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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Nawar Mohammed Ridha Hashim, Mohd. Zamri Yusoff and Hussein Ahmed Mohammed

The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the phenomenon of separation and subsequent reattachment that happens due to a sudden contraction or expansion in flow…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to numerically study the phenomenon of separation and subsequent reattachment that happens due to a sudden contraction or expansion in flow geometry, in addition, to investigating the effect of nanoparticles suspended in water on heat transfer enhancement and fluid flow characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Turbulent forced convection flow over triple forward facing step (FFS) in a duct is numerically studied by using different types of nanofluids. Finite volume method is employed to carry out the numerical investigations. with nanoparticles volume fraction in the range of 1-4 per cent and nanoparticles diameter in the range 30-75 nm, suspended in water. Several parameters were studied, such as the geometrical specification (different step heights), boundary conditions (different Reynolds [Re] numbers), types of fluids (base fluid with different types of nanoparticles), nanoparticle concentration (different volume fractions) and nanoparticle size.

Findings

The numerical results indicate that the Nusselt number increases as the volume fraction increases, but it decreases as the diameter of the nanoparticles of nanofluids increases. The turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate increase as Re number increases. The velocity magnitude increases as the density of nanofluids decreases. No significant effect of increasing the three steps heights on Nusselt along the heated wall, except in front of first step where increasing the first step height leads to an increase in the recirculation zone size adjacent to it.

Research limitations/implications

The phenomenon of separation and subsequent reattachment happened due to a sudden contraction or expansion in flow geometry, such as forward facing and backward facing steps, respectively, can be recognized in many engineering applications where heat transfer enhancement is required. Some examples include cooling systems for electronic equipment, heat exchanger, diffusers and chemical process. Understanding the concept of these devices is very important from the engineering point of view.

Originality/value

Convective heat transfer can be enhanced passively by changing flow geometry, boundary conditions, the traditional fluids or by enhancing thermal conductivity of the fluid. Great attention has been paid to increase the thermal conductivity of base fluid by suspending nano-, micro- or larger-sized particles in fluid. The products from suspending these particles in the base fluid are called nanofluids. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics over FFS. This study is the first where nanofluids are employed as working fluids for flow over triple FFS.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

A.B. Ansari and S.A. Gandjalikhan Nassab

The purpose of this paper is to focus on thermal characteristics behavior of forced convection flow in a duct over forward facing step (FFS), in which all of the heat…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on thermal characteristics behavior of forced convection flow in a duct over forward facing step (FFS), in which all of the heat transfer mechanisms, including convection, conduction and radiation, take place simultaneously in the fluid flow.

Design/methodology/approach

The fluid is treated as a gray, absorbing, emitting and scattering medium. The Navier‐Stokes and energy equations are solved numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to obtain the velocity and temperature fields. Discretized forms of these equations are obtained by the finite volume method and solved using the SIMPLE algorithm. Since the gas is considered as a radiating medium, all of the convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer take place simultaneously in the gas flow. For computation of the radiative term in the gas energy equation, the radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved numerically by the discrete ordinate method (DOM) to find the radiative heat flux distribution inside the radiating medium. By this numerical approach, the velocity, pressure and temperature fields are calculated.

Findings

The effect of wall emissivity, optical thickness, albedo coefficient and the radiation‐conduction parameter on heat transfer behavior of the system are also investigated. The numerical results for two cases of convection‐conduction and conduction‐radiation problems are compared with the available data published in open literature and good agreement was obtained.

Originality/value

This is the first time in which flow over FFS in a duct, considering all heat transfer mechanisms including conduction, convection and radiation, is solved numerically.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Marcello Lappa

Hydrothermal waves represent the preferred mode of instability of the so-called Marangoni flow for a wide range of liquids and conditions. The related features in…

Abstract

Purpose

Hydrothermal waves represent the preferred mode of instability of the so-called Marangoni flow for a wide range of liquids and conditions. The related features in classical rectangular containers have attracted much attention over recent years owing to the relevance of these oscillatory modes to several techniques used for the production of single crystals of semiconductor or oxide materials. Control or a proper knowledge of convective instabilities in these systems is an essential topic from a material/product properties saving standpoint. The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of these phenomena in less ordinary circumstances.

Design/methodology/approach

This short paper reports on a numerical model developed to inquire specifically about the role played by sudden changes in the available cross-section of the shallow cavity hosting the liquid. Although accounting for the spanwise dimension would be necessary to derive quantitative results, the approach is based on the assumption of two-dimensional flow, which, for high-Pr fluids, is believed to retain the essence of the involved physical processes.

Findings

Results are presented for the case of a fluid with Pr = 15 filling an open container with a single backward-facing or forward-facing step on the bottom wall or with an obstruction located in the centre. It is shown that the presence of steps in the considered geometry can lead to a variety of situations with significant changes in the local spectral content of the flow and even flow stabilization in certain circumstances. The role of thermal boundary conditions is assessed by considering separately adiabatic and conducting conditions for the bottom wall.

