Social countermarketing (SCM) aims at influencing existing socio-cultural norms, public policies or political decision-making. Existing empirical accounts of SCM give…
Social countermarketing (SCM) aims at influencing existing socio-cultural norms, public policies or political decision-making. Existing empirical accounts of SCM give limited insights into their success. The authors analyze SCM strategies and their public resonance by studying the diagnostic and prognostic frames and responsibility attributions that are used in the debates.
The authors focus on two online SCM campaigns in the Netherlands that are targeted against over-feeding of chickens for consumption and the selling of low-priced meat. The authors conducted a quantitative content analysis (N = 3,902) of these debates on Twitter for a two-year period (July 2015 to June 2017).
The results show that citizens play an important role for the amplification of SCM campaigns. Diagnostic and prognostic frames about meat selling practices are among the most popular ones while the importance of mobilization messages differs per case. This can be explained by the proximity of these frames to citizens' daily life experiences.
The apparent willingness of citizens to both tweet and retweet calls for mobilization might give messages by environmental NGOs third-party endorsement. This strengthens their position and visibility in the debates, which are both of strategic value. The analysis of actor responsibility can identify reputational risks for companies in contested industries such as mass meat production.
The findings enhance professional understanding of designing campaign messages and refine SCM success in terms of resonance, since resonance indicates amplification and third-party endorsement.
The behaviours of four indeterminate frame-support combinations namely Type I (with fixed supports), Type II (with pinned supports), Type III (with fixed-pinned supports…
The behaviours of four indeterminate frame-support combinations namely Type I (with fixed supports), Type II (with pinned supports), Type III (with fixed-pinned supports) and Type IV (with fixed-roller supports) frames under the exposure conditions and loads as existing on site were simulated. Two categories of these combinations (I and II) were studied namely single storey-single bay and multiple storey-single bay frames, as illustrated in the case studies treated. A procedure for determining the probability of failure at different sections along the frame types, the range between the probability of failure bounds and the reliability ratings of the frame types were developed based on the kinetic method of plastic moment analysis, minimum weight design method, piecewise method of moment analysis and first order-second moment (FOSM) methods. The analysis results of the Category I frames showed that the Type I frame was most reliable (with the lowest probability of failure range of 0.3269), while the Type II frame was least reliable (with the highest probability of failure range of 0.4918). These results were consistent with those of the Category II frames. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Collapse mechanisms were generated for four frame-support types and the corresponding plastic moments were determined using both the kinematic plastic analyses and minimum weight design methods. The members were designed and the plastic moments were distributed at sections of constant interval along the frame length to generate corresponding envelopes. A similar process was carried out to determine the elastic moment variables due to the loads. The reliability index and the corresponding probability of failure at each frame section were determined. Then, the probabilities of failure bounds for the frames were then compared to determine the most reliable.
It was observed that there existed a wide margin between the elastic and plastic moments indicating that design of steel structures at the elastic limit does not take full advantage of its strength. Hence, the design can be carried out beyond the elastic limit and within the safety margin given in equation (3). However, the safety of the entire frame is assessed on the basis of range of values between the highest and the lowest probability of failure bounds. The lower this range is (not exceeding 0.5 or 50 per cent), the more reliable the frame is.
The equations developed in this study can only be directly applied to multi storey-single bay frames. However, the reliability-based analysis and design procedure developed can be extended to other types of frames.
A practical approach for analysing steel frames with different supports with the overall goal of producing safe and economical designs has been developed and presented in this paper.
The procedure adopted is very original and can be backed up by existing literature. The piecewise method for analysing moments at various sections along a frame is also innovative. The whole concept can be adopted to determine the reliability of other types of frames such as multiple bay-multistorey frames with different support types.
Cites the existence of information framing effects as an interesting phenomenon in the area of human judgements and decision‐making. Uses three distinct types of framing…
Cites the existence of information framing effects as an interesting phenomenon in the area of human judgements and decision‐making. Uses three distinct types of framing effect and the hypothesis identified by Leven et al (1998). Studies the reliability of these effects across samples of subjects in the USA and Australia. Shows that, for two of the three types, attribute framing and risky choice framing, the effects were strong and almost identical in the two samples. Highlights a significant effect for the US sample, but not the Australian sample, for the third type, goal framing. Discusses results in terms of the reliability of the effects and their potential for revealing cross‐cultural differences in values.
Rodney Cooper, Furniture Partner of London's Building Design Partnership, carried out for the Designers' Journal a survey of partitioning suppliers and manufacturers. The results — and the attitudes of those people approached for information — tended to confirm the view that many users must have formed: that the industry has still not come to terms with the demands of a more sophisticated market. Often the product exists that will do the Job, but the detailed information is hard to find.
