Search results

1 – 10 of over 10000
Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 June 2023

Jameela Mukhaimer, Maha Omar Mihdawi, Rana Al-Ghatam, Fairouz Alhourani and Francis Opinion

This study sought to understand the physical, educational and operational needs faced by healthcare workers (HCWs) (including physicians, nurses and allied health workers) during…

Abstract

Purpose

This study sought to understand the physical, educational and operational needs faced by healthcare workers (HCWs) (including physicians, nurses and allied health workers) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive cross-sectional design was undertaken. HCWs working in hospitals, health centers, testing and quarantine areas in the Kingdom of Bahrain were invited to complete the online survey questionnaire developed by authors containing three domains: physical, educational, and perceived knowledge, and operational needs.

Findings

A convenient sample (N = 627) of volunteered participants responded to the online survey. The biggest challenges that HCWs were exposed to are physical needs (experiencing dry hands, difficulty breathing while on a mask, feeling hot and sweaty, and less fluid and food intake) which were reported as the higher level, followed by operational needs (limited communication due to Personal Protective Equipment - PPE - use, longer working hours, and preparation time to get ready for duty). Other challenges pertained to education and knowledge (the presence of multiple sources of information confused them during the care practices). Females faced more challenges than males, and Bahraini HCWs handled challenges more than non-Bahrainis. A negative relationship was found between age and years of experience with the challenges of the HCWs.

Originality/value

During the COVID-19 pandemic, health systems face rapidly increasing demands. HCWs face several challenges while providing patient care, particularly physical needs. This study provides adequate data for healthcare administrators to maintain a safe working environment during pandemics.

Details

Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-9899

Keywords

Abstract

This chapter investigates whether earnings management activities increase the likelihood of receiving a qualified audit report. We have carried out this study with a sample of Spanish companies for the period 2001–2009. Previous research on the issue is not only scarce but also suffers from methodological pitfalls. In all cases, researchers have followed a matched sample approach without considering the implications of such approach for the statistical analysis. Despite its great popularity among researchers in accounting, the use of matched-based sampling is susceptible to produce technical errors in the statistical analysis. The main problem consists in the generalization of results obtained with a nonrandom sample to the whole population of firms. Our results do not show a significant relationship between EM and qualified audit reports. We have also addressed whether the international financial crisis has affected our results and concluded that Spanish companies seem to have used EM during the crisis to push down earnings, probably expecting to take advantage of the positive earnings surprises during the postcrisis period. Nevertheless, the financial crisis has not changed the nature of the EM-qualified opinions relationship.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-759-7

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Shireenjit Johl, Christine A. Jubb and Keith A. Houghton

This study aims to examine auditor reporting behaviour in the presence of aggressive earnings management (EM) in the context of the Asian Economic Crisis as it affected Malaysia…

5310

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine auditor reporting behaviour in the presence of aggressive earnings management (EM) in the context of the Asian Economic Crisis as it affected Malaysia. In the vein of Bartov, Gul and Tsui, the interaction between discretionary or abnormal accruals and audit quality (AQ), as indicated by auditor size and auditor industry specialisation, is examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A logistic regression model adapted from various prior studies is utilised to test the hypotheses.

Findings

As per earlier findings using Western data, Big 5 auditors in Malaysia appear to qualify more frequently than their non‐Big 5 counterparts when high levels of abnormal accruals are present. However, the interaction between auditor industry specialisation and abnormal accruals is not significant in predicting the incidence of qualification.

