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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2020

Eric Kennedy and Francisco Guzmán

This paper aims to examine the impact that brand transgressions, and the effect of an apology or lack thereof, have on consumers’ intentions to co-create with a brand…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact that brand transgressions, and the effect of an apology or lack thereof, have on consumers’ intentions to co-create with a brand, perceived brand equity and brand love, and compares these effects on brands that are viewed positively versus brands that are viewed negatively.

Design/methodology/approach

Two studies were deployed. In the first study, a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design using fictitious brands is used to test the hypotheses. The second study seeks to replicate the findings of the first study by using a brand connected to a real retailer.

Findings

Regardless of a brand issuing an apology or not, co-creation, higher perceived brand equity and increased levels of brand love, are more likely to occur when a consumer views a brand as being positive versus negative. However, the results vary when the consumer has a prior level of knowledge and a stronger relationship with a brand.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focuses on consumers between the ages of 18 and 29 years. While the findings of Study 1 are mostly replicated in Study 2, a more generalizable sample could create additional insights into the impact of brand transgressions and issuing or not an apology.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper add to the current literature on co-creation, brand equity, brand love and theory of reasoned action, in terms of the impact of an apology, or lack thereof, on brand transgressions and consequent consumer responses.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Eric Van Steenburg and Francisco Guzmán

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether voters consider a candidate’s brand image when evaluating election alternatives. That is, how prominent a role does the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether voters consider a candidate’s brand image when evaluating election alternatives. That is, how prominent a role does the candidate brand image have in the decision-making process? As election outcomes are behavior-driven, the goal is to examine the potential relationship between the candidate brand image, the self-brand image and voting intention.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for the third week of October 2012 and again for the same time in 2016 – three weeks prior to the US presidential election each year. An online-based nationwide survey was leveraged, followed by correlation, regression and mediation analysis.

Findings

Candidate brand image has a role in US presidential elections. In addition, candidate brand image and self-brand image are significantly related to voting intention. In both elections, the losing candidate’s brand image was more of a factor when it came to voting intention, as both candidates’ brand image mediated the relationships between self-brand image and voting intention for all voters.

Research limitations/implications

A link between candidate brand image and voting intention was demonstrated for perhaps the first time. With results showing candidate brand image does relate to the voter’s self-brand image and voting intention, future research should investigate what other brand elements are a factor. There are undoubtedly other factors – some branding-related, others not branding-related – that go into voter decision-making. Because results were stronger for a losing candidate than a winning one, research should also examine whether this occurrence was coincidence or consistent voter behavior.

Practical implications

When voters considered who might best represent themselves, the brand image of the candidate enhanced the likelihood of voting for, or against, the candidate. Therefore, it is highly recommended that campaign managers understand not only the importance of their candidate’s brand image to develop and maintain a positive image among their supporters but also how to highlight what their supporters view as the negative aspects of the opposing candidates’ brand image to increase the lack of affinity for competitors.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates, for the first time, that candidates’ brand image is considered by voters in a US presidential election. In addition, it discovers the role candidate brand image plays in voting intention. Finally, it provides direction for campaign managers to conduct research into candidates as brands to build brand relationships with the electorate.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Francisco Guzmán and Donna Davis

A significant stream of research investigates the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives on firm performance and consumer response to CSR programs…

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5020

Abstract

Purpose

A significant stream of research investigates the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives on firm performance and consumer response to CSR programs. However, how CSR initiatives help build brand equity remains relatively unexamined. This study aims to demonstrate how CSR influences brand equity in response to perceptions of two types of brand–cause fit.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze two types of fit between a brand and a social cause (disaster relief): brand value–cause fit and brand function–cause fit. Structural equation modeling is used to estimate the fit of the data with the proposed model.

Findings

Survey evidence from 370 millennial undergraduate students in the USA suggests that the two types of brand–cause fit have differential effects on attitude toward the brand and ad, which in turn influence brand equity.

Research implications/limitations

The research operationalizes brand–cause fit as a construct with two components: brand value–cause fit and brand function–cause fit. It tests these two types of fit and finds evidence for differential effects on consumer attitudes.

Practical implications

The findings offer practical considerations for managers about the importance of considering two types of brand–cause fit in selecting social causes and crafting effective corporate communications about the firm’s CSR initiatives.

Originality/value

Results suggest that it is possible for firms to craft desirable win–win–win strategies that build brand equity by investing in a strategic approach to CSR initiatives.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Holger Joerg Schmidt, Nicholas Ind, Francisco Guzmán and Eric Kennedy

This paper aims to shed light on the emerging position of companies taking stances on sociopolitical issues and the impact this has on consumers.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to shed light on the emerging position of companies taking stances on sociopolitical issues and the impact this has on consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses focus groups, interviews and consumer experiments in various countries, to provide insights as to why brands are taking sociopolitical stances.

Findings

Consumers expect brands to take a stance on sociopolitical issues. However, to be credible, a stance needs to be rooted in a long-term commitment that aligns with the brand’s strategy and values. Perceived authenticity is key.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should aim at broader generalizability and should address various industries.

Practical implications

Differentiating a brand through a sociopolitical stance requires a strategic approach. Brand managers need to identify which issues they should support, how to engage with them and the risks and opportunities involved.

