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Book part

G. T. Lumpkin and Robert J. Pidduck

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to…

Abstract

Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has emerged as a core concept in the field of entrepreneurship. Yet, there continue to be questions about the nature of EO and how best to conceptualize and measure it. This chapter makes the case that EO has grown beyond its roots as a firm-level unidimensional strategy construct and that a new multidimensional version of EO is needed to capture the diverse manifestations and venues for entrepreneurial activity that are now evident around the world – global entrepreneurial orientation (GEO). Building on the five-dimension multidimensional view of EO set forth when Lumpkin and Dess (1996) extended the work of Miller (1983) and Covin and Slevin (1989, 1991), the chapter offers an updated definition of EO and a fresh interpretation of why EO matters theoretically. Despite earnest efforts to reconcile the different approaches to EO, in order to move the study of EO and the theoretical conversation about it forward, we maintain that as a group of scholars and a field, we need to acknowledge that two different versions of EO have emerged. Given that, we consider original approaches to measuring EO, evaluate formative measurement models, consider multiple levels of analysis, call for renewed attention to EO configurations, and discuss whether there is a theory of EO.

Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

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Article

Sungbum Park, Heeseok Lee and Seong Wook Chae

Most empirical balanced scorecard (BSC) studies have shown a tendency to wrongly employ reflective indicators instead of the more theoretically suitable formative

Abstract

Purpose

Most empirical balanced scorecard (BSC) studies have shown a tendency to wrongly employ reflective indicators instead of the more theoretically suitable formative indicators. However, formative indicators are difficult to apply due to the lack of statistical software support and a standardized model testing method. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study empirically compares the reflective and formative measurement method with standardized model comparison criteria. After collecting 217 valid questionnaires from companies in South Korea, the authors applied a structural equation modeling technique to analyze the data.

Findings

The result shows that the formative measure provides greater validity for the corporate performance measurement using BSC. Further, this study shows the indicators’ relative influence on each BSC perspectives using the formative measure.

Practical implications

This study proved the usefulness of the formative measure analysis method and suggested its practical use, focusing on the indicators most useful in developing corporate strategies. In addition, the authors showed that formative indicators could be used in the corporate environment by overcoming the limitations of conventional studies that were confined to causal relationships with latent variables.

Originality/value

This study may be the pioneering work that compares formative and reflective indicators simultaneously, addressing the usefulness of formative measurement and its application validity in the existing empirical studies using reflective measurements.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 66 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article

Carole B. Sox, Jeffrey M. Campbell, Sheryl F. Kline, Sandra K. Strick and Tena B. Crews

This paper aims to examine generational formative referents as factors that influence meeting attendees’ adoption and technology use within virtual and hybrid meetings…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine generational formative referents as factors that influence meeting attendees’ adoption and technology use within virtual and hybrid meetings, and test the applicability of the technology acceptance model (TAM) as presented by Davis (1986). This study investigates how attendees’ experiences from their respective formative years (i.e. generational formative referents), the basis of the Generational Cohort Theory (GCT), influence the TAM model constructs.

Design/methodology/approach

A partial least squares analysis test is utilized to determine technology acceptance within meetings across three generations: Baby Boomers (1946-1964), Generation X (1965-1978) and Generation Y (1979-2000).

Findings

The multi-group comparison determined all three generations responded similarly with regard to the paths being tested, indicating each of the three generational cohorts within this study are influenced by the experiences of their formative years, which are different for each generation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings add to the limited foundation for scholars wanting to further analyze technology use within meetings, and for those interested in generational influences.

Practical implications

This study provides useful information for marketers and planners to increase meeting attendance, enhance attendee satisfaction, and further explore meeting engagement opportunities.

Originality/value

Underpinning the GCT, this study is the first within hospitality and tourism studies to investigate a theoretical model on generational technology use within meetings.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article

James Kiwanuka‐Tondo, Kelly Fudge Albada, Richard D. Waters, Jessica Katz Jameson and Mark Hamilton

The purpose of this paper is to test a predictive model for organizational factors on the extent to which organizations involved in non‐governmental organizations (NGO) or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test a predictive model for organizational factors on the extent to which organizations involved in non‐governmental organizations (NGO) or bilateral partnerships conduct campaign planning research.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth interviews with 120 heads of organizations running AIDS campaigns in Uganda were conducted. The interviewers queried the participants regarding characteristics of their organization and the extent to which they conducted campaign planning research during their last campaign. The information was assigned to quantitative categories, so that the predictive model could be tested using path modeling software.

