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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Myung‐Su Chae and John S. Hill

Global strategic marketing planning has become increasingly important with the advent of worldwide competition and the growing rapidity of change in the international…

Abstract

Global strategic marketing planning has become increasingly important with the advent of worldwide competition and the growing rapidity of change in the international marketplace. In this article, research and commentaries from the strategic management and international marketing planning literatures are brought together in a model examining what factors influence global strategic marketing planning formality, and whether competitive and organizational benefits accrue from the process. Responses from 90 multinational corporations were subjected to a LISREL analysis. Corporate culture, supply chain elements, foreign regulations and competition were identified as key determinants of planning formality. Considerable non‐financial benefits also accrue as planning formality increases.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2007

Lynn Westbrook

The purpose of this study is to examine the use of formality indicators in chat reference interchanges within the context of politeness theory, with its corollaries of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the use of formality indicators in chat reference interchanges within the context of politeness theory, with its corollaries of face‐threat and social relationship development.

Design/methodology/approach

This discourse analysis identifies the syntactic and content indicators and patterns of formality levels in a purposive sample of 402 chat transcripts (covering 6,572 minutes) from one academic year at a large, US, public university.

Findings

Syntactic formality markers include regular use of contractions, slang, sentence fragments, and non‐standard punctuation as well as limited use of acronyms and abbreviations with rare use of emoticons. Content‐based markers included apologies, self‐disclosure, and expressions of extreme need. Use patterns are related to the level of responsibility assumed by the librarian as well as the interview stages.

Research limitations/implications

A limited data source and potential coder bias are the two limitations of this study. The research implications point to the need for chat reference librarians to assume greater control of formality nuances in order to encourage a more effective search for the user.

Practical implications

The fundamentals of politeness theory, particularly in terms of formality indicators, should be incorporated into staff training and behavioral standards for reference librarians. While future research is needed to determine the most effective means of employing this theoretical construct, this study implies that a self‐reflective, culturally sensitive use of the nuances of formality can enhance the user's experience.

Originality/value

This study is the first to systematically examine formality indicators in the context of politeness theory. The use of two coders, a full academic year's worth of data, and a substantial sample provide great depth.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2012

Tommaso Gabrieli, Antonio F. Galvao and Gabriel V. Montes-Rojas

This chapter studies the effect of increasing formality via tax reduction and simplification schemes on micro-firm performance. We develop a simple theoretical model that…

Abstract

This chapter studies the effect of increasing formality via tax reduction and simplification schemes on micro-firm performance. We develop a simple theoretical model that yields two intuitive results. First, low- and high-ability entrepreneurs are unlikely to be affected by a tax reduction and therefore, the reduction has an impact only on a segment of the micro-firm population. Second, the benefits to such reduction, as measured by profits and revenues, are increasing in the entrepreneur's ability. Then, we estimate the effect of formality on the entire conditional distribution (quantiles) of revenues using the 1996 Brazilian SIMPLES program and a rich survey of formal and informal micro-firms. The econometric approach compares eligible and non-eligible firms, born before and after SIMPLES in a local interval about the introduction of SIMPLES. We develop an estimator that combines both quantile regression and the regression discontinuity design. The econometric results corroborate the positive effect of formality on micro-firms’ performance and produce a clear characterization of who benefits from these programs.

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Informal Employment in Emerging and Transition Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-787-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2019

Kenneth B. Kahn

The paper aims to address the issue of generalizability by examining process formality across the global regions of North America, Europe and Asia. A common prescription…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to address the issue of generalizability by examining process formality across the global regions of North America, Europe and Asia. A common prescription in the new product development (NPD) discipline is to employ a formal process. Because generalizability of this prescription has not been fully investigated across global regions, the present manuscript addresses the issue of generalizability by examining process formality across the global regions of North America, Europe and Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

Recently made available to researchers, data of the Product Development and Management Association’s 2012 Comparative Performance Assessment Study (CPAS) were analyzed. The uniqueness of the 2012 CPAS data set is its global composition with sizable samples from North America, Europe and Asia. Chi-square tests and multivariate analysis of variance were applied.