Originality/value

While the impact of brands adopting a sociopolitical stance has been discussed in the mainstream media, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support the arguments. The results of the four studies discussed in the paper provide insights and demonstrate the brand-related opportunities and risks of taking a sociopolitical stance.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

Fernanda Muniz, Francisco Guzmán, Audhesh K. Paswan and Heather J. Crawford

In response to consumer and society demands for firms to be socially responsible, brands have been taking a strategic approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR) by…

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2184

Abstract

Purpose

In response to consumer and society demands for firms to be socially responsible, brands have been taking a strategic approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR) by integrating socially responsible activities into their brands’ core value propositions to strengthen brand equity. Thus, from a brand building perspective, this paper aims to investigate the immediate effect that brand CSR communications have on the change in brand awareness, perceived quality and loyalty, to provide a deeper understanding of how each dimension affects the overall change in brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

With evidence from an experiment conducted in three different countries (Australia, United States and Spain), based on an actual brand CSR program, this paper explores the different immediate effects of change in brand awareness, perceived brand quality and brand loyalty, after the exposure to a CSR message, on the overall immediate change in value that consumers give to a brand. Furthermore, it examines the role of brand-cause fit and the influence that differences in cultural, economic and political environments have on this effect.

Findings

The change in brand loyalty due to CSR communication is the key dimension driving the immediate positive change in overall brand equity. In addition, change in brand awareness has an inverted U-shape relationship with change in overall brand equity, whereas the change in perceived brand quality does not have an influence. Finally, the results indicate that this immediate effect holds regardless of the level of brand-cause fit, but is greater in countries where firms are expected to participate and CSR reporting is not mandatory, making such practices be seen as voluntary.

Practical implications

The findings of this study offer research implications for academics, and practical considerations for brand managers, interested in how to rapidly generate changes in consumer perception by leveraging CSR activities for brand building in global settings. Specifically, it indicates that when the aim is to quickly build brand equity, the goal of communicating CSR activities must be to increase the level of attachment that consumers have to the brand since loyalty is the main driver of the immediate change in overall brand equity.

Originality/value

Although many scholars have demonstrated the impact of CSR on various consumer behavior outcomes (e.g., brand attitude, purchase intention, loyalty), from a brand build perspective the implications of the immediate effect of a brand communication of CSR practices on consumer-based brand equity remain less clear. This study addresses this gap to gain a deeper understanding of how to rapidly generate changes in consumer perception to build strong brands while leveraging CSR practices.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Francisco Guzman and Cleopatra Veloutsou

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520

Abstract

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Francisco Guzmán and Cleopatra Veloutsou

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330

Abstract

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2020

Diego Alvarado-Karste and Francisco Guzmán

Brand identities have a dual nature that appeals to the head (rational appeal) and to the heart (emotional appeal) of their consumers. Furthermore, consumers can process…

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1577

Abstract

Purpose

Brand identities have a dual nature that appeals to the head (rational appeal) and to the heart (emotional appeal) of their consumers. Furthermore, consumers can process information in a predominately analytic or intuitive cognitive style (CS) manner. This study aims to analyze the influence of brand identity-cognitive style (BI-CS) fit on the perceived value of a brand. It also analyzes how different forms of social influence affect the perceived value of the brand.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a two-step experimental design, Step 1 examines the effect that BI-CS fit has on consumer-based brand equity (CBBE); Step 2 evaluates the effect that the three elements of social influence–compliance, identification and internalization–have on CBBE.

Findings

Both the BI-CS fit, and the identification and internalization forms of social influence have a significant and positive effect over the perceived value of the brand. A rational brand identity is given a higher perceived brand value by analytic CS consumers than intuitive CS consumers. Conversely, an emotional brand identity is given a higher perceived brand value by intuitive CS consumers than analytic CS consumers. However, whether the brand identity is more emotional or rational is less important than the values and beliefs that the brand communicates to create social influence.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the branding literature by introducing the CS concept to better understand the influence of emotional and rational brand identities on consumers with either rational or intuitive cognitive thinking styles and reinforce the importance of the brand duality concept.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate the importance of brand duality and show how firms could present emotional or rational brand identities depending on their consumers’ CS to increase the effectiveness of their messaging to build stronger brand images that increase the perceived value of the brand. These findings could have important implications for market segmentation.

Originality/value

Brand identities can be emotional or rational, and this creates more or less value depending on the consumers’ CS, but what is more important is that consumers internalize the brand’s message or identify with what the brand represents. Although this has been discussed in prior literature, the original contribution of this paper is tying all these concepts together.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Francisco Guzman, Audhesh Paswan and Niranjan Tripathy

Personal finance influences everything we buy and is a key driver of all economies. It has attracted significant research attention, mostly grounded in rational economics…

Abstract

Purpose

Personal finance influences everything we buy and is a key driver of all economies. It has attracted significant research attention, mostly grounded in rational economics. However, it has not received adequate research attention in the consumer behavior literature. This study aims to address this gap by looking at some of the consumer-centric antecedents of short- and long-term personal financial planning, i.e. self-other orientation, cognitive style and time orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered survey was used to collect data from full time employees. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analyses.

Findings

Both short- and long-term financial planning are positively associated with non-impulsive and analytical decision-making styles; whereas self and other orientation are only associated with short-term financial planning. Intuitive decision-making is not associated to either short- or long-term financial planning.

Research limitations/implications

While analytical and long-term orientation are still important for personal finance, in the short run, consumers are also driven by self and other orientation.

Practical implications

The results are relevant for both products and services that have long-term and short-term financial implications for consumers.

Originality/value

This study explores financial planning decision-making from a consumer behavior perspective, and addresses a gap in consumer behavior literature.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 April 2021

Marc Fetscherin, Cleopatra Veloutsou and Francisco Guzman

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1114

Abstract

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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