practice. It provides a brief overview of several key HE and school-related OE projects, what they offer, their approximate reach and the significance of established brands, with short case studies of TES Connect, Khan Academy and TESSA. It also examines the evidence of impact on students, and how some of the projects counter criticism that they promote ‘closed’ forms of traditional, instructor-led education through blended and flipped teaching approaches or peer-led learning.

The purpose of the chapter is to explore how OE sites are used in practice by examining some of the key projects that provide free materials to students and teachers.

This chapter provides an overview of some of the biggest OE providers online, drawing particular attention to those that provide school-level material instead of just HE-level resources. It examines the motives of open education resources (OER) users, and provides mini case studies of a selection of HE-level and school-level projects. It also explores the reach and impact of the schemes, the significance of brand and the criticism that they simply provide a new form of ‘closed’ education. This provides a handy overview of key OE projects and an introduction to the significance of school-related projects. It should be a source of material of special interest to those involved in teacher training or development, or in OE from either a school or a university.

This chapter makes an original case for school teachers to have greater recognition in the discussion about OE, and reveals a finding from an international poll of more than a quarter of million teachers who use OE resources with their students.

Findings of this chapter indicate that the significance of school-level OE has been underestimated, given the extent of user-generated teaching material available and teachers’ powers to multiply the reach of a single downloaded resource to several classes of students.

The overview however is not exhaustive, and the author stresses the problematic nature of attempting to compare projects that deliver different kinds of content for different contexts.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Asankha Pallegedara and Ajantha Sisira Kumara

Compared to other neighbouring South Asian countries, Sri Lanka performs well in terms of education outcomes. Education is provided by the government for free from primary…

Abstract

Purpose

Compared to other neighbouring South Asian countries, Sri Lanka performs well in terms of education outcomes. Education is provided by the government for free from primary school level to the first-degree University level, yet households’ private education expenses are steadily increasing over time. Thus, this paper analyses trends and determinants of household private education expenditures using the country-wide micro-data from 1990 to 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 1990/91, 2002 and 2012/13 data along with annual school census data, this paper examines the relationship between private education expenditure patterns and the observed changes of reported both demand-side and supply-side factors. In particular, the present paper analyses determinants of household private education expenditures within the two-part model econometric framework by taking into account location and time fixed-effects.

Findings

The results show that trend of spending privately for education is increasing over time with rising household income. Rural, Tamil and Islamic households and those headed by less-educated members are less likely to spend privately for education. The results also confirm that improved-supply-side factors can significantly lower the household burden arising from out-of-pocket education expenditure.

Research limitations/implications

Unavailability of panel data and missing data on several districts due to security concerns are limitations of the study.

Social implications

The trend of increasing private education expenses has implications on equity concerns of education in Sri Lanka, and it can undermine the purpose of free public education policy.

Originality/value

To our knowledge, this is the first study for Sri Lanka that examines patterns and determinants of private education expenditures using nationwide data for last two decades. This paper applies novel econometric techniques to account for various issues in household survey data analysis.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-07-2019-0445

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Manivannan Anand Shankar Raja and Tomy K. Kallarakal

The purpose of this paper is to understand the outcomes of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the light of COVID-19 concerning the students of higher educational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the outcomes of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in the light of COVID-19 concerning the students of higher educational institutions (HEIs) in India. The COVID-19 has disrupted the normal teaching-learning role across the world and has put everyone in a nightmare. HEIs are now requesting students to take up MOOCs to explore and attain knowledge and the same is even followed by the corporate institutions. MOOCs are one of the crisis management solutions to ensure that education is continuous and not disrupted.

Design/methodology/approach

The data included in this research has been collected from students of HEIs across India using a convenient sampling method. The collected data was exposed to a factor analysis using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique to reduce multiple dimensions.

Findings

The various stakeholders such as the government, HEIs and the MOOC providers have to play a crucial role in developing intellectual human assets for the nation’s growth and progression by extending flexible and cost-effective learning facilities. Education should be free to boost up the learning motivation, and hence it is the responsibility of the stakeholders to provide few courses free of cost, which will increase the rate of enrolment and student participation.

