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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Jan Vanfleteren, Thomas Loeher, Mario Gonzalez, Frederick Bossuyt, Thomas Vervust, Ingrid De Wolf and Michal Jablonski

In the past 15 years stretchable electronic circuits have emerged as a new technology in the domain of assembly, interconnections and sensor circuits and assembly technologies. In…

1764

Abstract

Purpose

In the past 15 years stretchable electronic circuits have emerged as a new technology in the domain of assembly, interconnections and sensor circuits and assembly technologies. In the meantime a wide variety of processes with the use of many different materials have been explored in this new field. The purpose of the current contribution is for the authors to present an approach for stretchable circuits which is inspired by conventional rigid and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) technology. Two variants of this technology are presented: stretchable circuit board (SCB) and stretchable mould interconnect (SMI).

Design/methodology/approach

Similarly as in PCB 17 or 35 μm thick sheets of electrodeposited or rolled‐annealed Cu are structured to form the conductive tracks, and off‐the‐shelf, standard packaged, rigid components are assembled on the Cu contact pads using lead‐free solder materials and reflow processes. Stretchability is obtained by shaping the Cu tracks not as straight lines, like in normal PCB design, but as horseshoe shaped meanders. Instead of rigid or flexible board materials, elastic materials, predominantly PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), are used to embed the conductors and the components, thus serving as circuit carrier. The authors include some mechanical modeling and design considerations, aimed at the optimization of the build‐up and combination of elastic, flexible and rigid materials towards minimal stress and maximum mechanical reliability in the structures. Furthermore, details on the two production processes are given, reliability findings are summarised, and a number of functional demonstrators, realized with the technologies, are described.

Findings

Key conclusions of the work are that: supporting the metal meanders with a flexible carrier prior to embedding in an elastic substrate substantially increases the reliability under mechanical stress (cyclic uniaxial stretching) of the stretchable interconnect and the transition areas between rigid components and stretchable interconnects are the zones which are most sensitive to failure under mechanical stress. Careful design and technology implementation is necessary, providing a gradual transition from rigid to flexible to stretchable parts of the circuit.

Originality/value

Technologies for stretchable circuits, with the same level of similarity to standard PCB manufacturing and assembly, and thus with the same high potential for transfer to an industrial environment and for mass production, have not been shown before.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2009

Mario Gonzalez, Fabrice Axisa, Frederick Bossuyt, Yung‐Yu Hsu, Bart Vandevelde and Jan Vanfleteren

The purpose of this paper is to present an update on the progress of the design and reliability of stretchable interconnections for electronic circuits.

2108

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an update on the progress of the design and reliability of stretchable interconnections for electronic circuits.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element modelling (FEM) is used to analyse the physical behaviour of stretchable interconnects under different loading conditions. The fatigue life of a copper interconnect embedded into a silicone matrix has been evaluated using the Coffin‐Manson relation and FEM.

Findings

The mechanical properties of the substrate and the design of the metal interconnection play an important role on the fatigue lifetime of circuit. In the case of copper embedded into a PDMS Sylgard 186, more than 2,500 tensile cycles have been observed for a periodic deformation of 10 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

Reliability results are limited and need further work to create a more accurate empirical model to estimate the lifetime of stretchable interconnections.

Originality/value

The combined use of FEM and experimental analysis enable a more reliable design of the stretchable metal interconnections. The proposed horseshoe design offers the benefit of reduced permanent damage during elongation.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Yung‐Yu Hsu, Mario Gonzalez, Frederick Bossuyt, Fabrice Axisa, Jan Vanfleteren, Bart Vandevelde and Ingrid de Wolf

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate electromechanical properties of a new stretchable interconnect design for “fine pitch” applications in stretchable electronics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate electromechanical properties of a new stretchable interconnect design for “fine pitch” applications in stretchable electronics.

Design/methodology/approach

A patterned metal interconnect with a zigzag shape is adhered on an elastomeric substrate. In situ home‐built electromechanical measurement is carried out by the four‐probe technique. Finite element method is used to analyze the deformation behavior of a zigzag shape interconnect under uniaxial tensile loading.

