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Book part
Publication date: 18 September 2006

Nathan P. Podsakoff, Wei Shen and Philip M. Podsakoff

Since the publication of Venkatraman and Grant's (1986) article two decades ago, considerably more attention has been directed at establishing the validity of constructs…

Abstract

Since the publication of Venkatraman and Grant's (1986) article two decades ago, considerably more attention has been directed at establishing the validity of constructs in the strategy literature. However, recent developments in measurement theory indicate that strategy researchers need to pay additional attention to whether their constructs should be modeled as having formative or reflective indicators. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to highlight the differences between formative and reflective indicator measurement models, and discuss the potential role of formative measurement models in strategy research. First, we systematically review the literature on construct measurement model specification. Second, we assess the extent of measurement model misspecification in the recent strategy literature. Our assessment of 257 constructs in the contemporary strategy literature suggests that many important strategy constructs are more appropriately modeled as having formative indicators than as having reflective indicators. Based on this review, we identify some common errors leading to measurement model misspecification in the strategy domain. Finally, we discuss some implications of our analyses for scholars in the strategic management field.

Details

Research Methodology in Strategy and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-339-6

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Mathieu Dunes and Bernard Pras

This paper aims to analyze the impact of brand management system (BMS) practices on subjective and objective performance in both service- and product-oriented sectors.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the impact of brand management system (BMS) practices on subjective and objective performance in both service- and product-oriented sectors.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a “grounded-in-practice” approach to BMS, a comprehensive formative BMS scale is developed and its validity is assessed. The impact of BMS on subjective brand performance (i.e. predictive validity) and on objective financial performance is assessed. Data are collected from a sample of 298 brand managers and marketing directors in five business sectors (cosmetics, convenience goods, industry, bank/insurance and media) and from a financial database. Path analysis and multigroup analysis are performed to test mediating and moderating effects.

Findings

The results reveal that subjective brand performance (perceived brand performance) mediates the relationship between the BMS and objective financial performance of the firm and on each of the three BMS dimensions; and product-oriented (vs service-oriented) sector positively moderates the relationship between the BMS and subjective brand performance.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers insights into adapting brand management practices along all BMS dimensions to achieve better business performance and improve objective financial performance in product-oriented activities. It highlights the role of brand management implementation, as well as the role of brand management in hierarchical relationships, in improving performance in service activities.

Practical implications

The formative BMS scale offers a tool which can be used to improve strategic decisions and give practical guidance on product vs service sector specificities. The indirect impact of a BMS on financial objective performance reinforces the legitimacy of brand managers and marketing managers.

Originality/value

This paper shows the impact of the BMS on objective financial performance by using a “grounded-in-practice” BMS scale. It also affords explanation on sectoral effects of brand management practices and their consequences on subjective and objective performance.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Aron O'Cass and Jamie Carlson

The objective of this study is to develop and test a specific conceptualization and modeling specification of web site service quality and the influence web site service…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to develop and test a specific conceptualization and modeling specification of web site service quality and the influence web site service quality has on e‐service provider loyalty and word‐of‐mouth.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from an online survey of consumers across two studies were obtained.

Findings

The results support the conceptualization and operationalization of web site service quality and its effects on word of mouth and loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for the measurement of consumer perceptions of web site service quality are highlighted for researchers, and directions for future research are discussed.

Practical implications

E‐service providers should carefully consider customer experiences on their web sites, and their management efforts to ensure they design and deliver the appropriate levels of service quality derived through the specific components of web site service quality.

Originality/value

The findings are of value to e‐service practitioners managing web site service quality and offer empirical support to its formative conceptualization. The focus here on formative modeling will stimulate discussion among e‐service researchers and practitioners, which could result in richer e‐service quality measures leading to improved marketing decision making and web site quality management.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Fuan Li, Lan Xu, Tiger Li and Nan Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to provide further validation of an alternative measurement model of brand trust and demonstrate the robustness and measurement invariance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide further validation of an alternative measurement model of brand trust and demonstrate the robustness and measurement invariance of the model in a cross-cultural context.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data collected from the USA and China were submitted to the alternative measurement model. Amos 7.0 was used in testing the robustness and stability of the proposed model.

Findings

The results provide strong support for the stability and robustness of the alternative model. The multidimensional scale satisfies the minimum requirement of configural invariance and metric invariance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings confirm that the multidimensional scale of brand trust can be meaningfully used in countries with distinct cultures. However, further testing may be needed given that the present study involves only two countries.