Findings

Results support use of a formal process, as companies with a formal NPD process perceived higher performance than companies with no standard process. Process formality appears to differ across regions and be influenced by innovation strategy. European firms tended to not use a formal process when pursuing radical innovation, and these firms perceived higher performance. North American firms tended to not use a formal process when pursing incremental innovation, but these firms perceived lower performance.

Practical implications

Having some NPD process is generally better than not having any process at all. Process differences across regions appear to exist when pursuing radical innovation or incremental innovation.

Originality/value

This is one of few studies comparing global regions to examine generalizability of a best practice prescription, namely, the extent to which a formal process should be implemented.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Ruoh‐Nan Yan, Jennifer Yurchisin and Kittichai Watchravesringkan

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study aims to understand whether and how sales employee clothing style would influence consumers' perceptions of store…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study aims to understand whether and how sales employee clothing style would influence consumers' perceptions of store image through their expectations of service quality. Second, this study hopes to uncover how fashion orientation would influence the aforementioned relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3 (formality of employee clothing: formal vs moderate vs casual) × 2 (level of fashion orientation: low vs high) between‐subject experiment design was conducted. Data were collected from 105 university students in a laboratory setting.

Findings

Results indicated that formality of employee clothing (i.e. formal business, moderate, or casual attire) served as a cue in the retail environment for consumers to make inferences about the service quality expected to be provided by the sales employee. Furthermore, formality of employee clothing both directly and indirectly influenced consumers' perceptions of store image.

Research limitations/implications

This study adds to existing literature by uncovering the moderating role of fashion orientation in consumers' service quality expectations and confirms the function of service quality as an antecedent to store image.

Practical implications

Retailers should pay attention to the design of their salespeople's clothing because different clothing styles draw forth different evaluations from customers about the service quality provided in retail stores.

Originality/value

This study investigates the role of clothing formality in influencing consumers' service quality expectations.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Muhammad Burhan, Stephen Swailes, Zahid Hameed and Imran Ali

Guided by institutional theory, this empirical paper examines variations in the adoption of HRM practices among SMEs in three different business sectors (services…

Abstract

Purpose

Guided by institutional theory, this empirical paper examines variations in the adoption of HRM practices among SMEs in three different business sectors (services, manufacturing and trade).

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 300 owners/managers representing three business sectors were collected through a survey method.

Findings

The results suggest that service SMEs use more formal HRM practices than manufacturing and trade SMEs. Manufacturing SMEs are more formal than trade firms. Results are not affected by firm age.

Research limitations/implications

Social desirability bias may have influenced respondents into portraying a positive image of the organization by inflating HRM sophistication. A further limitation is that the performance of the firms was not measured. As such, it is not possible to judge whether greater HRM formality correlated with improved organizational performance.

Practical implications

This study shows how the business sector shapes HRM practices in Pakistani SMEs. Findings help to inform Pakistan's Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) in dealings with manufacturing and trade firms in terms of improving HRM practices.

Originality/value

Given the important role of SMEs in economic development, comparative research on HRM in SME contexts is scarce. Since SMEs are vital for Pakistan's economy, an improved understanding of the sector's approach to human resource development is important. The findings extend the boundaries of prior comparative HRM literature in SMEs by addressing sector influences while controlling for contextual factors.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Margaret Fletcher and Shameen Prashantham

The accumulation of knowledge and learning by firms has been identified as being critical to their internationalisation. This paper aims to explore the knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The accumulation of knowledge and learning by firms has been identified as being critical to their internationalisation. This paper aims to explore the knowledge assimilation processes of rapidly internationalising small to medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This is a qualitative enquiry in two stages. First, four case studies were selected from firms that were participating in an internationalisation programme run by Scottish Enterprise, the regional development agency. Data collection involved semi‐structured interviews with chief executive officers (CEOs) and programme providers, and archival data. Second, two focus groups were held with six CEOs participating in the programme.

Findings

The findings indicate that knowledge sharing is important for rapidly internationalising SMEs and that firms adopted high levels of formality in assimilating knowledge. Two key aspects of formality were identified as important; formal planned events to share explicit and tacit knowledge and the codification of tacit to explicit knowledge. Knowledge may be assimilated less formally by the retention of tacit knowledge as tacit, while utilising elements of formality. The paper finds that learning for internationalisation can be transferred to support domestic growth.