Originality/value

This study extends the current literature on AQ differentiation and specifically it attempts to address the gaps in the literature with respect to auditor reporting behaviour in the presence of aggressive EM. In addition, this study provides additional evidence on Big 5/industry specialist quality differentiation in an emerging market (an under‐researched area), Malaysia, arguably with less transparent and weaker governance structures than the developed economies such as the USA, UK, and Australia.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 November 2023

Michael Eric Bradbury and Oksana Kim

The study examines the changes in audit market concentration, auditor choice and audit quality in Russia following International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption…

Abstract

Purpose

The study examines the changes in audit market concentration, auditor choice and audit quality in Russia following International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption. Scholars have called for further examination of the effects of IFRS adoption on auditors, with an emphasis on the importance of analyzing emerging markets that are characterized by enforcement challenges and lack of proper infrastructure. It focuses on a unique feature of Russian companies – dual audits under Russian Accounting Standards (RAS) and IFRS – and investigates changes in audit concentration and audit quality for the two audit markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on the audited financial statements of Russian public companies and perform pre-/post-IFRS adoption estimation using a logit regression to ascertain whether public firms change auditors from local firms with limited IFRS expertise to those with global reputation, namely Big 4 audit firms. Further, they examine whether the change in audit market concentration post-2012 affects audit quality as proxied by companies' propensity to receive a modified audit opinion and discretionary accruals. Auditor attributes were hand-collected from audited financial statements and matched with financial variables from Datastream.

Findings

The IFRS audit market was dominated by the Big 4 audit firms prior to 2012, and there is strong evidence that audit market share (concentration) increases for IFRS reports but not for RAS reports. In addition, companies are more likely to choose a Big 4 audit firm for an RAS audit, conditional upon a Big 4 firm conducting the IFRS audit. The authors do not find evidence of decrease in the probability of audit firms issuing a modified audit opinion under either RAS or IFRS, indicating that, in the Russian setting, increased auditor concentration post-IFRS adoption does not lead to enhanced risk or decline in audit quality. Moreover, they find that discretionary accruals decline post-2012. Overall, the findings indicate that the concern of global regulators regarding audit market concentration is not justified.

Research limitations/implications

The Russian reporting environment is unique and generally characterized by significant agency problems, and the study’s estimation sample is not large, compared to prior studies conducted predominantly in Western jurisdictions. Nevertheless, the authors shed light on the audit concentration phenomenon within emerging markets, for which empirical evidence is scarce. Future research could explore the impact of other capital market events and exogenous shocks, not limited to IFRS adoption, on the characteristics of Russia's audit market.

Practical implications

The IFRS reporting regime is commonly associated with enhanced reporting quality and improved information transparency among public companies. Yet, impairment of audit quality as a result of IFRS-driven increase in audit market share of Big 4 can potentially negate these capital market effects. This study shows that the concerns of global regulators are not valid and that audit quality does not change with increased share of Big 4 post-IFRS adoption.

Originality/value

Dual audits, whereby companies must prepare two sets of financial statements per the IFRS mandate, are not unique to Russia, and the evidence of IFRS reporting on the structural changes in the audit market and implications for audit quality under a dual regime is scarce. Accordingly, the study's findings are important and timely and are expected to aid regulators of countries that have announced or are contemplating the adoption of IFRS for public reporting purposes.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Sheng Yao, Lingling Pan and Zhipeng Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether firms with high environmental disclosure have a low possibility of non-standard audit opinions and audit fees and whether this…

1074

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether firms with high environmental disclosure have a low possibility of non-standard audit opinions and audit fees and whether this trend is more obvious after than prior to the Measures for the Disclosure of Environmental Information (Measure) implemented in 2008.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Measures implemented in 2008, the authors select data for the listed manufacturing firms from 2004 to 2006 (Pre-Measure) and from 2009 to 2011 (Post-Measure) as research samples to investigate the relationships between environmental disclosures, audit opinions and audit fees with difference in difference models. In addition, we also consider the influence of media attention, the polluting industry and internal control on the audit effect of environmental disclosure.

Findings

The results show that the level of environmental disclosure is significantly negatively correlated with the possibility of issuing non-standard audit opinions and audit fees after measure is implemented, especially hard environmental information. Further evidence indicates that the auditing effect of environmental disclosures is stronger on firms that receive less media attention, in firms with better internal controls, and in firms belonging to industries with heavy pollution.

