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The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether indirect police contacts through observational learning models impact students’ trust in the police and their…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether indirect police contacts through observational learning models impact students’ trust in the police and their perceptions of police bias.
The study is based on a survey at two public universities in the mid-western and southern regions of the USA (921 out of 1,089 responses were retained for this study). The empirical analysis relied on a principle component factor analysis and a multivariate regression analysis.
Results show that three observational learning models (live, verbal, and symbolic) significantly influence perceptions of the police. In particular, the symbolic model is significant regardless of students’ direct and indirect contact experiences with the police.
This study is the first to examine the modeling effects on attitudes toward the police applying the classic social learning theory developed by Albert Bandura. The results highlight the importance of indirect police contact experiences in shaping young citizens’ perceptions of the police.
Many individuals are concurrently eligible for multiple sources of government-reimbursed health care services (e.g. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Medicare)…
Many individuals are concurrently eligible for multiple sources of government-reimbursed health care services (e.g. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Medicare). Unclear is whether combined eligibility translates into increased access to care and/or improved outcomes of care. Alternatively continuity of care may suffer, promoting health inequalities when patients receive health services from multiple unrelated sources of care. The current study examines the impact of dual eligibility for government-reimbursed care on long-term outcomes of care for a population of veterans diagnosed with colorectal cancer and initially treated surgically at Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers.
Little conceptual and empirical effort has been directed toward differentiating high technology from low technology products, and identifying effective strategic…
Little conceptual and empirical effort has been directed toward differentiating high technology from low technology products, and identifying effective strategic alternatives for marketing technology‐based products. The purpose of this paper is to answer such fundamental questions as: what a high technology product is; what dimensions differentiate between high and low technology products and their marketing strategies; and what types of marketing strategies high technology companies should use. These issues are tackled from a contingency theory perspective with the assumption that marketing of high technology products, compared to that of low technology products, is influenced by different industry/market situations, and thus strategies should be designed and used differently. The paper reports the results from a survey of over 100 Australian firms, which examined the environment‐strategy‐performance link for low versus high technology‐based products. It discusses the implication of the results for marketers of high‐tech products.
Victim narratives consistent with anti-trafficking and anti-prostitution rhetoric leave little room for understanding agential labor in the sex industry, which profoundly…
Victim narratives consistent with anti-trafficking and anti-prostitution rhetoric leave little room for understanding agential labor in the sex industry, which profoundly impacts sex workers’ experiences in other domains. One such domain – academia – is often understood as antithetical to the “body work” of sex work. It is, after all, the domain of the mind. Drawing from my experiences as an undergraduate and graduate student as well as from my work as a sex worker, I use auto-ethnography to demonstrate the lasting impact of (1) mind/body dualisms, (2) the virgin/whore dichotomy, and (3) narratives of sexual danger on perceptions of legitimation and status for sex workers in academia. I also discuss implications for broader social concerns like legal policy.