Originality/value

Although a plethora of studies have been appearing over recent years motivated, completely or in part, by a quest to identify new means to mitigate these instabilities and produce accordingly single crystals of higher quality for the industry, unfortunately, most of these research works were focusing on very simple geometries. In the present paper, the causality and interdependence among all the kinematic and thermal effects mentioned above is discussed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Yasser M. Ahmed and A.H. Elbatran

This paper aims to investigate numerically the turbulent flow characteristics over a backward facing step. Different turbulence models with hybrid computational grid have…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate numerically the turbulent flow characteristics over a backward facing step. Different turbulence models with hybrid computational grid have been used to study the detached flow structure in this case. Comparison between the numerical results and the available experiment data is carried out in the present study. The results of the different turbulence models were in a good agreement with the experimental results. The numerical results also concluded that the k-kl-ω turbulence model gave favorable results compared with the experiment.

Design/methodology/approach

It is very important to study the flow characteristics of detached flows. Therefore, the current study investigates numerically the flow characteristics in backward facing step by using two-, three- and seven-equation turbulence models in the finite volume code ANSYS Fluent. In addition, hybrid grid has been used to improve the capability of the unstructured mesh elements for predicting the flow separation in this case. Comparison between the different turbulence models and the available experimental data was done to find the most suitable turbulence model for simulating such cases of detached flows.

Findings

The present numerical simulations with the different turbulence models predicted efficiently the flow characteristics over the backward facing step. The transition k-kl-ω gave the best acceptable results compared with experimental data. This is a good concluded remark in the fields of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics because the phenomenon of flow separation is not easy to be predicted numerically and can affect greatly on the predicted drag of moving bodies in many engineering applications.

Originality/value

The CFD results of using different turbulence models have been validated with the experimental work, and the results of k-kl-ω proven acceptable with flow characteristics. The results of the current study conclude that the use of k-kl-ω turbulence model will contribute towards a more efficient utilization in the fields of fluid mechanics and hydrodynamics.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed, Ugur Guven and Rajesh Yadav

The purpose of this paper is to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using passive flow control method by introducing bio-inspired nose near the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using passive flow control method by introducing bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the NACA 2412 airfoil.

Design/methodology/approach

Two distinguished methods have been implemented on the leading edge of the airfoil: forward facing step, which induces multiple accelerations at low angle of attack, and cavity/backward facing step, which creates recirculating region (axial vortices) at high angle of attack.

Findings

The porpoise airfoil (optimum bio-inspired nose airfoil) delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency by increasing the lift and decreasing the parasitic drag. The maximum increase in aerodynamic efficiency is 22.4 per cent, with an average increase of 8.6 per cent at all angles of attack.

Research limitations/implications

The computational analysis has been done for NACA 2412 airfoil at low subsonic speed.

Practical implications

This design improves the aerodynamic performance and increases structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high-lift devices and flow-control devices.

Originality/value

Different bio-inspired nose designs which are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 2412 airfoil, and optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) has been found.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Fatih Selimefendigil and Ali J. Chamkha

The purpose of this study is to numerically analyze the convective heat transfer features for cooling of an isothermal surface with a cavity-like portion by using…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to numerically analyze the convective heat transfer features for cooling of an isothermal surface with a cavity-like portion by using CuO-water nano jet. Jet impingement cooling of curved surfaces plays an important role in practical applications. As compared to flat surfaces, fluid flow and convective heat transfer features with jet impingement cooling of a curved surface becomes more complex with additional formation of the vortices and their interaction in the jet wall region. As flow separation and reattachment may appear in a wide range of thermal engineering applications such as electronic cooling, combustors and solar power, jet impingement cooling of a surface which has a geometry with potential separation regions is important from the practical point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulations were performed with a finite volume-based solver. The study was performed for various values of the Reynolds number (between 100 and 400), length of the cavity (between 5 w and 40 w), height of the cavity (between w and 5w) and solid nano-particle volume fraction (between 0 and 4 per cent). Artificial neural network modeling was used to obtain a correlation for the average Nusselt number, which can be used to obtain fast and accurate predictions.

Findings

It was observed that cavity geometrical parameters of the cooling surface can be adjusted to change the flow field and convective heat transfer features. When the cavity length is low, significant contribution of the inclined wall of the cavity on the average Nusselt number is achieved. As the cavity length and height increase, the average Nusselt number, respectively, reduce and slightly enhance. At the highest value of cavity height, significant changes in the convective flow features are obtained. By using nanofluids instead of water, enhancement of average heat transfer in the range of 35-46 per cent is obtained at the highest particle volume fraction.

Originality/value

In this study, jet impingement cooling of an isothermal surface which has a cavity-like portion was considered with nanofluids. Addition of this portion to the impingement surface has the potential to produce additional vortices which affects the fluid flow and convective features in the jet impingement heat transfer. This geometry has the forward-facing step for the wall jet region with flow separation reattachment in the region. Based on the above literature survey and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, jet impingement cooling for such a geometry has never been reported in the literature despite its importance in practical thermal engineering applications. The results of this study may be useful for design and optimization of such systems and to obtain best performance in terms of fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Ratnadeep Nath and Krishnan Murugesan

This study aims to investigate the buoyancy-induced heat and mass transfer phenomena in a backward-facing-step (BFS) channel subjected to applied magnetic field using…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the buoyancy-induced heat and mass transfer phenomena in a backward-facing-step (BFS) channel subjected to applied magnetic field using different types of nanofluid.