Originality/value

In the Chinese setting, a high level of environmental information disclosures can effectively reduce the audit risk and lead to a high possibility of standard audit opinions and low audit fees. This effect is pronounced after issuing Measure. The conclusions suggest that measure and increasing environmental disclosure have an obvious positive audit effect and that firms should be forced or encouraged to disclose more environmental information from the perspective of auditors in China.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Lucy Uche Diala and Robert Houmes

This study aims to investigate the effect of high insider ownership on firms’ internal controls over financial reporting. In particular, it examines how high insider ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effect of high insider ownership on firms’ internal controls over financial reporting. In particular, it examines how high insider ownership affects the likelihood of an adverse Sarbanes–Oxley Act Section (SOX Section 404) opinion and its subsequent remediation.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests of hypotheses use ineffective controls and remediation models. The initial tests in this study use ineffective internal controls over financial reporting probit regression models to investigate how high insider ownership affects the ex-post likelihood of an adverse 404 opinion. Two remediation models – a multinominal probit regression and probit regression model – are used to investigate the effect of high insider ownership on the likelihood of successfully remediating an adverse 404 opinion.

Findings

Results show that while the ex-ante likelihood of an adverse SOX Section 404 auditor’s internal control opinion increases with high insider ownership, high insider ownership firms are more likely to remediate ineffective 404 controls. This study rationalizes these diverse findings by asserting that prior to an adverse 404 opinion, entrenched managers avoid internal control financial reporting oversight and monitoring. After an adverse opinion, however, and within the context of an imminent and explicit value reducing 404 opinion, powerful high insider owner managers are motivated to remedy ineffective controls.

Originality/value

This research synthesizes existing streams of literature on insider ownership and the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting quality to provide new information on the effects of high insider ownership on firms’ internal controls.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Ahmad Hammami, Rucsandra Moldovan and Elisabeth Peltier

This paper aims to examine the role that auditor’s salary perception has on audit quality and delay. The findings contribute to a greater understanding of the audit employee-level…

1356

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the role that auditor’s salary perception has on audit quality and delay. The findings contribute to a greater understanding of the audit employee-level factors that influence audit work outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use Big 6 employee reviews, salary data and audit and financial data from 2007 to 2017 to measure how to audit employees’ pay satisfaction affects audit quality (small profits and going concern opinions) and audit delay. The authors use a regression approach to analyze this relationship. In subsequent tests, the authors split the sample on high career opportunities to investigate how this moderates the relationship between salary perception and audit quality.

Findings

The authors document a discrepancy between pay perception and reality. It is explained, though not completely, by salary level, comparisons to peers and superiors, firm-wide attitudes, cost of living and human capital in the area, work–life balance and perceived career prospects. Surprisingly, the unexplained pay dissatisfaction relates positively to audit quality and audit efficiency (audit delay), after controlling for salary level. Further tests show that an audit employee’s expectation of career opportunities moderates this result.

Originality/value

This is the first paper that empirically tests the relationship between pay satisfaction and job performance in the context of audit employees in public accounting. The authors contribute to an emerging literature that investigates audit employee-level characteristics and attitudes in relation to audit quality.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Ashish Sinha, Haodong Gu, Namwoon Kim and Renu Emile

Given the high uncertainty in the quality perception of experiential products, manufacturers use signals to influence consumers’ decisions. In the movie industry, literature shows…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the high uncertainty in the quality perception of experiential products, manufacturers use signals to influence consumers’ decisions. In the movie industry, literature shows that performance of the main channel (e.g. cinema) strongly influences the performance of auxiliary channels (e.g. DVDs). The success of a movie in the home country is also to be resonated by its good performance in host countries. However, the cultural contingency of these success-breeds-success (SBS) effects has not been examined. This paper aims to test the influence of cultural values on the SBS effects across channels and countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Borrowing concepts from the signaling literature and analyzing DVD sales data from six international markets using a multilevel mixed-effects model, the study finds that culture plays a significant role to influence both SBS effects.