Practical implications

It is important for firms to develop appropriate knowledge assimilation processes within their management systems to support internationalisation. The CEO and management team need to take the lead in marshalling commitment to learning processes and in cultivating an organisational culture that is supportive of learning.

Originality/value

This research contributes to international entrepreneurship by providing insights into the knowledge assimilation processes employed by rapidly internationalising SMEs to manage the tensions between the need for greater formality to be efficient at learning, and informality to enable speedy decision making.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Paulo Roberto Amorim Loureiro, Ricardo Azevedo Araujo and Nathalia Almeida de Souza

The aim of this paper is to perform an evaluation of the Brazilian informal labor market, following the lines suggested by Araujo and Souza. The paper focuses on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to perform an evaluation of the Brazilian informal labor market, following the lines suggested by Araujo and Souza. The paper focuses on the Brazilian labor market by using data from the National Household Sampling Survey – PNAD/IBGE, from 1995 to 2008.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses four different methodologies: the OLS, pseudo‐panel with fixed effects, instrumental variables and the Heckman selection model. The data for this study were obtained at the National Household Sampling Survey – PNAD/IBGE, from 1995 to 2008, with an exception to the years of 1994 and 2000, when this survey did not occur. The cross‐section data were pooled and divided in two periods: 1995‐2002 and 2003‐2008. The sample ranges individuals from 22 to 57 years of age.

Findings

The empirical findings show that although wages play an import role in the decision of workers and firms, all wage gaps between formal and informal markets reduced considerably, as has been pointed out by Mattos and Ogura. However, an increase in one year of study would raise the probability of participating in the formal sector while diminishing the probability of joining the informal sector. Besides, the skill premium in the formal sector is higher than in the informal sector.

Originality/value

Results indicate that the main difference between the 1995‐2002 and 2003‐2008 period is the impact of education over wages. Returns to education for the second period are greater than for the first period analyzed. The monetary gains for the first period vary from 16.5 to 18.2 percent for formality and from 12.2 to 14.3 percent for informal labor. Whereas, for the second period these gains range from 19.7 to 22.6 percent and from 16.9 to 18.2 percent, for formality and informality, respectively. According to these findings, investments made on education were more profitable for the 2003‐2008 period. However, all wage gaps between formal and informal markets reduced considerably, which reinforces the fact that workers are increasingly deciding in which market to operate.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2001

Paraskevas C. Argouslidis and Fiona McLean

Reports on part of the findings of a broader exploratory investigation into the service elimination decision making behaviour in the UK financial services sector. The…

Abstract

Reports on part of the findings of a broader exploratory investigation into the service elimination decision making behaviour in the UK financial services sector. The issues tackled in this paper are: the degree of planning for the service elimination decision‐making process; the formality of service elimination procedures; the place of service elimination within the broader range of service range management activities; and the relative importance of the process of service elimination compared to the process of new service development (NSD). The empirical evidence from 20 in‐depth interviews with marketing directors and managers suggests that UK financial institutions: do not always follow a planned service elimination decision‐making process; have largely informal service elimination procedures; tend to see service elimination activities as ad hoc rather than as a part of service range management activities; and favour the process of NSD considerably more than the process of service elimination. Concludes by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of the findings and by suggesting future research directions.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Peter K. Yu

Copyright law has been oft-criticized for its unintended consequences. This paper retells three “tales of the unintended” concerning the 1976 Copyright Act, the present…

Abstract

Copyright law has been oft-criticized for its unintended consequences. This paper retells three “tales of the unintended” concerning the 1976 Copyright Act, the present U.S. copyright statute. The first tale focuses on fair use, the second on statutory damages, and the third on formalities. From these three tales, the paper draws five different morals that provide insights into the ongoing process of copyright reform. These insights will enable policymakers and commentators to rethink the ongoing and future development of copyright law.

Details

Special Issue: Thinking and Rethinking Intellectual Property
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-881-6

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