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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Ron Sanchez and Aimé Heene

Part I of this issue begins with a paper by Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann on “Competences, distinctive competences, and core competences.” Eden and Ackermann draw on their…

Abstract

Part I of this issue begins with a paper by Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann on “Competences, distinctive competences, and core competences.” Eden and Ackermann draw on their extensive work with top management teams in workshops focused on identifying the competences of an organization. They describe an interactive process of engagement with managers through which an organization's competences are identified, some of which are further judged to be “distinctive competences” of the organization. Analysis of the interrelationships among a firm's identified competences then leads to the discovery of a pattern of competence interactions in which some competences appear to be at the “core” of the organizations distinctive competences. The paper presents an interesting perspective on how the capabilities and competences of a firm are often interrelated in ways that invite special attention and development by managers. Further, the paper explains the systems methodology that the authors have developed for use with managers to help identify and assess an organization's competences.

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A Focussed Issue on Identifying, Building, and Linking Competences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-990-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Bert Telford, Steve Cropper and Fran Ackermann

Describes the process by which an NHS provider Unit sought to make quality assurance and improvement a shared concern of professionals and managers. Development of a…

Abstract

Describes the process by which an NHS provider Unit sought to make quality assurance and improvement a shared concern of professionals and managers. Development of a quality assurance strategy and related action plans pulled together existing quality initiatives in the Unit and set new initiatives in an agreed framework for organizational development. Thus the strategy filled the gap between a statement of organizational values and detailed quality auditing practices at the sharp end. Through the active involvement of professional staff and managers in multidisciplinary and multi‐level project groups, the facilitated processes of strategy making, dissemination and implementation led to significant learning by and development of staff and managers and an unanticipated spill over of energy, enthusiasm and commitment throughout the organization.

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International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Umit S. Bititci, Fran Ackermann, Aylin Ates, John Davies, Patrizia Garengo, Stephen Gibb, Jillian MacBryde, David Mackay, Catherine Maguire, Robert van der Meer, Farhad Shafti, Michael Bourne and Seniye Umit Firat

It is argued that whilst operational and support processes deliver performance presently, it is the managerial processes that sustain performance over time. The purpose of…

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Abstract

Purpose

It is argued that whilst operational and support processes deliver performance presently, it is the managerial processes that sustain performance over time. The purpose of this research paper is to better understand what these managerial processes are and how they influence organisational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical background is reviewed covering literature on the subject of business process management, resourced‐based view (RBV), dynamic capabilities and managerial processes. A research framework leads to qualitative case study‐based research design. Data are collected from 37 organisations across Europe, classified according to their performance.

Findings

Findings suggest that the five managerial processes and their constituent managerial activities, identified through the empirical research, influence performance of organisations as an interconnected managerial system rather than as individual processes and activities. Also, the execution and maturity of this managerial system is influenced by the perceptions of the managers who organise it.

Research limitations/implications

Within the limitation of the study the discussion leads to eight research propositions that contribute to our understanding of how managerial processes influence organisational performance. These propositions and ensuing discussion provide insights into the content and structure of managerial processes, as well as contributing to the debate on RBV by suggesting that managerial processes and activities could be considered as valuable, rare and inimitable resources. Furthermore, the discussion on how managerial perceptions influence the organisation and execution of the managerial system contributes towards our understanding of how and why dynamic capabilities develop.

Practical implications

The results suggest that in higher performing organisations, managers: demonstrate a wider awareness of the overall managerial system; achieve a balance between short‐term and future‐oriented activities; exploit their managerial activities for multiple purposes; demonstrate greater maturity of managerial activities; and pay greater attention to the organisation of the managerial system.

Originality/value

This paper presents one of the first empirical studies that attempt to understand how business processes, and particularly managerial processes, as an interconnected managerial system serve to sustain performance of organisations.

