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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Tomi Rajala and Harri Laihonen

Lack of knowledge and performance information sharing between actors is one manifestation of fragmentation in public performance management. This study aims to understand…

Abstract

Purpose

Lack of knowledge and performance information sharing between actors is one manifestation of fragmentation in public performance management. This study aims to understand what managerial means are used for connecting performance dialogues and how these means affect fragmentation in performance management.

Design/methodology/approach

In this cross-sectional research design, the authors reviewed documents, interviewed public managers, observed workshops and held thematic discussions with public managers in one Finnish municipality. To analyze the empirical data, the authors used thematic analysis and both inductive and deductive research approaches.

Findings

The analysis revealed nine managerial means that public managers use for connecting performance dialogues to decrease fragmentation. These were (1) defining the division of labor between different dialogues, (2) assigning resources for performance dialogues, (3) generating convincing narratives for promoting collaboration, (4) providing the same performance information to collaborators, (5) building joint information systems, (6) establishing integrative performance dialogue hubs, (7) naming the gatekeepers, (8) offering training for dialogues and (9) synchronizing performance dialogues. Based on our findings, most of these means can preserve, increase or decrease fragmentation depending on their design.

Originality/value

The results of the study are valuable because the performance management literature has not investigated what managerial means are used to connect performance dialogues and how these means can preserve, increase or decrease fragmentation.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 February 2021

Tomi Rajala, Harri Laihonen and Petra Kokko

Fragmentation can inhibit joint goals and performance measures. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the level of fragmentation between public, private…

1024

Abstract

Purpose

Fragmentation can inhibit joint goals and performance measures. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the level of fragmentation between public, private and third sectors in a hybrid organization's performance management systems and the effects of this fragmentation to propose hypotheses and new research methods for future studies.

Design/methodology/approach

The inductive research design was based on a mixed method approach. As empirical data, a survey, interviews and documents were used in this case study examining a hybrid organization called Welfare Alliance.

Findings

The results showed low-level fragmentation in the performance management system of the hybrid. Although the level of fragmentation was low-level, it affected the hybrid's ability to implement joint performance goals and measures. Performance management practices suffered as a consequence.

Originality/value

As a theoretical contribution to research addressing performance management in hybrids, the study proposes new concepts and theoretical hypotheses concerning fragmented performance management systems in hybrids. These theoretical hypotheses propose how performance goals and measures can become fragmented because they isolate service production units and activities from each other. The proposed hypotheses for future studies also attempt to provide explanations for how fragmentation can spread from one management function to another (i.e. from goal setting to performance measurement).

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Ali Mahmoud Mahgoub

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of using proportional representation system on the fragmentation of the party system in the Algerian political system…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of using proportional representation system on the fragmentation of the party system in the Algerian political system within the period from 1997 to 2017, in which Algeria has experienced five legislative elections regularly every five years by testing a hypothesis about adopting the proportional representation system on the basis of the closed list during the foregoing legislative elections has obviously influenced the exacerbation of the Algerian party system’s fragmentation, compared to other factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The essence of the theoretical framework of this study is to address the effect of the electoral system as an independent variable on the party system as a dependent variable. The starting point for that framework is to reassess the “Duverger’s law,” which appeared since the early 1950s and has influenced the foregoing relationship, and then to review the literature on a new phase that tried to provide a more accurate mechanism for determining the number of parties and their relative weight, whether in terms of electoral votes or parliamentary seats. This means that researchers began to use a measure called the effective number of parties (ENP) for Laakso and Taagepera since 1979. The study elaborates the general concepts of the electoral system and the party system. It used Laakso, Taagepera index of the “ENP” to measure the phenomenon of fragmentation party during the five legislative elections from 1997 to 2017 in Algeria.

