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Handbook of Microsimulation Modelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-570-8

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Francisco H. G. Ferreira, Deon Filmer and Norbert Schady

Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have been adopted in many countries over the last two decades. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively…

Abstract

Conditional cash transfers (CCT) have been adopted in many countries over the last two decades. Although the impacts of these programs have been studied extensively, understanding of the economic mechanisms through which cash and conditions affect household decisions remains incomplete. In particular, relatively little is known about the effects of these programs on intra-household allocation decisions. This chapter uses evidence from a program in Cambodia, where eligibility varied substantially among siblings in the same household, to illustrate these effects. A simple model of schooling decisions highlights three different effects of a child-specific CCT: an income effect, a substitution effect, and a displacement effect. The model predicts that such a CCT should unambiguously increase enrollment for eligible children, but have an ambiguous effect on ineligible siblings. The ambiguity arises from the interaction of a positive income effect with a negative displacement effect. These predictions are shown to be consistent with evidence from Cambodia, where the CESSP Scholarship Program (CSP) makes modest transfers, conditional on school enrollment for children of middle-school age. Scholarship recipients were more than 20 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in school, and 10 percentage points less likely to work for pay. However, the school enrollment and work of ineligible siblings was largely unaffected by the program. A possible fourth effect, operating through non-pecuniary spillovers of the intervention among siblings, remains largely outside the scope of the analysis, although there is some tentative evidence to suggest that it might also be at work.

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

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Article

Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira and Paulo Fael

This paper aims to deal with the development of a software tool to simulate and study vehicle – road interaction (VRI) to quantify the forces induced and energy released…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with the development of a software tool to simulate and study vehicle – road interaction (VRI) to quantify the forces induced and energy released from vehicles to the road pavement, in different vehicle motion scenarios, and the energy absorbed by the road surface, speed reducers or a specific energy harvester surface or device. The software tool also enables users to quantify the energetic efficiency of the process.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing software tools were analysed and its limitations were identified in terms of performing energetic analysis on the interaction between the vehicle and the road pavement elements, such as speed reducers or energy harvest devices. The software tool presented in this paper intends to overcome those limitations and precisely quantify the energy transfer.

Findings

Different vehicle models and VRI models were evaluated, allowing to conclude about each model precision: bicycle car model has a 60 per cent higher precision when compared with quarter-car model, and contact patch analysis model has a 67 per cent higher precision than single force analysis model. Also, a technical study was performed for different equipment surface shapes and displacements, concluding that these variables have a great influence on the energy released by the vehicle and on the energy harvested by the equipment surface.

Originality/value

The developed software tool allows to study VRI with a higher precision than existing tools, especially when energetic analyses are performed and when speed reduction or energy harvesting devices are applied on the pavement.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Practical and Theoretical Implications of Successfully Doing Difference in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-678-1

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Filip Fidanoski, Kiril Simeonovski and Vesna Mateska

Many organizations around the world currently are facing board diversity issues and challenges. Hence, this empirical paper investigates the relationship between board…

Abstract

Many organizations around the world currently are facing board diversity issues and challenges. Hence, this empirical paper investigates the relationship between board diversity and firm’s financial performance. We use a sample of 35 companies from five countries in Southeast Europe (Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Greece) for the period between 2008 and 2012 to find that, on average, companies with well-educated board members are more profitable and overvalued on the market. When running the regression again to test the levels of heterogeneity, we also find that the companies with more women on board tend to be overvalued on the market, while those with more foreigners on board are subject of undervaluation. The paper mostly contributes to the literature on corporate governance and board diversity. First, we postulate the impact of each of the board diversity variables on the financial performance and then show the extent of this impact and its economic interpretation. Our findings have important practitioners’ implications for corporate regulators and policy-makers since the demonstrated positive impact of the well-educated board members on firm’s financial performance gives a new impetus in building a corporate strategy that will intend to engage more people holding PhD on board.

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Corporate Governance in the US and Global Settings
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-292-0

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Barbara de Lima Voss, David Bernard Carter and Bruno Meirelles Salotti

We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…

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We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.

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Advances in Environmental Accounting & Management: Social and Environmental Accounting in Brazil
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-376-4

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Damian Tago, Henrik Andersson and Nicolas Treich

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Abstract

Purpose

This study contributes to the understanding of the health effects of pesticides exposure and of how pesticides have been and should be regulated.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents literature reviews for the period 2000–2013 on (i) the health effects of pesticides and on (ii) preference valuation of health risks related to pesticides, as well as a discussion of the role of benefit-cost analysis applied to pesticide regulatory measures.

Findings

This study indicates that the health literature has focused on individuals with direct exposure to pesticides, i.e. farmers, while the literature on preference valuation has focused on those with indirect exposure, i.e. consumers. The discussion highlights the need to clarify the rationale for regulating pesticides, the role of risk perceptions in benefit-cost analysis, and the importance of inter-disciplinary research in this area.

Originality/value

This study relates findings of different disciplines (health, economics, public policy) regarding pesticides, and identifies gaps for future research.

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Preference Measurement in Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-029-2

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