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International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

In order to elaborate the concept of resources (a key component of the well-established resource-based theory of the firm) this paper concentrates on exploring and…

Abstract

In order to elaborate the concept of resources (a key component of the well-established resource-based theory of the firm) this paper concentrates on exploring and elaborating the associated concept of competences, in particular distinctive and core competences. This exploration includes an examination of the extant literature, alongside and in parallel with, an extensive body of action research undertaken over 15 years and with 44 top management teams engaged in strategy making. As such the concepts are scrutinized both in terms of their theoretical underpinnings as well as their impact on practice. The research reinforces the view that distinctiveness emerges most powerfully from the identification (or creation) of unique bundles or combinations of competences and that effective and meaningful core competences can be identified from understanding and refining the links between competences and organizational goals. The resultant conceptualization of the systemic competence/goals structure emerges from the interaction of theory and practice.

Details

A Focussed Issue on Identifying, Building, and Linking Competences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-990-9

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Abstract

Details

A Focussed Issue on Identifying, Building, and Linking Competences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-990-9

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Jessica Smith, David John Edwards, Igor Martek, Nicholas Chileshe, Susan Hayhow and Chris J. Roberts

This study aims to excoriate, define and delineate the main drivers of “change” in commercial construction projects and generate guidelines on how to minimise exposure to…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to excoriate, define and delineate the main drivers of “change” in commercial construction projects and generate guidelines on how to minimise exposure to the associated adverse effects upon project stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts mixed doctrines through a combination of epistemological lenses, embracing two primary philosophical stances: interpretivism, to identify the primary drivers of change based on a systematic literature review and a post-positivist, inductive approach to analyse the results of change within a Joint Contracts Tribunal (JCT) Design and Build (D&B) construction project case study.

Findings

The causal nexus of change during the construction phase is assessed and delineated; the key affecting factors are thematically grouped under headings: extent and severity; time in relation to implementing; instigating party; individual(s) responsible for managing the change; reason for the change; available resource; recoverable or non-recoverable; contract/project type; and type of client. Following this, the effects of change on key elements of the project are encapsulated and recommendations for adaptations which may provide improved experiences are offered.

Originality/value

The study tackles the common issue of managing the deleterious effects of change on commercial construction projects, defining management techniques to minimise stakeholder tribulation.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Mari Kira, Frans M. van Eijnatten and David B. Balkin

The aim of this paper is to conceptualize employees' sustainable work abilities, or their long‐term adaptive and proactive abilities to work, farewell at work, and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to conceptualize employees' sustainable work abilities, or their long‐term adaptive and proactive abilities to work, farewell at work, and contribute through working. Sustainable work is defined as to promote the development in personal resources leading to sustainable work ability.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual paper distinguishes vital personal resources underlying an employee's sustainable work ability and categorizes these resources with the help of integral theory. Collaborative work crafting was outlined as a tool to promote the development of personal resources and sustainable work ability.

Findings

Sustainable work ability depends on personal resources relating to our human nature as both individual and communal beings with both interior and exterior worlds. Work crafting may create sustainable work in which existing personal resources are benefited from, developed further through learning, or translated into novel resources.

Practical implications

When formal job descriptions and preplanned job design do not work in post‐industrial work, traditional job design can be replaced by collaborative work crafting, which allows development in both work and employees.

Originality/value

The paper synthesizes different types of personal resources needed for sustainable working and outlines their development processes, rather than adds one more theory to explain some specific aspect of well‐being, development, and functioning. The paper offers one of the first definitions of sustainable work.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Goran Milenković

International air express carriers, frequently referred to as international courier companies, operate integrated global networks consisting of aircraft, hubs, vehicles…

Abstract

International air express carriers, frequently referred to as international courier companies, operate integrated global networks consisting of aircraft, hubs, vehicles, data systems and tens of thousands of employees spread across all continents. The inherently global nature of such systems – the leading firm operates in 228 countries – makes them sensitive to a foray of risks and threats. This paper, which was presented at the Seventh International Public Relations Research Symposium (Lake Bled, Slovenia, 7th‐8th July, 2000), reports on an ongoing crisis management research project that started in 1997 and which investigates early markers of crises experienced by DHL Worldwide Express. After a concise literature overview, which maps the relationship between organisational crises and early warning signals, two research outputs are discussed. First, the production of a crisis register is described. Computer‐aided content analysis of an internal service bulletin identified 103 service crises which the company managed in 68 countries during a 15‐month period. Secondly, detailed case investigation generated a model of crisis gestation. Prior to conflagration, exacerbating conditions and precipitating events interact to produce a number of dynamic effects. Five types of gestation‐advancing effects are illustrated. The paper concludes by reflecting on some of the consequences globally dispersed operations can have on corporate crisis management processes.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2008