Findings

The results of the study reveal that the proportional representation electoral system – beside other factors – had clear impacts on the fragmentation of the Algerian party system by all standards, whether on the level of the apparent rise in the number of the parties represented in the Algerian parliament from 10 parties in 1997 election to 36 parties in 2017 election or according to the index of Laakso and Taagepera (ENP). The average number of effective number of electoral parties in the five elections was around 7.66, and the average number of effective number of parliamentary parties in the five elections was around 4.39, which puts Algeria in an advanced degree of the fragmentation of the party system.

Originality/value

This study about the phenomenon of the fragmentation of the party system, which is one of the new subjects in the field of comparative politics – globally and in the Arab world. Hence, the value of this study aims to shed light on this mysterious area of science, the fragmentation of the party system in the Algerian political system during the period from 1997 to 2017.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 December 2018

Laura Márquez-Ramos

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of whether emerging economies benefit or suffer more because of value-chain activities than advanced…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of whether emerging economies benefit or suffer more because of value-chain activities than advanced economies do. Specifically, it focuses on the consequences in terms of individual wages.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel data techniques are used to estimate an expanded Mincerian wage equation over the period 1995-2007. The analysis is performed using micro-level data for two countries that represent two different experiences of value-chain activities in Central Europe: Germany and Slovenia.

Findings

Increasing value-chain activities reduce wages for low-skilled workers in high-skill-intensive industries in Germany, hence driving up the skill wage premium. Conversely, evidence is found of a decreasing skill wage premium as a consequence of increasing value-chain activities in Slovenia. Finally, increasing value-chain activities reduces the wages of workers in low-skill-intensive industries in both Germany and Slovenia.

Originality/value

This paper analyses the effect of value-chain activities on wages. It is the first empirical assessment that brings individual wage data directly into the picture for an international comparison focussed on two Central European countries that represent “two faces” of value chains. This paper shows that the effects of increasing value-chain activities on wages differ by country, by industry and by individual skills.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Randall K.Q. Akee, Arnab K. Basu, Nancy H. Chau and Melanie Khamis

Ethnic conflicts and their links to international human trafficking have recently received a surge in international attention. It appears that ethnic conflicts exacerbate…

Abstract

Ethnic conflicts and their links to international human trafficking have recently received a surge in international attention. It appears that ethnic conflicts exacerbate the internal displacement of individuals from networks of family and community, and their access to economic and social safety nets. These same individuals are then vulnerable to being trafficked by the hopes of better economic prospects elsewhere. In this chapter, we empirically examine this link between ethnic fragmentation, conflicts, internally displaced persons, refugees, and international trafficking, making use of a novel dataset of international trafficking. We conduct a direct estimation, which highlights the ultimate impact of ethnic fragmentation and conflict on international trafficking through internal and international displacements.

Details

Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Partha Gangopadhyay and Manas Chatterji

The fragmentation can either lead to an all-out civil war as in Sri Lanka or a frozen conflict as in Georgia. One of the main characteristics of fragmentation is the…

Abstract

The fragmentation can either lead to an all-out civil war as in Sri Lanka or a frozen conflict as in Georgia. One of the main characteristics of fragmentation is the control of group members by their respective leaders. The chapter applies standard models of non-cooperative game theory to explain the endogenous fragmentation, which seeks to model the equilibrium formation of rival groups. Citizens become members of these rival groups and some sort of clientelism develops in which political leaders control their respective fragments of citizens. Once the divisions are created, the inter-group rivalry can trigger violent conflicts that may seriously damage the social fabric of a nation and threaten the prospect of peace for the people for a very long time. In other words, our main goal in this chapter is to understand the formation of the patron–client relationship or what is called clientelisation.

Details

Peace Science: Theory and Cases
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-200-5

Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Felix Oppong

Following decades of weak financial capacity of local governments in raising enough revenues to finance their budgets, this paper aims to examine the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Following decades of weak financial capacity of local governments in raising enough revenues to finance their budgets, this paper aims to examine the impact of jurisdictional fragmentation on property taxes in Ghana. Since independence in 1957, many local governments in Ghana are yet to build their fiscal capacity to collect enough own source revenues to support their local budgets. All local government laws in Ghana have assigned property taxes to local governments.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses quantitative econometric techniques with local level panel data from 2010 to 2016 to examine the impact of fragmenting assemblies in Ghana.