Practical implications

Overall brand trust is shown to be a function of consumers’ trust in specific aspects of a brand. Thus, it is imperative that brand managers make every effort to build consumers’ trust in performance competence and/or benevolent intention.

Originality/value

The present research demonstrates the robustness of the alternative measurement model of brand trust. It also exemplifies a way of testing a measurement model that involves a second-order construct and formative indicators.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Nektarios Tzempelikos

Ulaga and Eggert (2006a) examined a framework of relationship value in business markets. This study aims to replicate their study to show that relationship benefits are…

Abstract

Purpose

Ulaga and Eggert (2006a) examined a framework of relationship value in business markets. This study aims to replicate their study to show that relationship benefits are more important than relationship costs when it comes to choosing a main supplier. This research also extends the original study by hypothesising that the development of relationship value has a positive impact on relationship marketing outcomes, thus providing evidence for the nomological validity of the original scale.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used empirical data from purchasing managers in manufacturing firms in the UK. The research instrument was a structured questionnaire. The study adopted a close replication to Ulaga and Eggert (2006a) using a rather similar context and methodology for comparison reasons.

Findings

Relationship benefits are more important than relationship costs when it comes to choosing a main supplier. Cost competitiveness is a necessary but not sufficient condition to differentiate in business markets. Value dimensions relate significantly to relationship marketing outcomes, providing evidence for the nomological validity of the original scale.

Research limitations/implications

Given the dynamic nature of the relationship value construct, future longitudinal research could offer useful insights on how value is created over time.

Practical implications

Although internal cost reduction, which can ultimately lead to price reduction, should not be ignored, suppliers should focus on creating value through personal interaction, service quality, product enhancements and delivery efficiency.

Originality/value

The findings provide support for Ulaga and Eggert’s (2006a) conceptualisation, indicating that the relationship value is not merely a theoretical construct viewed on a high level of abstraction but rather can also be empirically measured.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Mohamed Aldhaheri, Amal Bakchan and Maqsood Ahmad Sandhu

The purpose of this paper is to define and analyze causal factors shaping the effectiveness of engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) major projects in meeting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to define and analyze causal factors shaping the effectiveness of engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) major projects in meeting the product objectives, from the end-user’s perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey questionnaire was developed and administered to end-users working in major oil and gas projects. Data collection process was initiated on, around 275 end-users, and 213 responses were received, achieving a high response rate of 77 percent.

Findings

The results indicate that both alignment of objectives and end-user’s engagement factors exhibit a positive influence on effectiveness of EPC, with the former having higher contribution than the latter. In this context, the product success triangle reveals higher preference of the end-user’s team toward quality than schedule and cost objectives.

Research limitations/implications

Shifting the efforts of involving the end-user forward in time, starting from the planning stage, alleviates the adverse impacts of design changes as well as increases the ability to save cost, improve performance and increase end-user’s satisfaction.

Practical implications

The model raises the awareness of oil and gas industry practitioners toward the critical factors influencing the project effectiveness and proposes useful techniques for maintaining proper alignment between project and product objectives as well as facilitating end-user’s engagement at the site level. As such, it can serve as a motivation tool for aligning the objectives and acknowledging the engagement, with the aim of achieving the product success.

Originality/value

The effectiveness of EPC structural model was developed and tested using PLS–structural equation modeling statistical technique. The interpretation of the structural model demonstrated that both end-user’s engagement and alignment of objectives are essential to successfully achieve project effectiveness.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 25 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Vandana Pareek and Tina Harrison

This paper re-conceptualizes and measures brand identity (BI) from a services perspective. This paper aims to develop and test a psychometrically valid and reliable scale…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper re-conceptualizes and measures brand identity (BI) from a services perspective. This paper aims to develop and test a psychometrically valid and reliable scale to measure service brand identity (SERVBID).

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-stage research design was adopted drawing on qualitative and quantitative studies consistent with extant scale development procedures. Qualitative studies comprised a comprehensive literature review, expert panel review and interviews to develop a theoretical framework and generate items. Quantitative studies comprised pilot testing (n = 106), online survey for scale development (n = 246) and scale validation (n = 245) on UK-based consumers using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The study finds support for a five-dimensional SERVBID scale comprising: process identity; organization identity; symbolic identity; servicescape identity; and communication identity.

Practical implications

The SERVBID scale provides practitioners with a practical tool to understand, benchmark and assess SERVBID. The scale will assist marketers in assessing the strength of BI overall as well as the strength of individual facets of BI.

