Search results

1 – 10 of over 66000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 April 2012

Gerald E. Smith

The predominant view of positioning in both the literature and practice – a remarkably uni- or two-dimensional view – asks these questions: (1) What dimension should the…

Abstract

The predominant view of positioning in both the literature and practice – a remarkably uni- or two-dimensional view – asks these questions: (1) What dimension should the product or service be positioned on, for example, unique styling, design, performance, and quality? (2) What category does the product or service compete in or belong to? So marketers therefore ask: Should the computer brand be positioned as reliable (Dell), or faster (Toshiba)? Research on economic value is well established in the pricing literature, especially in business-to-business pricing. Most of this literature focuses on differentiation value, that is, how to calculate the worth of the differential benefits a customer receives from using the firm's product versus the competitive substitute. But a much less studied area of this research deals with the price of the competitive reference product, or competitive frame of reference. Rarely do marketers extend positioning strategy to the level of economic value, asking: How is the product framed, and how valuable is the frame? The purpose of this chapter is to explore competitive frames of reference in business-to-business positioning. Specifically, what are alternative types of frames of reference? What is the role of the reference price in frames of reference? What are the implications of choosing one type of frame of reference versus another?

Details

Business-to-Business Marketing Management: Strategies, Cases, and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-576-1

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Ashraf M. Salama

The purpose of this paper is to contribute an inclusive insight into methodological research in architecture and allied disciplines and unravel aspects that include…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute an inclusive insight into methodological research in architecture and allied disciplines and unravel aspects that include philosophical positions, frames of reference and spheres of inquiry.

Design/methodology/approach

Following ontological and epistemological interpretations, the adopted methodology involves conceptual and critical analysis which is based on reviewing and categorising classical literature and more than hundred contributions in architectural and design research developed over the past five decades which were classified under the perspectives of inquiry and frames of reference.

Findings

Postulated through three philosophical positions – positivism, anti-positivism and emancipationist – six frames of reference were identified: systematic, computational, managerial, psychological, person–environment type-A and person–environment type-B. Technically oriented research and conceptually driven research were categorised as the perspectives of inquiry and were scrutinised together with their developmental aspects. By mapping the philosophical positions to the frames of reference, various characteristics and spheres of inquiry within each frame of reference were revealed.

Research limitations/implications

Further detailed examples can be developed to offer discerning elucidations relevant to each frame of reference.

Practical implications

The study is viewed as an enabling mechanism for researchers to identify the unique particularities of their research and the way in which it is pursued.

Originality/value

The study is a response to a glaring dearth of cognisance and a reaction to a growing but confusing body of knowledge that does not offer a clear picture of what research in architecture is. By identifying key characteristics, philosophical positions and frames of reference that pertain to the research in architecture and associated disciplines, the findings represent a scholastic endeavour in its field.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Ashutosh Dixit, Kenneth D. Hall and Sujay Dutta

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of price attribute framing and factors such as urgency and perceived price fairness on customer willingness to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of price attribute framing and factors such as urgency and perceived price fairness on customer willingness to pay (WTP) in automated retail settings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted two sets of quasi-experimental scenarios surrounding vending-machine purchase decisions. The first set was analyzed with MANOVA, the second set with choice-based conjoint (CBC) analysis.

Findings

When prices are framed positively (as a discount), customer WTP is higher at high published price levels than it is for unframed or negatively framed prices. The effect on WTP holds whether the reference price range is broad (few large increments) or narrow (numerous small increments). In the CBC scenarios, immediate availability of the product was most influential on choice, followed by price and brand effects. These findings held under conditions invoking both urgency and price fairness. Providing an explanation for higher prices increases perceived price fairness.

Research limitations/implications

Further study might assess the presence or absence of interaction effects in the conjoint scenarios.

Practical implications

Managers should consider transparency in dynamic pricing, particularly when the price change is outside the control of the firm. The conjoint scenario results also offer evidence that dynamic pricing will not impact other marketing-mix decisions for fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) dramatically (availability at point of purchase and presence in the consumer consideration set remain strong influences on choice).

Social implications

Understanding these effects on WTP could help managers manage perceptions of unfairness and optimize WTP.