Findings

In countries with low power distance, short-term orientation and high indulgence, consumers who purchase from auxiliary channels are more likely to be influenced by the box office performance of movies. Meanwhile, cultural distance between the home and host nations significantly decreases the cross-national SBS effect.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are likely to be generalized to online auxiliary channels of movies, but empirical testing is required to ensure that no major adaptation is required in the process. Future research can also extend the framework of this paper to include more countries into the analysis and investigate cultural variables beyond Hofstede’s dimensions.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that the SBS effects may vary across nations. When managers plan for the sequential distributions of experiential products, the cultural values of target markets should be considered to decrease the uncertainty in sales prediction.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature by investigating the international auxiliary channels of movies and incorporating cultural values into the framework of sequential distributions. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to test the links between the main and auxiliary channels from an international marketing perspective.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 February 2024

Rashed Alhaimer

This study aims to examine the perceptions of political figures and campaign strategists in Kuwait regarding the adoption of virtual political campaigns during the COVID-19…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the perceptions of political figures and campaign strategists in Kuwait regarding the adoption of virtual political campaigns during the COVID-19 pandemic. By using an enhanced version of the technology acceptance model (TAM), it seeks to understand and quantify their attitudes toward these digital campaign methods. This study can be considered as a bold contribution to the discussion on digital transformation of virtual channels for the promotion of bold innovation and social impact in Kuwait.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was gathered from 82 participants, comprising 47 politicians and 35 campaign managers in Kuwait. A comprehensive method involving both questionnaires and face-to-face interactions was implemented to ensure a thorough collection of relevant data, aiming to support the research’s objectives effectively.

Findings

The results underscore the significant influence of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and the newly integrated factor of perceived convenience on the attitudes toward virtual political campaigns. These factors collectively shape the willingness and approach of political entities in embracing digital campaigning avenues. The findings also indicate that digital transformation in the design and implementation of virtual campaigns can be grounded on positive attitudes and perceptions.

Originality/value

The research fills a critical gap in existing literature by examining large-scale attitudes toward virtual political campaigns in Kuwait’s unique context. It offers novel understandings of how political figures and campaign managers perceive and adapt to technological advancements in campaign strategies, mainly during unprecedented crisis times like the COVID-19 pandemic. This study contributes to academic discourse and has practical implications for the evolution of political campaigning strategies in a digital age. A direct implication of our study is also the need to promote further future research on the capacity of digitally transformed channels for political campaigns to be venues of bold innovation. It also highlights the need to provide citizens with training and awareness for this new era of prompt responses to their requirements toward sustainable development and innovation.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Polydoros Demetriades and Samuel Owusu-Agyei

The purpose of this paper is to examine Toshiba’s fraudulent financial reporting in relation to the fraud diamond (pressure, opportunity, rationalisation and capability).

3402

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Toshiba’s fraudulent financial reporting in relation to the fraud diamond (pressure, opportunity, rationalisation and capability).

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative empirical research, analysing secondary data from Toshiba’s published annual reports before restatement, from 2008–2014 has been used. A simultaneous equations approach was used to test the hypothesis. Excel software was used to analyse secondary data and to carry out correlation analysis and descriptive statistics analysis.

Findings

This study uncovers evidence that pressure proxied by return on assets (ROA), the opportunity proxied by ineffective monitoring (BDOUT), rationalisation proxied by audit opinion (AO) and capability proxied by board member changes (BCHANGE) had moderate to strong relationship to financial statement fraud (FSF) (proxied by Beneish M-score model). However, ROA has a negative and significant effect on Toshiba’s FSF. BDOUT, AO and BCHANGE have positive and significant effect on Toshiba’s FSF. Furthermore, there is no multicollinearity problem within the four variables. Overall, this study has statistically proven that all dimensions of fraud diamond are required for the explanation of Toshiba’s accounting scandal.

Originality/value

Although a few studies discuss the four dimensions (fraud diamond), none, to our surprise, exists which explain the circumstances led Toshiba’s high-level executives to commit fraud. This study is the first thorough investigation of Toshiba’s accounting scandal that uses all four dimensions to explain Toshiba’s FSF.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000