Research limitations/implications

From the research, it is well understood that MOOCs are useful to keep oneself updated with the market and industry trends especially when the world is focusing on business analytics, artificial intelligence and other technologically driven topics and concepts.

Practical implications

The present study contributes to the growing body of evidence that MOOCs play an important role in providing flexibility in learning. In the future, if there are similar crisis, which will disrupt education, then the best alternative will be MOOC through which many stakeholders will benefit. Education should be free to boost up the learning motivation, and hence it is the responsibility of the stakeholders to provide few courses free of cost, which will increase the rate of enrolment and student participation.

Social implications

Education is a service for the society which will have a long-term positive impact on improving the standard of living of the people. Hence, MOOCs can be one of the educational elements to provide learning opportunities to all age groups.

Originality/value

This study has explored the perception of MOOCs among the students of HEIs in India in the COVID-19 pandemic. The fresh data collected from the students is a reflection of their experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. Indeed, it is quite surprising to know that majority of the respondents have arranged to learn during the pandemic, which shows the thirst and urge to learn. Digital technology and tools are welcomed and accepted by the student community.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Elizabeth Heger Boyle and Hollie Nyseth

Support for child rights is widespread, and the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely ratified treaty ever. Surprisingly, however, we find that…

Abstract

Support for child rights is widespread, and the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely ratified treaty ever. Surprisingly, however, we find that child rights discourse is not integrated as a core element of mobilization around either the eradication of female genital cutting practices or the provision of free primary education. Analyzing history and the content of child rights claims related to these issues, we unpack this puzzle. In the process, we illuminate the constraints on mobilizing strategies in general and some difficulties inherent in using child rights discourse in particular.

Details

Special Issue Human Rights: New Possibilities/New Problems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-252-4

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 January 2009

Zhikui Niu

By reviewing the related literature on the Jiaoshi Pinren Zhi (JPZ) system, this paper seeks to indicate that the implementation of JPZ not only has led to domestic brain…

Abstract

Purpose

By reviewing the related literature on the Jiaoshi Pinren Zhi (JPZ) system, this paper seeks to indicate that the implementation of JPZ not only has led to domestic brain drain and the imbalance of teachers' qualities between different areas and schools, but also has violated children's equal rights to education guaranteed by the Constitution and educational laws in PR China.

Design/methodology/approach

By analysing national policies and laws and some cases, the paper points out that the reforms on teachers' employment causes the imbalance of teachers' qualities between different areas and schools and it is against the principle of children's equal rights to education guaranteed by the Constitution and some educational laws in China.

Findings

Since the late 1980s, many reform initiatives have been launched in the context of the transition from planned economy to market economy in China.

Originality/value

The reforms on the teachers' employment system from “Tongyi Fenpei” (TF, a system of unified placement for all graduates) and the life‐time employment system to JPZ (a free contract employment system) is one of the important reform initiatives.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

Few issues in recent times have so provoked debate and dissention within the library field as has the concept of fees for user services. The issue has aroused the passions…

Abstract

Few issues in recent times have so provoked debate and dissention within the library field as has the concept of fees for user services. The issue has aroused the passions of our profession precisely because its roots and implications extend far beyond the confines of just one service discipline. Its reflection is mirrored in national debates about the proper spheres of the public and private sectors—in matters of information generation and distribution, certainly, but in a host of other social ramifications as well, amounting virtually to a debate about the most basic values which we have long assumed to constitute the very framework of our democratic and humanistic society.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1979

Dusan Savicévić

The development of human society and of culture shows that changes in society and social relations have not always been followed by changes of the same intensity in…

Abstract

The development of human society and of culture shows that changes in society and social relations have not always been followed by changes of the same intensity in education. If education lags behind the social changes in a greater measure, then the “crises” in education are deeper and social intervention is more necessary. However much we may try to regard changes in education individually, they are in the final instance a reflection of the state and changes in society, because instruction and education are a part of social labour. They are a function of society and appear as one of the moving forces of its development, or, on the contrary, as a factor of maintaining outgrown relations. Therefore, the character of instruction and education is determined by the goals which society puts before them. The conclusion derived from this is that changes in education, in its system and organisation cannot be successfully carried out independently from changes which occur in society.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 9 April 2021