Findings

The electrical resistance remains constant until metal breakdown at elongations beyond 40 percent. There is no significant local necking in either the transverse or the thickness direction at the metal breakdown area as shown by both scanning electron microscopy micrographs and resistance measurements. Micrographs and simulation results show that a debonding occurs due to the local twisting of a metal interconnect, out‐of‐plane peeling, and strain localized at the crest of a zigzag structure.

Originality/value

In this paper, the zigzag shape is, for the first time, proven as a promising design for stretchable interconnects, especially for fine pitch applications.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Jan Vanfleteren

90

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 May 2023

Małgorzata Skrzek-Lubasińska and Radosław Malik

This article aims to review critical thinking (CT) as a future skill in business.

2029

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to review critical thinking (CT) as a future skill in business.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed two research methods: science mapping analysis based on bibliometric keyword co-occurrence data and systematic literature review following PRISMA guidelines. The application of two distinctive research methods meant that we could obtain a broad picture thematic overview as well as a detailed, fine-grained insight into the content of CT business research.

Findings

Research in CT in business studies is dominated by themes related to education, university and learning that far outweigh CT business application, which focuses on three research axes. These are specific business functions (e.g. accounting, marketing, human resources and identifying business opportunities), certain skills used in business (e.g. decision-making and creativity) and other business-related topics (including ethics, stakeholder relations and individual employee performance).

Practical implications

The article identifies new research gaps related to the link between CT and business performance, a firm’s ability to innovate and company characteristics. Moreover, the article highlights that CT positively influences business decision-making under the influence of cognitive biases and heuristics.

Originality/value

The article provides the first literature review on CT in business research. It uses a novel method of science mapping analysis to show unbiased algorithmic-based insight into the structure of the research, followed by a systematic literature review.

Details

Central European Management Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2658-2430

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2024

Rahul Sindhwani, Abhishek Behl, Vijay Pereira, Yama Temouri and Sushmit Bagchi

The COVID-19 pandemic has showcased the lack of resilience found in the global value chains (GVCs) of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Existing evidence shows that MNEs have only…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has showcased the lack of resilience found in the global value chains (GVCs) of multinational enterprises (MNEs). Existing evidence shows that MNEs have only recently and slowly started recovering and attempting to rebuild the resilience of their GVCs. This paper analyzes the challenges/inhibitors faced by MNEs in building their resilience through their GVCs.

Design/methodology/approach

A four-stage hybrid model was used to identify the interrelationship among the identified inhibitors and to distinguish the most critical ones by ranking them. In the first stage, we employed a modified total interpretive structural modeling (m-TISM) approach to determine the inter-relationship among the inhibitors. Additionally, we identified the inhibitors' driving power and dependency by performing a matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC) analysis. In the second stage, we employed the Pythagorean fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (PF-AHP) method to determine the weight of the criteria. The next stage followed, in which we used the Pythagorean fuzzy combined compromise solution (PF-CoCoSo) method to rank the inhibitors. Finally, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the robustness of the framework we had built based on the criteria and inhibitors.

Findings

We find business sustainability to have the highest importance and managerial governance as the most critical inhibitor hindering the path to resilience. Based on these insights, we derive four research propositions aimed at strengthening the resilience of such GVCs, followed by their implications for theory and practice.

Originality/value

Our findings contribute to the extant literature by uncovering key inhibitors that act as barriers to MNEs. We link out our findings with a number of propositions that we derive, which may be considered for implementation by MNEs and could help them endow their GVCs with resilience.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2022

Yoan Adi Wibowo Sutomo, Corinthias P.M. Sianipar, Mrittika Basu, Kenichiro Onitsuka and Satoshi Hoshino

Tourism encompasses multiple activities along with actors, locations and roles involved. Thus, tourism development and planning should consider value-added activities that form a…

Abstract

Purpose

Tourism encompasses multiple activities along with actors, locations and roles involved. Thus, tourism development and planning should consider value-added activities that form a tourism value chain (TVC). In the literature, the conceptual and practical understanding of TVC is significantly diverse, making it challenging to comprehend the entire framework. This study aims to synthesize a general TVC framework.