The figures contained in these regulations were not intended, either literally or by implication, to be taken as standards for milk. A milk which contains less than 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat is not necessarily adulterated—one that contains 8·5 per cent. or more is not necessarily genuine. All that the regulations do is to move the onus of proof. In the case of the prosecution of a vendor of milk for a sample which contained 8·5 or more of solids‐not‐fat the Local Authority would have to prove that the sample was adulterated, in the case of a prosecution for a sample which contained less than 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat, the defendant, in order to escape conviction, would have to prove the milk to be genuine. The weight which has been given to this limit of 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat has varied considerably. There are those who appear to consider that it is almost an absolute minimum, and that any milk which contains less than this amount is almost certainly watered, whilst others attach little importance to this figure. It may be desirable to interpolate at this point the figures which have been obtained recently on the samples taken in the County of Lancaster. Since the beginning of the year 1930, 5,959 samples of milk have been examined, of this number 121, or 2·0 per cent., have contained less than 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat. By means of some of the methods which are described below each of these deficient samples has been examined for the presence of added water, and it has been found that 102 contained added water, whilst 19 were naturally poor. It follows, then, as far as these samples are concerned, that in the case of herds of cows, only 0·3 per cent. give milk containing less than 8·5 per cent. of solids‐not‐fat. From this it must of necessity follow that the limit of 8·5 is at least a very good sorting test. In fact it is far more likely to fail to detect slightly adulterated milks (containing, say, from 1 to 5 per cent. of added water) than it is to describe milks as adulterated which are in reality genuine but poor. Dr. J. F. Tocher, who holds the position of Public Analyst to many of the Scottish Counties, and who is a very outspoken critic of the methods adopted for the determination of added water, has written on this subject to a considerable extent. The following statement, which was made by him in his 1925 Report, has been brought to my notice § with the suggestion that it should be referred to in this report. Dr. Tocher writes:—“The general conclusion from these results is that it is quite unsound on the part of analysts to express a definite opinion that water has been added to milk, when a sample has been found to be below 8·5 per cent. in solids‐in‐fat.” If such a statement as this merely means that a milk is not necessarily watered if the percentage of solids‐not‐fat is below 8·5 it is, of course, not only correct, but absolutely unassailable; in fact, it is merely putting the limit of the Regulations into other words. To those, however, who are familiar with Dr. Tocher's other writings, it may appear that there is something more than this behind the words used. On many occasions in the past Dr. Tocher has stated categorically that it is not possible to prove by chemical or physical examination that a milk is or is not watered, and that all that an analyst can say is that the milk is below the limit, and leave the interpretation of the fact to others, the final evidence being obtained from those who have handled the milk. Apart from the fact that it is not usual to give undue weight to evidence obtained from a defendant it would be quite impossible to rely entirely on this source, for the reasons given in the following paragraph.
The question of Britain's entry into the Common Market would appear to have been resolved. For a time it did seem as if the Government was looking before it leapt, but if we can read the signs aright, only the controversy now remains. The implications of the Common Market, both political and economic, are largely unknown to the public and if recent events among French farmers are an indication, are not entirely acceptable to those already in it.
F. Taylor Ostrander had two courses from Henry C. Simons, Economics 201, Price Theory in a Competitive Economy and the Effects of Monopoly, and Economics 360, Public…
F. Taylor Ostrander had two courses from Henry C. Simons, Economics 201, Price Theory in a Competitive Economy and the Effects of Monopoly, and Economics 360, Public Finance. Ostrander’s and one other set of annotations of the Syllabus from Economics 201 and his notes from Economics 360 are presented below.
With profound regret we have to record the death of Colonel Charles Edward Cassal, F.I.C., who passed away on Dec. 22nd at his residence in London. The sad news has only reached us at the moment—when we are going to press. We hope to publish in the January issue an appreciation of his life, his remarkable abilities, his high minded and lofty nature, and the beneficent work which he achieved in the interests of the profession which he so conspicuously adorned. Colonel Cassal was the founder of “The British Food Journal,” and, in addition to his multifarious official duties, he occupied for fifteen years the position of Editor of the Journal.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibit schools from discriminating against otherwise qualified individuals with…
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibit schools from discriminating against otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities because of their impairments. The major difference between the two statutes is that the former applies only to recipients of federal funds, whereas the latter extends protections to those in the private sector. Otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities are those who have physical or mental impairments, which substantially limit one or more of their major life activities, a record of such impairments, or are regarded as having such impairments but who are capable of meeting all of a program's requirements in spite of their disabilities. In this chapter, the authors review the statutes' various requirements as they apply to both students and employees in the school setting. Specifically, using numerous court cases as examples, the chapter outlines the reasonable accommodations schools must provide to extend the benefits of their programs to individuals with disabilities in terms of providing services or employment. Furthermore, the chapter discusses the limitations on the types of accommodations schools must provide when doing so would place an excessive financial or administrative burden on the school board.