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Case study
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Frank Shipper and Richard C. Hoffman

This case has multiple theoretical linkages at the micro-organizational behavior level (e.g. job enrichment), but it is best analyzed and understood when examined at the…

Abstract

Theoretical basis

This case has multiple theoretical linkages at the micro-organizational behavior level (e.g. job enrichment), but it is best analyzed and understood when examined at the organizational level. Students will learn about shared entrepreneurship, high performance work systems, shared leadership and virtuous organizations, and how they can develop a sustainable competitive advantage.

Research methodology

The case was prepared using a qualitative approach. Data were collected via the following ways: literature search; organizational documents and published historical accounts; direct observations by a research team; and on-site audio recorded and transcribed individual and group interviews conducted by a research team (the authors) with organization members at multiple levels of the firm.

Case overview/synopsis

John Lewis Company has been in business since 1864. In 1929, it became the John Lewis Partnership (JLP) when the son of the founder sold a portion of the firm to the employees. In 1955, he sold his remaining interest to the employee/partners. JLP has a constitution and has a representative democracy governance structure. As the firm approaches the 100th anniversary of the trust, it is faced with multiple challenges. The partners are faced with the question – How to respond to the environmental turmoil?

Complexity academic level

This case has environmental issues – How to respond to competition, technological changes and environmental uncertainty and an internal issue – How can high performance work practices provide a sustainable competitive advantage? Both issues can be examined in strategic management courses after the students have studied traditionally managed companies. This case could also be used in human resource management courses.

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Case study
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Richard C. Hoffman, Wayne H. Decker and Frank Shipper

This case illustrates the rationale for adopting employee ownership, and difficulties in implementing employee empowerment beyond investment. In the beginning it focuses…

Abstract

Synopsis

This case illustrates the rationale for adopting employee ownership, and difficulties in implementing employee empowerment beyond investment. In the beginning it focuses on why Jerry Pritchett, one of the co-founders of Pritchett Controls, decided to convert it to an employee-owned company. In the body of the case, it details the efforts of the company to operate under its new ownership structure in an increasingly competitive environment. Although Pritchett established employee owners, only selected High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) practices have been implemented. The issue that reader must grapple with is whether other HPWS practices should be adopted or not.

Research methodology

Primary data were collected by interviewing eight managers including the current and former CEO at two of the firm’s three locations. Secondary data were used to supplement industry and competitive information.

Relevant courses and levels

Human resources courses, especially those that focus on strategic human resource management, organizational development, and how high performance organizations can be built, would be most appropriate for this case.

Theoretical bases

The primary theoretical foundations for this submission are shared entrepreneurship and HPWS. Knowledge of leadership, employee ownership, human resources, corporate governance, organizational culture and strategy would also be helpful in analyzing this case.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Frank Shipper, Joel Kincaid, Denise M. Rotondo and Richard C. Hoffman

Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between…

Abstract

Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and managerial effectiveness among three cultures. EI is conceptualized and measured as self‐other agreement concerning the use of managerial skills using data gathered under a 360‐degree feedback process. Three hypotheses relating to managerial self‐awareness of both interactive and controlling skills are examined using data from 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Malaysia. The two sets of managerial skills examined were found to be stable across the three national samples. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regressions, and contour plots were developed to aid interpretation. Support was found for positive relationships between effectiveness and EI (self‐awareness). This relationship was supported for interactive skills in the US and UK samples and for controlling skills in the Malaysian and UK samples. Self‐awareness of different managerial skills varied by culture. It appears that in low power distance (PD) cultures such as the United States and United Kingdom, self‐awareness of interactive skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness whereas in high PD cultures, such as Malaysia self‐awareness of controlling skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness. These findings are discussed along with the implications for future research.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Frank Shipper

Multiple initiatives have been taken to address the lack of managerial skills of MBA graduates since the Porter and McKibbin report. How effective or widespread these…

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2035

Abstract

Multiple initiatives have been taken to address the lack of managerial skills of MBA graduates since the Porter and McKibbin report. How effective or widespread these initiatives have been has been questioned. Before proceeding, 11 managerial skills were identified and tested for their relevance to performance. Support was found that nine of the 11 skills were associated with managerial performance. Why these two skills were not associated with performance was explored. To test for the effectiveness of the initiatives to teach managerial skills in MBA programs, multiple comparisons of the managerial skills of recent and past MBA graduates and other graduates were made. In general, the comparisons failed to find that MBAs have a significant advantage in managerial skills. Reasons for these findings are explored in the paper. In addition, the challenge this represents to MBA programs is also discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Richard C. Hoffman, Frank M. Shipper, Jeanette A. Davy and Denise M. Rotondo

– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

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1436

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 7,606 managers in 5 countries from a large multinational firm were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess all relationships simultaneously and reduce error effects.

