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– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.
Data from 7,606 managers in 5 countries from a large multinational firm were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess all relationships simultaneously and reduce error effects.
The results support the cross-cultural validity of the model of managerial skills-effectiveness. Few cross-cultural differences were found. Interactive skills had greater positive impact on attitudes than initiating skills. Pressuring skills had a negative impact on attitudes. None of the skill sets were related to job performance.
Using a single firm and industry to control for other cultural levels may limit the generalizability of the results. Only three skill sets were assessed and one coarse-grained measure of culture was used. These factors may account for the few cultural differences observed.
Training programs for managers going overseas should develop both interactive and initiating skills sets, as both had a positive impact on attitudes across cultures.
The model of managerial skills and effectiveness was validated across five cultures. The use of structural equation modeling ensures that the results are not an artifact of the measures and represents a more direct test for cross-cultural differences. Managing successfully across cultures may require fewer unique skills, with more emphasis placed on using basic management skills having positive impact.
Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between…
Multinationals increasingly require a cadre of skilled managers to effectively run their global operations. This exploratory study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and managerial effectiveness among three cultures. EI is conceptualized and measured as self‐other agreement concerning the use of managerial skills using data gathered under a 360‐degree feedback process. Three hypotheses relating to managerial self‐awareness of both interactive and controlling skills are examined using data from 3,785 managers of a multinational firm located in the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Malaysia. The two sets of managerial skills examined were found to be stable across the three national samples. The hypotheses were tested using polynomial regressions, and contour plots were developed to aid interpretation. Support was found for positive relationships between effectiveness and EI (self‐awareness). This relationship was supported for interactive skills in the US and UK samples and for controlling skills in the Malaysian and UK samples. Self‐awareness of different managerial skills varied by culture. It appears that in low power distance (PD) cultures such as the United States and United Kingdom, self‐awareness of interactive skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness whereas in high PD cultures, such as Malaysia self‐awareness of controlling skills may be crucial relative to effectiveness. These findings are discussed along with the implications for future research.
This case has multiple theoretical linkages at the micro-organizational behavior level (e.g. job enrichment), but it is best analyzed and understood when examined at the…
This case has multiple theoretical linkages at the micro-organizational behavior level (e.g. job enrichment), but it is best analyzed and understood when examined at the organizational level. Students will learn about shared entrepreneurship, high performance work systems, shared leadership and virtuous organizations, and how they can develop a sustainable competitive advantage.
The case was prepared using a qualitative approach. Data were collected via the following ways: literature search; organizational documents and published historical accounts; direct observations by a research team; and on-site audio recorded and transcribed individual and group interviews conducted by a research team (the authors) with organization members at multiple levels of the firm.
John Lewis Company has been in business since 1864. In 1929, it became the John Lewis Partnership (JLP) when the son of the founder sold a portion of the firm to the employees. In 1955, he sold his remaining interest to the employee/partners. JLP has a constitution and has a representative democracy governance structure. As the firm approaches the 100th anniversary of the trust, it is faced with multiple challenges. The partners are faced with the question – How to respond to the environmental turmoil?
Complexity academic level
This case has environmental issues – How to respond to competition, technological changes and environmental uncertainty and an internal issue – How can high performance work practices provide a sustainable competitive advantage? Both issues can be examined in strategic management courses after the students have studied traditionally managed companies. This case could also be used in human resource management courses.
Multiple initiatives have been taken to address the lack of managerial skills of MBA graduates since the Porter and McKibbin report. How effective or widespread these…
Multiple initiatives have been taken to address the lack of managerial skills of MBA graduates since the Porter and McKibbin report. How effective or widespread these initiatives have been has been questioned. Before proceeding, 11 managerial skills were identified and tested for their relevance to performance. Support was found that nine of the 11 skills were associated with managerial performance. Why these two skills were not associated with performance was explored. To test for the effectiveness of the initiatives to teach managerial skills in MBA programs, multiple comparisons of the managerial skills of recent and past MBA graduates and other graduates were made. In general, the comparisons failed to find that MBAs have a significant advantage in managerial skills. Reasons for these findings are explored in the paper. In addition, the challenge this represents to MBA programs is also discussed.
Consolidation, the grouping of several small shipments into one at a designated location, can reduce total logistics cost. Total logistics cost includes consolidation…
Consolidation, the grouping of several small shipments into one at a designated location, can reduce total logistics cost. Total logistics cost includes consolidation, transportation and inventory costs. Identifying where cost‐saving opportunities exist is often confused by the interrelated nature of these various costs.
