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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Richard C. Hoffman, Frank M. Shipper, Jeanette A. Davy and Denise M. Rotondo

– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 7,606 managers in 5 countries from a large multinational firm were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess all relationships simultaneously and reduce error effects.

Findings

The results support the cross-cultural validity of the model of managerial skills-effectiveness. Few cross-cultural differences were found. Interactive skills had greater positive impact on attitudes than initiating skills. Pressuring skills had a negative impact on attitudes. None of the skill sets were related to job performance.

Research limitations/implications

Using a single firm and industry to control for other cultural levels may limit the generalizability of the results. Only three skill sets were assessed and one coarse-grained measure of culture was used. These factors may account for the few cultural differences observed.

Practical implications

Training programs for managers going overseas should develop both interactive and initiating skills sets, as both had a positive impact on attitudes across cultures.

Originality/value

The model of managerial skills and effectiveness was validated across five cultures. The use of structural equation modeling ensures that the results are not an artifact of the measures and represents a more direct test for cross-cultural differences. Managing successfully across cultures may require fewer unique skills, with more emphasis placed on using basic management skills having positive impact.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Frank Shipper, Joel Kincaid, Denise M. Rotondo and Richard C. Hoffman

Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between…

Abstract

Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and managerial effectiveness among three cultures. EI is conceptualized and measured as self‐other agreement concerning the use of managerial skills using data gathered under a 360‐degree feedback process. Three hypotheses relating to managerial self‐awareness of both interactive and controlling skills are examined using data from 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Malaysia. The two sets of managerial skills examined were found to be stable across the three national samples. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regressions, and contour plots were developed to aid interpretation. Support was found for positive relationships between effectiveness and EI (self‐awareness). This relationship was supported for interactive skills in the US and UK samples and for controlling skills in the Malaysian and UK samples. Self‐awareness of different managerial skills varied by culture. It appears that in low power distance (PD) cultures such as the United States and United Kingdom, self‐awareness of interactive skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness whereas in high PD cultures, such as Malaysia self‐awareness of controlling skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness. These findings are discussed along with the implications for future research.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Richard E. Wagner

I have been asked to explore how James Buchanan’s work on public finance and constitutional political economy might have emerged out of themes present in Frank Knight’s…

Abstract

I have been asked to explore how James Buchanan’s work on public finance and constitutional political economy might have emerged out of themes present in Frank Knight’s oeuvre, especially his Risk Uncertainty, and Profit. Buchanan’s body of work has inspired the development of a style of political economy sometimes described as Virginia or Constitutional Political Economy to distinguish it from the Chicago Political Economy with which George Stigler is associated, and with Stigler and Buchanan both being students of Knight. While Buchanan, unlike Stigler, did not write his dissertation under Knight’s supervision, this is a minor distinction because Buchanan regarded Knight as his de facto supervisor even though Roy Blough was his de jure supervisor. The author explains how Knight’s scholarly oeuvre can in large measure be detected in Buchanan’s effort to fashion an alternative approach to public finance and to articulate the field of study now called constitutional political economy.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Frank Knight's Risk, Uncertainty and Profit at 100
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-149-5

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 6 May 2020

Frank Shipper and Richard C. Hoffman

This case has multiple theoretical linkages at the micro-organizational behavior level (e.g. job enrichment), but it is best analyzed and understood when examined at the…

Abstract

Theoretical basis

This case has multiple theoretical linkages at the micro-organizational behavior level (e.g. job enrichment), but it is best analyzed and understood when examined at the organizational level. Students will learn about shared entrepreneurship, high performance work systems, shared leadership and virtuous organizations, and how they can develop a sustainable competitive advantage.

Research methodology

The case was prepared using a qualitative approach. Data were collected via the following ways: literature search; organizational documents and published historical accounts; direct observations by a research team; and on-site audio recorded and transcribed individual and group interviews conducted by a research team (the authors) with organization members at multiple levels of the firm.

Case overview/synopsis

John Lewis Company has been in business since 1864. In 1929, it became the John Lewis Partnership (JLP) when the son of the founder sold a portion of the firm to the employees. In 1955, he sold his remaining interest to the employee/partners. JLP has a constitution and has a representative democracy governance structure. As the firm approaches the 100th anniversary of the trust, it is faced with multiple challenges. The partners are faced with the question – How to respond to the environmental turmoil?