Design/methodology/approach

Conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and concentration are used through velocity-vorticity form of Navier–Stokes equations and solved using Galerkin’s weighted residual finite element method. The density variation is handled by Boussinesq approximation caused by thermo-solutal buoyancy forces evolved at the channel bottom wall having high heat and concentration. Simulations were carried out for the variation of Hartmann number (0 to 100), buoyancy ratio (−10 to +10), three types of water-based nanofluid i.e. Fe3O4, Cu, Al2O3 at χ = 6%, Re = 200 and Ri = 0.1.

Findings

The mutual interaction of magnetic force, inertial force and nature of thermal-solutal buoyancy forces play a significant role in the heat and mass transport phenomena. Results show that the size of the recirculation zone increases at N = 1 for aiding thermo-solutal buoyancy force, whereas the applied magnetic field dampened the fluid-convection process. With an increase in buoyancy ratio, Al2O3 nanoparticle shows a maximum 54% and 67% increase in convective heat and mass transfer, respectively at Ha = 20 followed by Fe3O4 and Cu. However, with increase in Ha the Nuavg and Shavg diminish by maximum 62.33% and 74.56%, respectively, for Fe3O4 nanoparticles at N = 5 followed by Al2O3 and Cu.

Originality/value

This research study numerically examines the sensitivity of Fe3O4, Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles in a magnetic field for buoyancy-induced mixed convective heat and mass transfer phenomena in a BFS channel, which was not analyzed earlier.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1969

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Council and Publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued.

Abstract

Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical Research Council and Publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 41 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Mohamed Arif Raj Mohamed, Rajesh Yadav and Ugur Guven

This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to achieve an optimum flow separation control over the airfoil using a passive flow control method by introducing a bio-inspired nose near the leading edge of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4 and 6 series airfoil. In addition, to find the optimised leading edge nose design for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils for flow separation control.

Design/methodology/approach

Different bio-inspired noses that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils. Bio-inspired nose with different nose length, nose depth and nose circle diameter have been analysed on airfoils with different thicknesses, camber and camber locations to understand the aerodynamic flow properties such as vortex formation, flow separation, aerodynamic efficiency and moment.

Findings

The porpoise nose design that has a leading edge with depth = 2.25% of chord, length = 0.75% of chord and nose diameter = 2% of chord, delays the flow separation and improves the aerodynamic efficiency. Average increments of 5.5% to 6° in the lift values and decrements in parasitic drag (without affecting the pitching moment) for all the NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils were observed irrespective of airfoil geometry such as different thicknesses, camber and camber location.

Research limitations/implications

The two-dimensional computational analysis is done for different NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils at low subsonic speed.

Practical implications

This design improves aerodynamic performance and increases the structural strength of the aircraft wing compared to other conventional high lift devices and flow control devices. This universal leading edge flow control device can be adapted to aircraft wings incorporated with any NACA 4 and 6 series airfoil.

Social implications

The results would be of significant interest in the fields of aircraft design and wind turbine design, lowering the cost of energy and air travel for social benefits.

Originality/value

Different bio-inspired nose designs that are inspired by the cetacean species have been analysed for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils and universal optimum nose design (porpoise airfoil) is found for NACA 4 and 6 series airfoils.

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2018

Ismail Arroub, Ahmed Bahlaoui, Abdelghani Raji, Mohammed Hasnaoui and Mohamed Naïmi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate numerically mixed convection of Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a horizontal ventilated cavity heated from below by a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate numerically mixed convection of Al2O3-water nanofluids flowing through a horizontal ventilated cavity heated from below by a temperature varying sinusoidally along its lower wall. The simulations focus on the effects of different key parameters, such as Reynolds number (200 ≤ Re ≤ 5,000), nanoparticles’ concentration (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.1) and phase shift of the heating temperature (0 ≤ γ ≤ π), on flow and thermal patterns and heat transfer performances.

Design/methodology/approach

The Navier–Stokes equations describing the nanofluid flow were discretized using a finite difference technique. The vorticity and energy equations were solved by the alternating direction implicit method. Values of the stream function were obtained by using the point successive over-relaxation method.

Findings

The simulations were performed for two modes of imposed external flow (injection and suction). The main findings are that the dynamical and thermal fields are affected by the parameters Re, ϕ, γ and the applied ventilation mode; the addition of nanoparticles leads to an improvement of heat transfer rate and an increase of mean temperature inside the enclosure; the heat exchange performance and the better cooling are more pronounced in suction mode; the phase shift of the heating temperature may lead to periodic solutions for weaker values of Re and contributes to an increase or a decrease of heat transfer depending on the value of ϕ and the convection regime.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the problem of mixed convection of a nanofluid inside a vented cavity using the injection or suction technics and submitted to non-uniform heating conditions has not been treated so far.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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