Port performance and port choice have been treated as separate streams of research. This hampers the efforts of ports to anticipate on and respond to possible future…
Port performance and port choice have been treated as separate streams of research. This hampers the efforts of ports to anticipate on and respond to possible future changes in port choice by shippers, freight forwarders and carriers. The purpose of this paper is to develop and demonstrate a port performance measurement methodology, extended from the perspective of port choice, which includes hinterland performance and a weighting of attributes from a port choice perspective.
A review of literature is used to extend the scope of port performance indicators. Multi-criteria decision analysis is used to operationalize the context of port choice, presenting a weighted approach using the Best-Worst Method (BWM). An empirical model is built based on an extensive port stakeholder survey.
Transport costs and times along the transport chain are the dominant factors for port competitiveness. Satisfaction, reputation and flexibility criteria are the other important decision criteria. The results also show how the availability of different modal alternatives impact on the position of a port. A ranking of routes for hinterland regions is done.
The paper focuses on two extensions of port performance measurement. So far, not all factors that determine port choice have been included in port performance studies. Here, first, factors related to hinterland services are included. Second, a weighting of port performance measures is proposed. The importance of factors is assessed using BWM. The approach is demonstrated empirically for a case of the European contestable hinterland regions, which so far have lacked quantitative analysis.
The distribution of freight in most urban areas is characterised by high concentrations of truck activity in central business districts (CBD's). In this context, the…
The distribution of freight in most urban areas is characterised by high concentrations of truck activity in central business districts (CBD's). In this context, the movement of freight from suppliers, to resellers to ultimate customers is typically performed by a very large number of small carriers who duplicate each other's paths with partially filled trucks while each is in the process of picking up and delivering a large number of very small shipments. In many communities, this distribution structure results in unnecessarily high levels of congestion, pollution and energy consumption, as well as high distribution costs which are passed on to consumers in higher product costs. Several decades ago, business organisations responded to these pressures and initiated shippers' associations and freight forwarder operations to achieve the economies of consolidated shipments. Since 1942, however, the growth in the number of freight forwarders has been drastically curtailed.
This case illustrates the rationale for adopting employee ownership, and difficulties in implementing employee empowerment beyond investment. In the beginning it focuses…
This case illustrates the rationale for adopting employee ownership, and difficulties in implementing employee empowerment beyond investment. In the beginning it focuses on why Jerry Pritchett, one of the co-founders of Pritchett Controls, decided to convert it to an employee-owned company. In the body of the case, it details the efforts of the company to operate under its new ownership structure in an increasingly competitive environment. Although Pritchett established employee owners, only selected High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) practices have been implemented. The issue that reader must grapple with is whether other HPWS practices should be adopted or not.
Primary data were collected by interviewing eight managers including the current and former CEO at two of the firm’s three locations. Secondary data were used to supplement industry and competitive information.
Relevant courses and levels
Human resources courses, especially those that focus on strategic human resource management, organizational development, and how high performance organizations can be built, would be most appropriate for this case.
The primary theoretical foundations for this submission are shared entrepreneurship and HPWS. Knowledge of leadership, employee ownership, human resources, corporate governance, organizational culture and strategy would also be helpful in analyzing this case.
Training programs are infrequently evaluated and when they are evaluated they often rely on pre‐experimental designs and feedback of the participants. This statement is…
Training programs are infrequently evaluated and when they are evaluated they often rely on pre‐experimental designs and feedback of the participants. This statement is also true of management development programs based on 360 feedback. In this study the effects of a training program administered with 360 feedback are evaluated using pre‐ and post‐observations of the participants’ managerial skills in control and experimental groups. The results indicate that changes in individual skills could not be contributed to the training program, but that changes in the overall profiles of skills could. Why this could occur is discussed as well as suggestions for improving training evaluation.
The purpose of this research was to investigate a successful company, Atlas Container Corporation, that practices the values of egalitarianism, democracy, mutuality, and…
The purpose of this research was to investigate a successful company, Atlas Container Corporation, that practices the values of egalitarianism, democracy, mutuality, and transparency. Moreover, this research sought to identify the human resource policies and practices (HRPP) used to reinforce these values and create a distinctive culture.
An ethnographic approach was used to produce a case study. Interviews, observations, archives, and documents were all part of the collected data.
The HRPP were distinctively different from the normal practices in the industry. Thus, these differences appeared to explain its success.
While this case study focused only on a single organization, it provides an illustration of the importance of reflecting the organization’s culture through its HRPP, and of how they could operate synergistically for optimal impact.
This case illustrated how a company following a set of HRPP contrary to industry norms could succeed. In addition, it pinpointed some areas where HRPP either reduced costs or made the company more responsive to customer needs.
This case illustrated that a company can be both humanistic and efficient. Moreover, it demonstrated a number of ways that the financial success of the company could be shared with its employees.
A review of the literature found that companies that practiced a progressive set of HRPP and made decisions based on democratic principles are rare. Thus, knowledge of such a company should be valuable.