Findings

The results of the path analysis indicated that the model fits the data well. An emergent finding from the path analysis involved the relationship between the number of trained staff workers and the tendency to solicit outreach worker feedback. Organizations with a greater number of trained staff workers sought outreach worker feedback to a greater extent during the campaign. The model also clarified that none of the tested variables predicted the organization's frequency of pretesting campaign messages.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations of the current study include its single‐issue and single‐country focus. Organizational factors were excluded in this study that may be relevant and should be considered in future research (e.g. size of the organization, management style, public versus private). The factors included in this study, however, are commonly studied characteristics of organizations. Regardless of location, organizations differ in terms of financial resources, formalization, and focus, and engage in formative research to varying extents. Research is also an important part of the campaign process, regardless of the issue or organization type.

Practical implications

NGOs that involve community outreach workers for assistance in crafting campaign messages and test early messaging strategies with audience members are likely to see improved campaign effectiveness and improved cultural competencies.

Originality/value

By identifying the characteristics of local organizations that may facilitate formative research activities, this study makes a significant contribution to the literature on HIV/AIDs and health communication campaigns. As the context surrounding HIV/AIDS campaigns continues to evolve, NGOs and bi‐lateral organizations are in continued demand to develop new and more effective campaign messages to address emerging issues.

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Article

Ben Alexander, Sean Owen and Cliff B. Thames

This study, a post hoc observational one, attempted to determine if career and technical education (CTE) students in the state of Mississippi would academically benefit…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, a post hoc observational one, attempted to determine if career and technical education (CTE) students in the state of Mississippi would academically benefit from taking multiple formative assessments in an online format prior to completing their summative exams. Most CTE students in the state of Mississippi are required to take an end-of-course exam cataloged as the Mississippi Career and Planning Assessment System (MS-CPAS). Previously, MS-CPAS test score results did not impact school-wide accountability scores, but in recent years, some of the guidelines were changed so that these summative test scores now play a vital role in school accountability and rankings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines both formative and summative online exam scores for more than 13,000 students who have taken an MS-CPAS assessment in the 2018 and 2019 school years.

Findings

The results of this study revealed that there were significant differences in summative exam scores for students who took two online formative practice tests when compared to groups of students who did not take any formative practice tests. This study also illustrated a positive correlation between those students' final online practice test scores and their summative exam scores.

Originality/value

These results would prove very beneficial to both CTE teachers and directors in helping them understand the benefits of introducing formative practice tests into their programs to boost student understanding.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

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Article

Su Gao, Katrina Liu and Marilyn McKinney

It is suggested that mentor teachers engage in reflective conversations with preservice teachers to develop formative assessment as a teaching skill. However, there is…

Abstract

Purpose

It is suggested that mentor teachers engage in reflective conversations with preservice teachers to develop formative assessment as a teaching skill. However, there is minimal evidence documenting this process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process and impact of reflective conversation on preservice teachers’ learning about implementing formative assessment in the classroom.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws on two dyads of mentor and preservice teachers to examine the role of conversation in helping preservice teachers learn to use formative assessment in elementary classrooms in the USA. A comparative case study method is used to analyze and synthesize the similarities, differences and patterns across both cases.

Findings

Qualitative data indicate that reflective conversations enable preservice teachers to reflect on their teaching practices and learn how to conduct formative assessment. However, a lack of critical reflection in the conversations results in generic solutions that do not focus on specific aspects of student learning.

Practical implications

This study suggests that mentor teachers using reflective conversation to guide preservice teacher’s critical analysis of their prior assumptions and teaching practices while referencing actual student learning is an essential element in learning to use formative assessment in the classroom.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the line of research that explores conversation between mentor and preservice teachers and provides an empirical analysis of conversations focused on learning to use formative assessment in elementary classrooms.