Design/methodology/approach

This review uses the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol to search for and select relevant literature in two databases (Scopus® and Web of Science™). Covering six aspects (logic, scope, value, perspective, type and scale), this study systematically analyzes the selected empirical studies to synthesize a functional framework of TVC as the basis to explore insights for effective TVC practices.

Findings

The results show that existing empirical studies have adopted four types of logic (supply logic, destination logic, global value chain and tourism global value chain), which complement each other in explaining the entire concept of TVC. Besides, the TVC concept is applicable on various scales and in different types of tourism with slight practical differences. Furthermore, values appear in various forms and offer benefits for suppliers and consumers as primary actors in TVC. Findings for the six aspects form tourism value webs as the functional framework of TVC.

Originality/value

This study offers a wide-ranging review of various empirically implemented TVC concepts for comprehensive TVC-based tourism development and planning. This review sets a theoretical foundation for future studies to improve the body of knowledge of TVC and tourism development and planning in general.

研究目的

旅游活动横跨多重行动者、地点及不同角色, 因此旅游的发展及规划需考虑各项加值活动, 进而组织旅游价值链(tourism value-chain, TVC)。综观学界对价值链的定义发现, 不同文献在概念上及操作上的理解差异甚大, 本研究之目标即为整合出一套可供一般化的价值链框架。

研究设计与方法

本研究由系统性文献分析出发, 提出旅游价值链的实用框架, 并以此为基础, 针对有效的旅游价值链实践提供洞见。本文检索两大学术资料库(Scopus® 与Web of Science™)之文献, 并以PRISMA 架构汇整后, 从六大面向进行整合:逻辑、范围、价值、视角、类型及规模。

研究发现

本研究发现过往研究采用了四种逻辑, 包含供给逻辑、目的地逻辑、全球价值链及旅游全球价值链。既有文献也证实, 旅游价值链的概念可以微调后应用在不同规模及类型的旅游研究。此外, 对于旅游价值链的主要行动者(也就是旅游服务的提供者和消费者)而言, 价值也会以不同类型呈现并为其带来利益。六个方面的调查结果形成了旅游价值网 (TVW) 作为 TVC 的概念框架

研究原创性与价值

本研究广泛回顾了应用旅游价值链概念的研究文献, 并建立全面性的理解框架, 期能为后续旅游价值链、旅游发展及规划相关研究提供知识基础。

Propósito

El turismo abarca múltiples actividades junto con los actores, los lugares y los roles involucrados. Por lo tanto, el desarrollo y la planificación del turismo deben tener en cuenta las actividades de valor añadido que forman una cadena de valor turístico (TVC). En la literatura, la comprensión conceptual y práctica de la TVC es significativamente diversa, lo que dificulta la comprensión de todo el marco. Este estudio pretende sintetizar un marco general de TVC.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Esta revisión emplea el protocolo PRISMA para buscar y seleccionar la literatura relevante en dos bases de datos (Scopus® y Web of Science™). Abarcando seis aspectos (lógica, alcance, valor, perspectiva, tipo y escala), este estudio analiza sistemáticamente los estudios empíricos seleccionados para sintetizar un marco funcional de la TVC como base para explorar las ideas para las prácticas efectivas de TVC.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran que los estudios empíricos existentes han adoptado cuatro tipos de lógica (lógica de la oferta, lógica del destino, cadena de valor global (CGV) y cadena de valor global del turismo (TGVC)), que se complementan entre sí para explicar el concepto completo de TVC. Además, el concepto de TVC es aplicable a varias escalas y en diferentes tipos de turismo con ligeras diferencias prácticas. Por otro lado, los valores aparecen de diversas formas y ofrecen beneficios para los proveedores y los consumidores como actores principales de la TVC. Los resultados de los seis aspectos conforman las redes de valor turístico (TVW) como marco funcional de la TVC.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio ofrece una amplia revisión de varios conceptos de TVC aplicados empíricamente para el desarrollo y la planificación del turismo basados en la TVC. Esta revisión establece una base teórica para que futuros estudios mejoren el conjunto de conocimientos sobre la TVC y el desarrollo y la planificación del turismo en general.

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