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This article tries to address some of the issues managers face in franchise systems; the use of high tech systems and marketing. Using these two tools in the best way possible is of great importance to franchisees and franchisors. Both the advantages and shortcomings of these aspects are discussed. The importance of such an examination comes from the fact that these tools could be of very high value if applied appropriately or harmful if misapplied. Some examples of franchise systems that have been involved in these aspects are discussed to show the two‐sided nature of the application of them.
This article aims to describe a joint collaboration between an occupational therapist and music therapist at the Royal Hospital for Neuro‐disability in Putney, London, UK…
This article aims to describe a joint collaboration between an occupational therapist and music therapist at the Royal Hospital for Neuro‐disability in Putney, London, UK. It outlines a series of sessions with a patient with hypoxic brain injury who was referred to the neuro‐behavioural unit for rehabilitation.
The joint work commenced due to a realisation that this particular patient responded well to sensory input and the music and occupational therapist wanted to offer the opportunity to explore this intervention further within a different framework of joint sessions. The article provides an overview of this input, which involved bi‐monthly hour long sessions exploring responses to and engagement with various stimuli within a frame of music, poems and storyline along the themes of the seasons. This ran in conjunction with other rehabilitation sessions on the unit.
The authors found that the patient responded to this format with the focus being on the creative framework and the interaction between the therapists and minimal pressure to achieve tasks. Of course there were still clear clinical goals and there was participation from the patient in order to improve functional abilities.
The overriding improvements in the patient from using this therapy approach were an increase in concentration span and attention and reduction in vocal distress and behavioural agitation. The authors surmise that there is a place for a package of sensorial input with suggestions for implementation which could be used for other patients in neuro‐rehabilitation in this setting or elsewhere.
Uses experiences in Bulgaria to exemplify market entry and control strategies employed by franchisors in a business environment that is geographically and culturally…
Uses experiences in Bulgaria to exemplify market entry and control strategies employed by franchisors in a business environment that is geographically and culturally remote from the West. Carries out interviews in 1996 with Bulgarian franchisors and franchisees to test a number of hypotheses relating to issues including the type of franchisor, system densities, market entry strategies and monitoring tactics. Identifies 17 environmental factors ‐ cultural, organisational, political and legal ‐ which represent possible areas of conflict between the franchisor and franchisee. Establishes that franchisors adapt to a remote business environment in a variety of ways in respect of both market entry and monitoring strategies ; establishes some significant correlations between different types of franchisors and their strategies. Finds that western franchisors and Bulgarian owned firms often place different emphasis on the relative importance of environmental factors. Observes a broad variation in market entry tactics. Recommends that franchisors need to establish criteria to establish risks in remote business environments and devise appropriate strategies prior to entry.
Assesses the benefits and limitations of franchising as a tool for the development of small‐to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs); focuses on the use of franchising in…
Assesses the benefits and limitations of franchising as a tool for the development of small‐to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs); focuses on the use of franchising in transitional economies, with particular reference to central European countries. Reveals that franchising ‐ with its numerous advantages over conventional market entry ‐ has played a significant role in the development of SMEs in the industrialized West and transitional economies in general, but that in central and Eastern Europe the uptake of franchising has been negligible. Identifies that there are reasons, particular to these countries, including ‐ inter alia ‐ political, organisational, cultural, economic and legal, which make the use of franchising unattractive to both foreign and domestic franchisors; outlines the evolution of indigenous franchising in other transitional economies, citing successes in Asia. Summarizes the challenges facing Central European countries in realizing the potential of franchising in the development of SMEs, and suggests further areas for research.
Offers an overview of the well‐established and growing franchising sector in Brazil, which encompasses almost 1,000 brands in 23 different sectors; lists the sectors…
Offers an overview of the well‐established and growing franchising sector in Brazil, which encompasses almost 1,000 brands in 23 different sectors; lists the sectors involved and a number of the major foreign chains operating in the country, together with statistics on numbers of employees, turnover, initial investment by franchisees and payback time. Details the activities of the Brazilian Franchise Association (ABF) which exists to promote franchising in the country and has recently launched a training course for potential franchisees; considers the future prospects for franchising in Brazil.
In this chapter, we explore the impact of socioemotional and financial wealth on the resource management of family firms. We use MoDo, a Swedish pulp and paper firm…
In this chapter, we explore the impact of socioemotional and financial wealth on the resource management of family firms. We use MoDo, a Swedish pulp and paper firm, covering three generations of owner-managers from 1873 to 1991, to grasp the shifting emphases on socioemotional and financial wealth in the management of the company. Identifying four strategic issues of decisive importance for the development of MoDo, we analyze the organizational values that guided the management of these issues. We propose that financial and socioemotional wealth stand for two different rationalities that infuse organizational values. The MoDo case illustrates how these rationalities go hand in hand for extended periods of time, safeguarding both financial success and socioemotional endowments. However, in a situation where the rationalities are no longer in line with the development of the industry context, the conflict arising between the two rationalities may have fatal consequences for the firm in question.
This paper is part of on‐going research examining the growth of small and medium‐sized enterprises through franchising. It reports the findings of an exploratory…
This paper is part of on‐going research examining the growth of small and medium‐sized enterprises through franchising. It reports the findings of an exploratory investigation that examines why franchising is selected less frequently as a growth strategy in some industrial sectors than it is in others. The applicability of the main theories used to explain the decision to franchise are tested through a study which focuses on the UK construction industry, a sector containing relatively few franchised operations. It reveals that the high human capital requirement of this industry (as proxied by average wages) may make it unsuitable for franchising. Interviews with franchisors operating in the construction industry indicate that, although few operational difficulties are encountered, the franchisors had experienced severe difficulties in recruiting suitable franchisees, possibly reflecting the high human capital requirement of the sector. It is concluded that further research is needed to compare these findings with those from industry sectors in which the level of franchise representation is high, to determine whether some industries are, in fact, more suited to franchising than others.
Franchising is not an industry but a method of distribution. The franchise system of distribution has been adapted to a diverse array of products and services. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, more than 1,800 companies in some 40 different industries use the franchise method of marketing. Today the franchisors' know‐how, trademarks, and advertising muscle offer unique opportunities to individuals with limited capital and experience.
The purpose of this paper is to examine a long-term mentoring relationship between a White female from the Traditional Generation and an African American male from the…
The purpose of this paper is to examine a long-term mentoring relationship between a White female from the Traditional Generation and an African American male from the Xennial Generation, as engaged in a mentoring relationship within higher education institutions in the USA. The study investigated if, how and to what degree the differences and similarities between them influenced their mentoring relationship.
The authors used an autoethnographic approach involving extensive questioning, dialoguing, note keeping and analysis over eight months.
The analysis suggested that race had the greatest influence on the relationship. The primary reasons for mentoring success were similarities in family backgrounds and commonly held values.
This study may not be generalizable to mentoring relationships that do not involve cultural differences in race, age or gender.
The paper offers a model for the types of strategies individuals can use in cross-racial mentoring endeavors to help build and sustain these relationships. It also includes suggestions for individuals engaged in mentoring relationships, which include gender, race or age differences, and organizations seeking to enhance diversity within their institutions.
There is not an extensive body of research on individual cross-racial, gender and generational mentoring that provides an analysis of the experience of those involved. Additionally, the model presented for examining cross-racial mentoring relationships is unique.