Fritz Schütze

It is almost unbelievable that it is already 11 years ago that our most beloved friend and teacher Anselm Strauss died. In 1999 we had a conference in Magdeburg, Germany…

Abstract

It is almost unbelievable that it is already 11 years ago that our most beloved friend and teacher Anselm Strauss died. In 1999 we had a conference in Magdeburg, Germany, where we tried to commemorate his very personal and creative way of doing sociological research and of teaching sociology that established an almost miraculous bridge to the minds of German and other European social scientists even though Anselm Strauss was very American. He was American in the best sense of using and encouraging creative freedom of expression, of showing witty nonconventionality, of relating in an egalitarian way to his interaction partners, of being empathically cooperative and practical in his thinking and in his personal relationships with his European students and colleagues. Today, instead, I would like to talk a little bit about his longer lasting impact on German-speaking social sciences and on other European social sciences as far as I have insight into them.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-127-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1908

ATTENTION has been repeatedly drawn to certain drawbacks in the library profession which tend to hinder progress in many ways, and recently some discussion has taken place…

Abstract

ATTENTION has been repeatedly drawn to certain drawbacks in the library profession which tend to hinder progress in many ways, and recently some discussion has taken place concerning the long hours and short pay of library assistants. Some years ago there appeared, we believe, in one of Mr. Greenwood's valuable Library Year Books, an analysis of the hours of work in a large number of British Municipal Libraries, and it was made plain from this that a majority of assistants had to work considerably more than forty‐eight hours weekly. Conditions may have changed since then, although it is open to doubt, but the fact remains that too many assistants, and a considerable number of librarians in small places, are now working so long, and in such broken spells, as to preclude any possibility of attaining self‐culture or reasonable recreation. The case of the small town librarian is particularly distressing. In some instances he is a man who has been well‐trained in a large town library, and inspired by a mistaken ambition, elects to attain a position of independence by accepting the chief librarianship in a library of which he afterwards finds himself the sole officer. He is responsible for the cleaning, as well as the ordinary work of a librarian, and his efforts to convert a miserable library rate of a few pounds into an engine of immense efficiency (as expected by the local authority) are enough to make the financial operations of even an American millionaire seem petty in comparison. We have had several cases like this brought to notice within a few weeks, and they give added point to any plea for reform which may be advanced. One young man, well‐educated and well‐trained, undertook the charge of a small municipal library, chiefly because it happened to be near London, and he wished to be in touch with that great and attractive centre. He very soon discovered that the hours of the library were so arranged as to occupy his whole time and keep him employed all day, from 9 a.m. or earlier, till 10 p.m., with two short breaks which did not suffice for a visit to London. On Sunday he was too tired to think of London, apart from which, the institutions which interested him were closed, so that it is possible this librarian has not yet seen the longed‐for London of his cherished anticipations ! There are cases like this in the smaller libraries all over the country, where one official has to perform all the work in an unlimited number of hours. If, as is done in some places, the hours of opening are greatly curtailed in order to give the librarian his deserved and well‐earned rest, then the public suffer. On the other hand, a library administered by a single officer and kept open from nine to ten hours daily, is rather of the nature of a slave‐compound, in which an official is kept prisoner in the interests of the omnipotent ratepayer. Wherever small staffs are kept, there exists this tendency towards long hours, and a consequent eterioration in the efficiency and educational qualifications of assistants. A standing complaint among those who are engaged in the educational work of the Library Association is that so many candidates are deficient in the most elementary subjects, such as composition, spelling and arithmetic. This is undoubtedly caused by the employment of imperfectly educated assistants, who are afterwards tied so fast to their library duties that they are unable to find any time for study and reading. In libraries where small staffs and long hours of opening are found together, it is almost certain that the work‐hours of the assistants will be excessive, and the efficiency of the service impaired.

Details

New Library World, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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