Details

International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6854

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Article

Kaye Wellings and Wendy Macdowall

Broad spectrum approaches to health promotion, using mass media techniques to reach the general population, have potential value in raising the profile of health issues…

Abstract

Broad spectrum approaches to health promotion, using mass media techniques to reach the general population, have potential value in raising the profile of health issues, providing legitimacy to efforts at community level and providing the impetus for other activities. Their cost‐effectiveness, however, is difficult to assess and has been questioned by some. This paper makes the case for a systematic approach to the evaluation of mass media health promotional interventions. Formative evaluation is needed to ensure the optimally effective design of such interventions, followed by process evaluation to identify factors which have enhanced or hindered implementation, followed by outcome evaluation, to assess the extent to which desired effects have been achieved, and adverse effects avoided. An eclectic approach to outcome evaluation is recommended including the use of experimental approaches wherever possible, but also ensuring that non‐experimental methods are rigorous and comprehensive. This review is aimed at practitioners using mass media interventions in health promotion as well as students of health promotion and its evaluation.

Details

Health Education, vol. 100 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article

Linda Brennan, Joseph Voros and Erica Brady

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on concepts of validity and validation of social marketing research (SMR) with a view to enhancing SMR design and to inform SMR practice.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on concepts of validity and validation of social marketing research (SMR) with a view to enhancing SMR design and to inform SMR practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper defines and presents concepts of validity in a manner that sheds light on the unique issues facing SMR and sets the stage for future research.

Findings

The paper introduces an integrated model representing the variety of relationships that exist amongst a range of validity concepts that will assist methodological practice and increased rigor in future studies. The authors also introduce a matrix on research paradigms that can support the integration of a range of philosophical considerations to SMR research design.

Research limitations/implications

The “quality” of research is being determined by those at the leading edge of their own paradigm without reference to other points of view. The authors argue that these sub‐processes of determining the validity of research outcomes are a challenge to the “discipline” of SMR and that SMR is at risk of becoming too narrowly focussed. Furthermore, the authors believe this is limiting SMR's potential to contribute to the broader domain of business or social research.

Social implications

Social marketing is an interdisciplinary practice. The paradigms of research within the social marketing domain are still being argued and are the subject of much debate. The authors believe that the conceptual frameworks developed for this paper will enhance the practices of research in the field of social marketing.

Originality/value

The paper provides a new conceptual framework for those developing SMR. This framework aims to integrate others' theories and provide a simplified framework for consideration of issues of validation in SMR.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article

Krzysztof Kubacki, Rimante Ronto, Ville Lahtinen, Bo Pang and Sharyn Rundle-Thiele

A significant proportion of the world’s adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity…

Abstract

Purpose

A significant proportion of the world’s adult population is insufficiently active. One approach used to overcome barriers and facilitate participation in physical activity is social marketing. The purpose of this paper are twofold: first, this review seeks to provide a contemporary review of social marketing’s effectiveness in changing physical activity for the better; and second, it seeks to ascertain the extent that Andreasen’s (2002) six social marketing benchmark criteria have been applied in social marketing interventions targeting physical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 94 articles covering 26 social marketing interventions were identified following systematic literature review procedures.

Findings

None of the interventions gave evidence that they addressed all six social marketing benchmark criteria, and only four interventions addressed five criteria. The results indicate that three of the benchmark criteria, namely, behavioural objectives, formative research, and marketing mix are well utilised in social marketing interventions. Inclusion of market segmentation, exchange and competition offers potential to extend further on social marketing’s effectiveness in increasing physical activity.

Originality/value

The results of the current study indicate that increasing the number of benchmark criteria used in an intervention to at least four increases the chances of achieving positive behavioural outcomes.

Details

Health Education, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article

Krzysztof Kubacki, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Ville Lahtinen and Joy Parkinson

– This study aims to review the extent that social marketing principles are applied in interventions targeting children published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to review the extent that social marketing principles are applied in interventions targeting children published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted to identify peer-reviewed social marketing studies targeting children under the age of 12 years as their main audience. Twenty-three interventions were identified and analysed using Andreasen’s (2002) social marketing benchmark criteria including behavioural objective, audience segmentation, formative research, exchange, marketing mix and competition.

Findings

All of the interventions analysed in this review targeted behaviours associated with either physical activity or healthy eating among children under the age of 12 years. Sixteen of the studies reported positive behavioural outcomes. None of the studies used all six of the Andresean (2002) benchmark criteria.

Social implications

With growing concerns about the prevalence of obesity among children, social marketing is emerging as an effective approach to increase physical activity and healthy eating, which in turn may assist to lower obesity. Extending the application of the social marketing benchmark criteria in social marketing interventions will assist to increase effectiveness.

Originality/value

This paper presents the first attempt to review the extent that social marketing principles are used in interventions targeted at children aged 12 years and under.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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