Originality/value

This study provides a deeper and complete understanding of the theoretical construct of BI through a service-dominant lens, in particular recognizing the defining role of the service process and servicescape in SERVBID construction.

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2019

Pradeep Kautish and Rajesh Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to bridge together seemingly disparate yet interconnected paradigmatic antecedents of e-tailing and servicescape, i.e., product assortment…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to bridge together seemingly disparate yet interconnected paradigmatic antecedents of e-tailing and servicescape, i.e., product assortment, order fulfillment, shopping assistance and its consequences for shopping efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed conceptual model is well grounded in the extensive literature from e-tailing as well as retailing domain and to assess the plausibility of the model. Total 246 female online apparel shoppers were surveyed from an Indian university and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling through SmartPLS.

Findings

The outcomes of the study indicate that the e-customer may derive a substantial share of shopping assistance and service interface through product assortment offered by e-tailing sites. Customer-perceived performance of this e-shopping process – a crucial element of e-tail servicescape – directly affects the shopping assistance, along with order fulfillment capability of retail scope.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a sample of graduate students at a north-west university in India, which limits the generalizability of the research to other consumer groups. The paper links a significant body of literature within a conceptually developed framework and identifies key research areas in the e-tailing realm.

Practical implications

By better understanding the role of product assortment as a value-added feature in online value co-creation process, the e-tail managers can leverage the proposed integrated capability to improve e-tailing performance and customer outcomes in the form of business.

Social implications

With rapid advancements in internet-led communication, we are witnessing the dawn of a new era of e-tail innovations around us which is expected to change the way people experience shopping.

Originality/value

This research is an attempt to enrich the level of understanding about online shopping environment in light of relationships among virtual and physical facets of e-tail, i.e., product assortment, order fulfillment, shopping assistance and shopping efficiency. The authors investigate customer-perceived product assortment performance in e-tailing and its significances on shopping outcomes.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2009

Mario Castellanos‐Verdugo, Ma de los Ángeles Oviedo‐García, José L. Roldán and Nadine Veerapermal

In the highly competitive hotel industry, it is essential to encourage patterns of continuous repurchase and to retain customers. This may be achieved through the quality…

Abstract

Purpose

In the highly competitive hotel industry, it is essential to encourage patterns of continuous repurchase and to retain customers. This may be achieved through the quality of the relationship established with them. The aim of the paper is to test a model of the antecedents and consequences of the quality of the employee‐customer relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Partial least squares (PLS) was used to assess the reliability/validity of the measures and make a causal‐predictive analysis.

Findings

The results of the study are useful both for academics and practitioners: they add support for the proposed model and increase its potential for generalisation; results suggest a wide range of measures that hotel managers could undertake to develop and maintain employee‐customer relationship quality.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies should test the model at different times, during other important events in the city and, of course, in other geographical areas. Also new variables should be included in the model. Another research path might be to integrate into a single model all the agents with whom a particular hotel establishment forms relationships.

Practical implications

From the management perspective, results of this study provide useful variables for hotel managers introducing a relationship marketing strategy in their hotels, regardless of their category.

Originality/value

The paper uses PLS methodology to test a proposed model, particularly appropriate in this case since it allows a causal‐predictive analysis in a situation in which complex problems are analysed and previous theoretical knowledge is limited.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Kian Yeik Koay, Derek Lai Teik Ong, Kim Leng Khoo and Hui Jing Yeoh

The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of perceived social media marketing activities on consumer-based brand equity, mainly predicated on the S-O-R…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of perceived social media marketing activities on consumer-based brand equity, mainly predicated on the S-O-R model. Furthermore, brand experience is tested as a mediator of the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and consumer-based brand equity, whereas co-creation behaviour is also examined as a moderator on the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and brand experience.

Design/methodology/approach

A structured survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to social media users from a large private university in Malaysia. A total of 253 valid responses were obtained. Hypotheses were tested employing partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The results indicated that perceived social media marketing activities have a significant positive influence on consumer-based brand equity. In addition, brand experience mediates the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and consumer-based brand equity. Surprisingly, co-creation behaviour was found to have no moderating effect on the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and brand experience. Furthermore, using the PROCESS macro, we found that the indirect effect of perceived social media marketing activities on consumer-based brand equity through brand experience is not moderated by co-creation behaviour.

Originality/value

This research further extended the current knowledge by demonstrating that the influence of perceived social media marketing activities on consumer-based brand equity is mediated by brand experience. Also, this research utilised the strength of PLS–SEM in dealing with higher-order constructs, allowing us to develop and test a parsimonious model that is useful for practitioners.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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