Findings

The results support the cross-cultural validity of the model of managerial skills-effectiveness. Few cross-cultural differences were found. Interactive skills had greater positive impact on attitudes than initiating skills. Pressuring skills had a negative impact on attitudes. None of the skill sets were related to job performance.

Research limitations/implications

Using a single firm and industry to control for other cultural levels may limit the generalizability of the results. Only three skill sets were assessed and one coarse-grained measure of culture was used. These factors may account for the few cultural differences observed.

Practical implications

Training programs for managers going overseas should develop both interactive and initiating skills sets, as both had a positive impact on attitudes across cultures.

Originality/value

The model of managerial skills and effectiveness was validated across five cultures. The use of structural equation modeling ensures that the results are not an artifact of the measures and represents a more direct test for cross-cultural differences. Managing successfully across cultures may require fewer unique skills, with more emphasis placed on using basic management skills having positive impact.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Robert T. Rosti and Frank Shipper

Training programs are infrequently evaluated and when they are evaluated they often rely on pre‐experimental designs and feedback of the participants. This statement is…

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4845

Abstract

Training programs are infrequently evaluated and when they are evaluated they often rely on pre‐experimental designs and feedback of the participants. This statement is also true of management development programs based on 360 feedback. In this study the effects of a training program administered with 360 feedback are evaluated using pre‐ and post‐observations of the participants’ managerial skills in control and experimental groups. The results indicate that changes in individual skills could not be contributed to the training program, but that changes in the overall profiles of skills could. Why this could occur is discussed as well as suggestions for improving training evaluation.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 13 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Thomas J. Calo and Frank Shipper

The purpose of this research was to investigate a successful company, Atlas Container Corporation, that practices the values of egalitarianism, democracy, mutuality, and…

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate a successful company, Atlas Container Corporation, that practices the values of egalitarianism, democracy, mutuality, and transparency. Moreover, this research sought to identify the human resource policies and practices (HRPP) used to reinforce these values and create a distinctive culture.

An ethnographic approach was used to produce a case study. Interviews, observations, archives, and documents were all part of the collected data.

The HRPP were distinctively different from the normal practices in the industry. Thus, these differences appeared to explain its success.

While this case study focused only on a single organization, it provides an illustration of the importance of reflecting the organization’s culture through its HRPP, and of how they could operate synergistically for optimal impact.

This case illustrated how a company following a set of HRPP contrary to industry norms could succeed. In addition, it pinpointed some areas where HRPP either reduced costs or made the company more responsive to customer needs.

This case illustrated that a company can be both humanistic and efficient. Moreover, it demonstrated a number of ways that the financial success of the company could be shared with its employees.

A review of the literature found that companies that practiced a progressive set of HRPP and made decisions based on democratic principles are rare. Thus, knowledge of such a company should be valuable.

Details

Employee Ownership and Employee Involvement at Work: Case Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-520-7

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Abstract

Details

Employee Ownership and Employee Involvement at Work: Case Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-520-7

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Daphne Berry and Takao Kato

Abstract

Details

Employee Ownership and Employee Involvement at Work: Case Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-520-7

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Marc D. Street, Vera L. Street, Thomas J. Calo and Frank Shipper

The purpose of this research was to investigate how Mid South Building Supply, a 100% employee-owned company, survived the Great Recession. Research has found that…

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate how Mid South Building Supply, a 100% employee-owned company, survived the Great Recession. Research has found that employee-owned companies are more likely to survive recessions than other companies. Why this happens was unclear. Thus, this research was conducted to learn why this might happen.

The case study approach was chosen to uncover the causes because this approach has played a significant role in uncovering organizational phenomena. Moreover, the industry was chosen because of the vulnerability of firms in it to recessionary forces.

Mid South uses practices that enhance both financial and psychological ownership. Prior research has suggested that both are important.

Case study research is limited because only a single frim is investigated. Thus, additional studies need to be performed to confirm the results.

Although this is a single case study, the practical implication is that enterprises that want to improve their probability of surviving should apply the findings of this study.

Firms that provide employment stability to employees are more likely to survive. In turn, research would suggest that this is associated with greater family and community stability.

Whereas prior studies have used across-industry data to find that employee-owned firms are more likely to survive recessions than others, what such firms do differently was unclear. A literature review failed to reveal a prior study that looked at the internal practices that may cause this to happen.

Details

Employee Ownership and Employee Involvement at Work: Case Studies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-520-7

Keywords

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