THE rear spar frame, the first major member forward of frame ‘O’ forms, together with the front spar frame, the principal structural links between the inner wing and…
THE rear spar frame, the first major member forward of frame ‘O’ forms, together with the front spar frame, the principal structural links between the inner wing and fuselage, bearing the loads imposed upon the inner wing and dispersing them into the fuselage. Constructionally, therefore, the frame is necessarily robust comprising a double diaphragm structure, spaced apart by heavy boom sections of light aluminium alloy situated around the inner and outer frame peripheries. The centre section of the frame is extensively cut away, leaving a diaphragm width of approximately 16 in. at the fuselage datum, tapering to 10 in. at the roof, and 4 in. at the bottom centreline of the aircraft. The lower portion of the frame, 24 in. below the datum is cranked at 3 1/2°, aligning with the wing incidence of the spars. The diaphragms front and rear are made in segments, and lap jointed; the outer edge periphery is flanged forming a skin attachment angle. For the front diaphragm construction, eight segments are utilized, those adjoining the roof and at the fuselage base are fabricated from 16 s.w.g. D.T.D. 546, while around the fuselage dytum 14 s.w.g. D.T.D. 546 is employed. Below the fuslage datum, a gap occurs in the frame segments, which is filled by the web of the rear spar after the frame and spar are brought together as an assembly. This web is 4 ft. deep and straddles the frame across the diameter, leaving a 2 ft. aperture between the top edge of the web and a floor support member. A similar aperture is left between the bottom edge of the web and the frame segments at the fuselage base.
Symbolical-interaction sociology is useful to mediators and relevant to mediation practice. It explores the elements of everyday social interaction including behavior of…
Symbolical-interaction sociology is useful to mediators and relevant to mediation practice. It explores the elements of everyday social interaction including behavior of disputants during instances of conflict. In particular, Erving Goffman’s frame analysis offers mediators a practical tool useful in assessing and managing both the intellectual and emotional responses of disputants during mediation. Moreover, frame analysis can effectively guide mediators in assisting disputants to reorient their respective responses to each other and to the dispute, thereby enhancing opportunities for meaningful dialogue. In addition, Goffman’s game, drama, and ritual metaphors offer simple but powerful analytic tools guiding mediation clients through terrain which would otherwise be chaotic and overwhelming. Mediators committed to enhancing their practices and researchers in search of a sound theoretical base for effective dispute resolution can benefit substantially by applying these insights to the practice of mediation.
Social movement scholarship points to the significance of collective identity in social movement emergence. This chapter examines the relationship between structural…
Social movement scholarship points to the significance of collective identity in social movement emergence. This chapter examines the relationship between structural identities, such as race, gender, and sexuality, and the collective identity of student activist conferences in order to analyze how groups succeed or fail at engaging difference. Utilizing ethnographic participant observation at two student activist conferences – one of majority Black students and the other of majority white male students – this chapter employs an intersectional framework in analyzing the resonance of organizational collective action frames. This chapter finds that cultural resonance, frame centrality, and experiential commensurability are all important factors in engaging difference, and that the utilization of political intersectionality in framing may shape frame resonance. This framework that applies intersectionality to framing contributes to social movement analysis by recognizing how structural identities shape collective identity and group mobilization.
Recent events have shown that earnings management is a significant problem in the business world and that the culture in place in many organizations may encourage managers…
Recent events have shown that earnings management is a significant problem in the business world and that the culture in place in many organizations may encourage managers to manipulate earnings. While prior research has shown that earnings management exists at the corporate level, it has not examined whether managers at the divisional level are motivated to manage earnings. The purpose of this study is to examine whether divisional managers will be more inclined to manage earnings in order to maximize personal wealth. The secondary research objective is to examine whether the information frame will impact discretionary management accounting decisions. Members of the Institute of Management Accountants participated in an earnings management study in which two conditions were manipulated. First, the annual compensation of subjects was contingent on whether target income was met or not met. Second, information about a potentially obsolete inventory item was framed as either positive or negative. Subjects were asked the likelihood they would write off the potentially obsolete inventory. Research findings support the earnings management hypothesis and indicate that managers are less likely to write off obsolete inventory when their compensation is impacted by the write-off. Study results also reveal that the manner in which the inventory information is framed may affect managers’ write-off decision. These results are important as they may indicate that earnings management is more pervasive throughout the organization than previously shown.