Originality/value

A theoretical contribution from this study is that the immediate loss/gain consideration under theories of decision making under uncertainty outweigh considerations such as scarcity urgency or perceived unfairness. Use of conjoint analysis in WTP research, study of dynamic pricing in FMCG setting.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 29 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

J.C. Mandal and C.R. Sonawane

The purpose of this paper is to simulate flow inside differentially heated rotating cavity using two different formulations; one using Navier‐Stokes (NS) equations derived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to simulate flow inside differentially heated rotating cavity using two different formulations; one using Navier‐Stokes (NS) equations derived in non‐inertial (rotating) frame of reference and the other using NS equations in inertial frame of reference. Then to compare the results obtained from these formulations to find their merits and demerits.

Design/methodology/approach

The NS equations for both non‐inertial and inertial formulations are written in artificial compressibility form before discretizing them by a high resolution finite volume method. The dual time steeping approach of Jameson is used for time accuracy in both the formulations. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) approach is used for taking care of moving boundary problem arising in the inertial formulation. A newly developed HLLC‐AC Riemann solver for discretizing convective fluxes and central differencing for discretizing viscous fluxes are used in the finite volume approach. Results for both the formulations are first validated with test cases reported in literature. Then the results of the two formulations are compared among themselves.

Findings

Results of the non‐inertial formulation obtained by the proposed method are found to match well with those reported in literature. The results of both the formulations match well for low rotational speeds of the cavity. The discrepancies between the results of the two formulations progressively increase with the increase in rotational speed. Implicit treatment of the source term is found to reduce the discrepancies.

Practical implications

The present approach is useful for accurate prediction of flow feature and heat transfer characteristic in case of applications such as manufacturing of single wafer crystal for semiconductor and in numerous metallurgical processes.

Originality/value

The ALE formulation is used for the first time to simulate a differentially heated rotating cavity problem. The attempt to compare non‐inertial and inertial formulations is also reported for the first time. Implicit treatment of the source term leading to change in solution accuracy is one of the important findings of the present investigation.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Brittany Harker Martin

Managerial mindset and cognitive bias can be barriers to any transformation strategy. In the case of telework, most employees express willingness to telework, yet, few…

Abstract

Purpose

Managerial mindset and cognitive bias can be barriers to any transformation strategy. In the case of telework, most employees express willingness to telework, yet, few firms formally enable it during regular business hours. The status quo is a daily commute to the traditional workplace. The purpose of this paper is to test framing interventions designed to harness cognitive biases through choice architecture.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing upon behavioral strategy and prospect theory, this paper presents two studies: quasi-experiments with 146 senior business students and experiments in the field (replication using random assignment and extension) with 84 senior decision makers. Both studies use a one-way between-subjects design and chi-square analysis.

Findings

Findings support the proposition that, although cognitive biases can act as barriers to transformation, they can be re-framed through strategic interventions. Specifically, in both studies, there was a drastic increase in adoption simply by changing the way the choice was presented. Findings in the lab were cross-validated in the field. Observed shifts in preferences provide evidence that embedding the right reference point within communications can frame a decision choice more favorably. Findings also support that a bias for an implicitly perceived status quo can be overruled through an explicitly stated reference point.

Research limitations/implications

It is an assumption of behavioral strategy that most individuals simply respond to the gains/loss framing without being influenced by other psychological or contextual factors, and though these effects dissipate through aggregation, it is a limitation nonetheless. Indeed, using an individual construct to explain an organizational phenomenon is a well-debated topic in the field of strategy, with proponents on both sides. The distinguishing factor, here, is that behavioral strategists are only interested in results at the aggregated level.

Practical implications

Practitioners attempting to roll out telework adoption, or any transformation, now have proven strategies for designing frames of reference that intervene against and harness the power of loss aversion and the status quo.

Social implications

This paper measures micro processes that have an effect at the macro level. It explains systematic aversion to adoption as an aggregation of decision-making behavior that is seemingly subconscious. In doing so, it highlights the impact of bounded rationality perpetuated through social systems, while measuring effective interventions designed to make systematic behavior more predictable.

