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Book part

Francis Papon

Purpose — The purpose of the chapter is to make retrospective data from biographic surveys comparable with traditional cross-section travel surveys, by correcting some…

Abstract

Purpose — The purpose of the chapter is to make retrospective data from biographic surveys comparable with traditional cross-section travel surveys, by correcting some biases attached to the biographic collection method. This is applied to a biographic survey passed in France within the 2007–2008 national travel survey.

Methodology/approach — The methodology implemented deals with three specific biases: the general survey sampling and response rate, the survival bias, due to differential surviving rates according to generations, and the geographical bias, as biog‘raphies were not passed in all regions. All biases were corrected by computing specific weightings.

Findings — One main finding is that with these three corrections, biographic data can yield modal shares for commuting trips to work and for commuting trips to education that are similar to those derived from the historical cross-section surveys about regular trips.

Research limitations/implications — Though biographic collection suffers from the memory effect, this effect remains low and does not disturb the modal shares derived from biographies.

The most challenging issue is that of missing generations that contributed to past mobility. But they can be replaced by modeling with an age-period model.

Practical implications — The chapter provides methodology to correct biographic data to reconstitute historical behavior.

Social implications — Exploring the memory of living people is essential to save data about the past, that otherwise could be lost, although they may be useful to understand present behavior and future likely trends.

Originality/value of chapter — Investigating biographic surveys is a new topic in the field of transport survey methods.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-190288-2

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Abstract

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-190288-2

Abstract

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

Abstract

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Abstract

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Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-190288-2

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Abstract

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Traffic Safety and Human Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-222-4

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Book part

Aleksandr Khechumyan

This chapter aims to demonstrate that the fundamental human rights principle that no one should be subjected to (grossly) disproportionate punishment should be interpreted…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to demonstrate that the fundamental human rights principle that no one should be subjected to (grossly) disproportionate punishment should be interpreted to take into account terminal illness of the offender. It should be applied both during imposition of the sentences and also during execution of already imposed sentences.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to reveal whether this principle takes into account serious medical conditions, including terminal illness of the offender in the calculus of the proportionality of punishment and whether it is applicable at the execution stage of sentences, this chapter examined the roots of the fundamental human rights principle of proportionality of punishment by briefly surveying the penal theory, jurisprudence, court cases, laws, and legislative history from the U.S. federal and state jurisdictions and from Europe.

Findings

There is a consensus among surveyed theories that terminal illness of the offender is an element of the principle of proportionality of punishment. Thus the fundamental human rights principle must be interpreted to take it into account. The principle should be observed not only at the imposition stage, but also at the execution stage of already imposed sentences.

Originality/value

This chapter re-examines the roots of the fundamental human right to not being subjected to (grossly) disproportionate punishment. It does so in order to demonstrate that the right should be interpreted to take into account terminal illness of the offender and that it should be observed not only at the imposition stage, but also at the execution stage of already imposed sentences.

Details

Punishment and Incarceration: A Global Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-907-2

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Article

Hamid Asgari, Mohsen Fathi Jegarkandi, XiaoQi Chen and Raazesh Sainudiin

The purpose of this paper is to develop and compare conventional and neural network-based controllers for gas turbines.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and compare conventional and neural network-based controllers for gas turbines.

Design/methodology/approach

Design of two different controllers is considered. These controllers consist of a NARMA-L2 which is an artificial neural network-based nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) controller with feedback linearization, and a conventional proportional-integrator-derivative (PID) controller for a low-power aero gas turbine. They are briefly described and their parameters are adjusted and tuned in Simulink-MATLAB environment according to the requirement of the gas turbine system and the control objectives. For this purpose, Simulink and neural network-based modelling is used. Performances of the controllers are explored and compared on the base of design criteria and performance indices.

Findings

It is shown that NARMA-L2, as a neural network-based controller, has a superior performance to PID controller.

Practical implications

This study aims at using artificial intelligence in gas turbine control systems.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel methodology for control of gas turbines.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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