Enakshi Sengupta and Patrick Blessinger

The Sustainable Development Goals promoted by United Nations (UN) advocate that education is a fundamental right for human beings, and free universal primary education

Abstract

The Sustainable Development Goals promoted by United Nations (UN) advocate that education is a fundamental right for human beings, and free universal primary education should be accessible to all regardless of gender or country of origin. Education on human rights aims to provide information on fundamental rights, equality and being non-discriminatory in nature by having its universal appeal. Learners should be exposed to human rights education and to relate it to their cultural context and build on real-life experience. Students should be encouraged to foster participation in creating a learning environment free from fear and upholds empowerment and human rights values. Universities and faculty members play a vital role in imparting education that helps build a strong foundation of society where people are respected and treated equally and gets equal opportunity for upward social mobility while protecting the dignity of such rights. This book addresses the role of education to uplift people out of poverty and oppression by imparting social justice education at the institution and the community level. Chapters are dedicated to human rights education which talks about fostering a sense of awareness among learners about the dignity of human life through various interventional programs. Such rights are discussed with respect to migrant workers, foster youth and prisoners in different countries and how students from all levels can benefit from such education.

Details

International Perspectives in Social Justice Programs at the Institutional and Community Levels
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-489-9

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 January 2020

Yanhui Pang

Recently with increased legislative support and evidence-based studies on the importance of education for children with disabilities in China, special education programs…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently with increased legislative support and evidence-based studies on the importance of education for children with disabilities in China, special education programs and intervention and rehabilitation services have received more and more attention. There are limited studies on special education programs for children with disabilities located in China’s rural areas. This paper aims to select one special education program in China’s northeast rural area with a special focus on its curriculum design, accommodative services and teacher qualifications. Recommendations were provided on how to modify the curriculum to meet each child’s special needs, increase social interaction among children, increase teacher qualifications and improve teacher family collaboration.

Design/methodology/approach

The participating program serves orphans and children with disabilities between 6 and 18 years old and provides them 9-year free education, along with free textbooks, uniforms, food and boarding. Currently, there are approximately 100 students and 40 teachers, one director and one nurse. The teacher/staff and student ratio is 1:3. Data were collected through classroom observation and interviews. Afterward, the interview data were transcribed. Data were analyzed following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step approach. The researcher reviewed the collected data, then coded the data and reviewed, refined and revised the codes, and finally themes and sub-themes were identified with quotations that support each theme/sub-theme.

Findings

The identified themes are accommodations, education plan and curriculum and teacher qualifications. Accommodations include, but are not limited to, visual and hearing aids. National unity textbooks were adopted, along with national syllabus objectives, as a guideline for instruction and evaluation of child progress. Teachers also adjust curriculum-based students’ individual needs. All teachers hold an associate degree in special education, and those who teach specials hold a higher degree in the specialty area. Given that there is no speech language pathologist, physical therapist, or occupational therapist, teachers with rich working experiences in the related field serve as special professionals.

Research limitations/implications

The current research reports the program design, accommodations for children with disabilities, curriculum and syllabus, parent/guardian role and teacher qualifications in the selected school. Given that the current study focuses on only one school located in the rural area of China’s northeast, it may represent special education programs in rural China, but it is hard to be generalized to provide a big picture of China’s special education programs in more developed, metropolitan areas.

Practical implications

The selected school offers accommodative services to students with disabilities; adjusts its curriculum to make it developmentally appropriate; and offers educational, medical and rehabilitation services to promote student development to the maximum. The selected school should improve teacher quality, increase social interaction between children with and without disabilities, modify the curriculum to cater to individuals with different severities of disabilities and increase family professional collaboration.

Originality/value

There is limited study on special education programs for young children with disabilities in China’s rural area. The current study fills this gap and studies a special education school that offers services to children as young as six years old located in a small town in the northeast of China. The special focus of the study includes program curriculum, accommodations, rehabilitation and intervention services and teacher qualifications in this program.

Details

Journal for Multicultural Education, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-535X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 77000