Complexity academic level

This case has environmental issues – How to respond to competition, technological changes and environmental uncertainty and an internal issue – How can high performance work practices provide a sustainable competitive advantage? Both issues can be examined in strategic management courses after the students have studied traditionally managed companies. This case could also be used in human resource management courses.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Frank Shipper

Multiple initiatives have been taken to address the lack of managerial skills of MBA graduates since the Porter and McKibbin report. How effective or widespread these…

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Abstract

Multiple initiatives have been taken to address the lack of managerial skills of MBA graduates since the Porter and McKibbin report. How effective or widespread these initiatives have been has been questioned. Before proceeding, 11 managerial skills were identified and tested for their relevance to performance. Support was found that nine of the 11 skills were associated with managerial performance. Why these two skills were not associated with performance was explored. To test for the effectiveness of the initiatives to teach managerial skills in MBA programs, multiple comparisons of the managerial skills of recent and past MBA graduates and other graduates were made. In general, the comparisons failed to find that MBAs have a significant advantage in managerial skills. Reasons for these findings are explored in the paper. In addition, the challenge this represents to MBA programs is also discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 5 October 2018

Jafar Rezaei, Linde van Wulfften Palthe, Lori Tavasszy, Bart Wiegmans and Frank van der Laan

Port performance and port choice have been treated as separate streams of research. This hampers the efforts of ports to anticipate on and respond to possible future…

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Abstract

Purpose

Port performance and port choice have been treated as separate streams of research. This hampers the efforts of ports to anticipate on and respond to possible future changes in port choice by shippers, freight forwarders and carriers. The purpose of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a port performance measurement methodology, extended from the perspective of port choice, which includes hinterland performance and a weighting of attributes from a port choice perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of literature is used to extend the scope of port performance indicators. Multi-criteria decision analysis is used to operationalize the context of port choice, presenting a weighted approach using the Best-Worst Method (BWM). An empirical model is built based on an extensive port stakeholder survey.

Findings

Transport costs and times along the transport chain are the dominant factors for port competitiveness. Satisfaction, reputation and flexibility criteria are the other important decision criteria. The results also show how the availability of different modal alternatives impact on the position of a port. A ranking of routes for hinterland regions is done.

Originality/value

The paper focuses on two extensions of port performance measurement. So far, not all factors that determine port choice have been included in port performance studies. Here, first, factors related to hinterland services are included. Second, a weighting of port performance measures is proposed. The importance of factors is assessed using BWM. The approach is demonstrated empirically for a case of the European contestable hinterland regions, which so far have lacked quantitative analysis.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1986

Frank P. Buffa

Consolidation, the grouping of several small shipments into one at a designated location, can reduce total logistics cost. Total logistics cost includes consolidation…

Abstract

Consolidation, the grouping of several small shipments into one at a designated location, can reduce total logistics cost. Total logistics cost includes consolidation, transportation and inventory costs. Identifying where cost‐saving opportunities exist is often confused by the interrelated nature of these various costs.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

Case study
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Richard C. Hoffman, Wayne H. Decker and Frank Shipper

This case illustrates the rationale for adopting employee ownership, and difficulties in implementing employee empowerment beyond investment. In the beginning it focuses…

Abstract

Synopsis

This case illustrates the rationale for adopting employee ownership, and difficulties in implementing employee empowerment beyond investment. In the beginning it focuses on why Jerry Pritchett, one of the co-founders of Pritchett Controls, decided to convert it to an employee-owned company. In the body of the case, it details the efforts of the company to operate under its new ownership structure in an increasingly competitive environment. Although Pritchett established employee owners, only selected High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) practices have been implemented. The issue that reader must grapple with is whether other HPWS practices should be adopted or not.

Research methodology

Primary data were collected by interviewing eight managers including the current and former CEO at two of the firm’s three locations. Secondary data were used to supplement industry and competitive information.

Relevant courses and levels

Human resources courses, especially those that focus on strategic human resource management, organizational development, and how high performance organizations can be built, would be most appropriate for this case.

Theoretical bases

The primary theoretical foundations for this submission are shared entrepreneurship and HPWS. Knowledge of leadership, employee ownership, human resources, corporate governance, organizational culture and strategy would also be helpful in analyzing this case.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

Ernest R. Cadotte and Robert A. Robicheaux

The distribution of freight in most urban areas is characterised by high concentrations of truck activity in central business districts (CBD's). In this context, the

Abstract

The distribution of freight in most urban areas is characterised by high concentrations of truck activity in central business districts (CBD's). In this context, the movement of freight from suppliers, to resellers to ultimate customers is typically performed by a very large number of small carriers who duplicate each other's paths with partially filled trucks while each is in the process of picking up and delivering a large number of very small shipments. In many communities, this distribution structure results in unnecessarily high levels of congestion, pollution and energy consumption, as well as high distribution costs which are passed on to consumers in higher product costs. Several decades ago, business organisations responded to these pressures and initiated shippers' associations and freight forwarder operations to achieve the economies of consolidated shipments. Since 1942, however, the growth in the number of freight forwarders has been drastically curtailed.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Materials Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0269-8218

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Robert T. Rosti and Frank Shipper

Training programs are infrequently evaluated and when they are evaluated they often rely on pre‐experimental designs and feedback of the participants. This statement is…

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Abstract

Training programs are infrequently evaluated and when they are evaluated they often rely on pre‐experimental designs and feedback of the participants. This statement is also true of management development programs based on 360 feedback. In this study the effects of a training program administered with 360 feedback are evaluated using pre‐ and post‐observations of the participants’ managerial skills in control and experimental groups. The results indicate that changes in individual skills could not be contributed to the training program, but that changes in the overall profiles of skills could. Why this could occur is discussed as well as suggestions for improving training evaluation.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 13 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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