Originality/value

A novel contribution is made in designing/testing a new frame for systematic resistance to change that frames the status quo as the losing prospect. In this frame, the perceived loss is in the choice not to change, and loss aversion proves to be an effective tool for facilitating systematic change.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Maurice E. Schweitzer and Leslie A. DeChnrch

Two distinct literatures have investigated the impact of negotiator frames. Both literatures demonstrate that negotiator frames significantly influence both bargaining…

Abstract

Two distinct literatures have investigated the impact of negotiator frames. Both literatures demonstrate that negotiator frames significantly influence both bargaining behavior and negotiated outcomes. These two literatures, however, offer completely different conceptualizations of what negotiator frames actually are. In this article we classify these two conceptualizations as reference frames, the referent‐dependent perception of outcomes, and conflict frames, a multi‐dimensional orientation toward conflict. We report results from an experiment that links these two types of frames. We find that loss‐framed negotiators adopt conflict frames that are more win‐oriented and task‐oriented than the conflict frames gain‐framed negotiators adopt. Our results offer insight into the frame adoption process and have implications for dispute resolution and negotiation practice.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 July 2007

Carol Davy

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how organisational frames of reference, which are neither not appropriately communicated nor supported, affect the wellbeing of workers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how organisational frames of reference, which are neither not appropriately communicated nor supported, affect the wellbeing of workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature is used to develop a new model linking ambiguous frames of reference with reduced levels of workers' wellbeing. This is then tested using data collected in a study involving primary health care workers in Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Findings

This paper finds that, for these particular workers, the model linking ambiguous frames of reference and reduced worker wellbeing is valid.

Research limitations/implications

The paper shows that there is a need for further research into a variety of areas including the importance of frames of reference to worker wellbeing, the significance of reference groups to organisational frames of reference and the consequences of reduced worker wellbeing in developing countries.

Practical implications

In this paper, recommendations for changes to current PNG primary health care management practices, including ensuring the support for as well as communicating the organisational frame of reference, are discussed.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the experiences of these particular primary health care workers not only demonstrates the validity of the new model but also brings a unique perspective to the field of worker wellbeing, which up until now has been dominated by research conducted in western countries.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Sinclair and David Collins

Critiques the visions of management gurus in comparison to themeasures which they offer to “deliver” them. Argues thatorganization development requires a qualitatively…

Abstract

Critiques the visions of management gurus in comparison to the measures which they offer to “deliver” them. Argues that organization development requires a qualitatively different look at workers and work going beyond behavioural prescription. Presents the concept of the new skills mix supported by arguments that integrate and develop more systematic analyses informed by frames of reference often regarded as mutually exclusive – this leads to a critical examination of proactivity and empowerment.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Gerald E. Smith

Industrial design has become a key source of competitive advantageand strategic focus to companies in the 1990s. The rapid emergence ofthe information age, the…

Abstract

Industrial design has become a key source of competitive advantage and strategic focus to companies in the 1990s. The rapid emergence of the information age, the proletarianization of computer technology, and the need for continual improvements in worker productivity have driven companies to seek ways to enhance worker productivity. The limiting factor, however, is not technology, but workers′ ability to use it effectively. Focusses on design communication, and specifically product framing, and its role in facilitating the interface between worker and technology in business and industrial markets. Product framing encourages users to compare new products with, or “think of” the new product in terms of, a frame of reference with which they already might be familiar. Product framing thus accelerates learning and adoption. Defines, illustrates and categorizes product framing and reports the results of a pilot test.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Vlad Burtaverde and Dragos Iliescu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of both work-related and emic contextualization of personality measurement in the prediction of work-related outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of both work-related and emic contextualization of personality measurement in the prediction of work-related outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 224 employees completed work-contextualized and non-contextualized Big Five model measures, as well as contextualized emic personality measures, together with a number of measures for work-related outcomes.

Findings

Results showed that, after controlling for demographic variables and non-contextualized etic factors, etic contextualized factors predicted occupational stress, work engagement, job satisfaction, work frustration, turnover intention, career satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. After controlling for demographic variables, non-contextualized etic factors and contextualized etic factors, emic contextualized personality factors predicted work engagement, job satisfaction, absenteeism, counterproductive workplace behaviors and organizational citizenship behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The study has a number of limitations. First, the sample contained participants recruited from a low number of professional areas. Second, the sample consisted mostly of women, and relying on unbalanced samples may lead to construct irrelevant variance.

Practical implications

By using a combination of etic personality measures and contextualized emic personality measures, organizations can better predict a number of organizational outcomes related to extra-role performance, such as those considered in the present study.

Originality/value

This research showed that, in the case of personality assessment, using a double form of contextualization – frame of reference and culture – an increment in the prediction of organizational behaviors can be obtained.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 66000