Findings

The paper finds that fragmenting local governments have an overall negative effect on property taxes in district assemblies in Ghana. However, fragmentation of metropolitan assemblies has an overall positive effect on property taxes, relative to district assemblies. In the case of municipal assemblies, fragmentation has a net positive effect on property taxes but an overall marginally negative effect, relative to district assemblies. Also, the paper finds that grants, capital expenditure and administrative expenditure of local governments do not impact on the collection of property tax revenues in all types of assemblies in Ghana.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that relative to metropolitan assemblies, fragmenting districts assemblies is not congruent with government efforts to promote the collection of property taxes in Ghana.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2014

Felipe Link, Jordan Harris, Felipe Irarrázaval, Felipe Valenzuela, Juliane Welz and Katrin Barth

Cities have been exposed to a variety of natural disasters such as flooding, extreme temperatures, storms, earthquakes, and other natural shocks, and have had to respond…

Abstract

Purpose

Cities have been exposed to a variety of natural disasters such as flooding, extreme temperatures, storms, earthquakes, and other natural shocks, and have had to respond and adapt to such pressures over time. In the context of global climate change, natural disasters have increased across the globe. Apart from climate change, many urban environments in Latin America are experiencing significant transformations in land use patterns, socio-demographic change, changing labor markets, and economic growth, resulting from recent decades of globalization. Such transformations have resulted in the internal fragmentation of cities. In this context, the purpose of the present chapter is to demonstrate the importance in both theoretical and methodological terms, of integrating the concept of socio-environmental fragmentation into urban vulnerability research in order to make progress toward higher degrees of local sustainability in those areas of the city that suffer natural disasters and fragmentation.

Methodology/approach

A mixed methods approach is used in order to combine different technical issues from urban and climate change studies.

Findings

The findings are related to the importance of an integrated approach, regarding the complexity of urban life, and the relationship between the urban, the social, and the environmental phenomenon.

Social implications

This chapter relates to the revisit of the current state of preparedness and to determine whether further adaptations are required. The authors understood that these kinds of mixed approaches are necessary in order to understand the new complexity of urban processes.

Details

From Sustainable to Resilient Cities: Global Concerns and Urban Efforts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-058-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

Wayne J. Smeltz and Belmont F. Haydel

This research sought to test the existence of fragmentation between home office and overseas management and its potential impact on the planning and control of social…

Abstract

This research sought to test the existence of fragmentation between home office and overseas management and its potential impact on the planning and control of social responsiveness programs. Results indicate that fragmentation does exist between home office and overseas management especially in the perceived impact of environmental factors on strategic planning. The findings reveal that home office management appears to have a strategic orientation to management while overseas management takes a more operational approach.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2019

Khosro Sayevand and Hossein Arab

The purpose of this paper is to propose a gauge for the convergence of the deterministic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to obtain an optimum upper bound for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a gauge for the convergence of the deterministic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to obtain an optimum upper bound for PSO algorithm and also developing a precise equation for predicting the rock fragmentation, as important aims in surface mines.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a database including 80 sets of data was collected from 80 blasting events in Shur river dam region, in Iran. The values of maximum charge per delay (W), burden (B), spacing (S), stemming (ST), powder factor (PF), rock mass rating (RMR) and D80, as a standard for evaluating the fragmentation, were measured. To check the performance of the proposed PSO models, artificial neural network was also developed. Accuracy of the developed models was evaluated using several statistical evaluation criteria, such as variance account for, R-square (R2) and root mean square error.

Findings

Finding the upper bounds for the difference between the position and the best position of particles in PSO algorithm and also developing a precise equation for predicting the rock fragmentation, as important aims in surface mines.

Originality/value

For the first time, the convergence of the deterministic PSO is studied in this study without using the stagnation or the weak chaotic assumption. The authors also studied application of PSO inpredicting rock fragmentation.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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