Search results

1 – 10 of over 84000

Abstract

Details

Automated Information Retrieval: Theory and Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-12266-170-9

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Yue Wang and Sai Ho Chung

This study is a systematic literature review of the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in safety-critical systems. The authors aim to present the current…

Abstract

Purpose

This study is a systematic literature review of the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in safety-critical systems. The authors aim to present the current application status according to different AI techniques and propose some research directions and insights to promote its wider application.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 92 articles were selected for this review through a systematic literature review along with a thematic analysis.

Findings

The literature is divided into three themes: interpretable method, explain model behavior and reinforcement of safe learning. Among AI techniques, the most widely used are Bayesian networks (BNs) and deep neural networks. In addition, given the huge potential in this field, four future research directions were also proposed.

Practical implications

This study is of vital interest to industry practitioners and regulators in safety-critical domain, as it provided a clear picture of the current status and pointed out that some AI techniques have great application potential. For those that are inherently appropriate for use in safety-critical systems, regulators can conduct in-depth studies to validate and encourage their use in the industry.

Originality/value

This is the first review of the application of AI in safety-critical systems in the literature. It marks the first step toward advancing AI in safety-critical domain. The paper has potential values to promote the use of the term “safety-critical” and to improve the phenomenon of literature fragmentation.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 122 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

J. Wang

“The offshore installations and wells (design and construction, etc.) regulations” (DCR) requires that all safety‐critical elements in both the system and software domains…

1127

Abstract

“The offshore installations and wells (design and construction, etc.) regulations” (DCR) requires that all safety‐critical elements in both the system and software domains be assessed and evaluated. In this paper, following a brief review of offshore system (application) safety analysis, offshore software safety analysis is introduced. It is followed by a study of combining offshore system safety analysis with software safety analysis. The typical standards for the development of safety‐critical systems in several industrial sectors are discussed with particular reference to formal methods. A generic offshore software safety analysis framework is proposed with discussions. Formal methods for producing safety requirements specifications are then discussed. A case study is used to demonstrate safety requirements modelling for safety‐critical software development. Finally recommendations for further development in offshore software safety analysis are given.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Peter Urwin and J.R. Shackleton

This paper sets out to evaluate the effect of search method employed (broadly defined here as formal or informal) on the probability that an individual will move out of…

Abstract

This paper sets out to evaluate the effect of search method employed (broadly defined here as formal or informal) on the probability that an individual will move out of unemployment into either employment or inactivity. We take advantage of the longitudinal element contained within the Labour Force Survey and link 794 individual records through five quarters. The sample contains all those who are unemployed in Spring 1996 and records their labour market status for the four quarters ending in Spring 1997. Given that this element of the LFS is only just beginning to be used, we attempt to evaluate its usefulness for the estimation of a discrete time‐competing risks model. We do find an effect of search method employed in the final specification and the sign on the coefficient rejects our belief that those using informal search methods may do so in order to signal their higher levels of productivity. Instead we are led to conclude that those using informal search methods may do so because of a lack of skills needed to use more formal channels.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 20 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2015

Maximiliano Cristia and Claudia Frydman

This paper aims to present the verification process conducted to assess the functional correctness of the voting system. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the verification process conducted to assess the functional correctness of the voting system. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) is the most important research institution in Argentina. It depends directly from Argentina’s President but its internal authorities are elected by around 8,000 research across the country. During 2011, the CONICET developed a Web voting system to replace the traditional mail-based process. In 2012 and 2014, CONICET conducted two Web election with no complaints from candidates and voters. Before moving the system into production, CONICET asked the authors to conduct a functional and security assessment of it.

Design/methodology/approach

This process is the result of integrating formal, semi-formal and informal verification activities from formal proof to code inspection and model-based testing.

Findings

Given the resources and time available, a reasonable level of confidence on the correctness of the application could be transmitted to senior management.

Research limitations/implications

A formal specification of the requirements must be developed.

Originality/value

Formal methods and semi-formal activities are seldom applied to Web applications.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2009

Junwu Zhu, Jiandong Wang and Bin Li

The purpose of this paper is to integrate distributed ontologies on the web system and clarify the structure of the integrated one.

280

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate distributed ontologies on the web system and clarify the structure of the integrated one.

Design/methodology/approach

A formal method based on concept lattices is introduced as a mechanism to form more general semantic level. By checking the extension and the intension of concept, this method extracts the concept pairs satisfying inclusion relations from descartes' set of concepts in distributed ontologies first, and then constructs a concept lattice according to these concept pairs. An algorithm to reduce redundant relations is also proposed to clarify the structure of integrated ontology.

Findings

The experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to reduce redundant relations, and the Nir‐to‐Ncr ratio inclines to 1.05 from 3.13.

Research limitations/implications

Instances of certain concept are not given completely on the web, so it is difficult to check extension of different concepts.

Practical implications

A very useful method of integrating distributed ontologies on the web.

Originality/value

Compared with existing methods, this formal method can be performed by program automatically without any human intervening, and can extract the inclusion relations between concepts from distributed ontologies completely.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 38 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 December 2018

Sanjay Jharkharia and Chiranjit Das

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical model for low carbon supplier development. This study is focused on the level of investment and collaboration…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical model for low carbon supplier development. This study is focused on the level of investment and collaboration decisions pertaining to emission reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ model includes a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and a fuzzy formal concept analysis. First, a set of suppliers were classified according to their carbon performances through the FCM clustering algorithm. Then, the fuzzy formal concepts were derived from a set of fuzzy formal contexts through an intersection-based method. These fuzzy formal concepts provide the relative level of investments and collaboration decisions for each identified supplier cluster. A case from the Indian renewable energy sector was used for illustration of the proposed analytical model.

Findings

The proposed model and case illustration may help manufacturing firms to collaborate with their suppliers for improving their carbon performances.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the low carbon supply chain management literature by identifying the decision criteria of investments toward low carbon supplier development. It also provides an analytical model of collaboration for low carbon supplier development. Though the purpose of the study is to illustrate the proposed analytical model, it would have been better if the model was empirically validated.

Originality/value

Though the earlier studies on green supplier development program evaluation have considered a set of criteria to decide whether or not to invest on suppliers, these are silent on the relative level of investment required for a given set of suppliers. This study aims to fulfill this gap by providing an analytical model that will help a manufacturing firm to invest and collaborate with its suppliers for improving their carbon performance.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Allan Macpherson and Dilani Jayawarna

This study aims to investigate the influence of a range of contingent factors that moderate the approaches to training in manufacturing SMEs.

2446

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of a range of contingent factors that moderate the approaches to training in manufacturing SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a regression analysis of data from a survey of 198 manufacturing SMEs.

Findings

The findings suggest that there will be times when formal training is appropriate for SMEs. Dependent on size, product, market and organizational structures, formal training will be both required and/or encouraged by SME management. The challenge will be to understand specific organizational conditions, and to target the right type of intervention at a particular small firm based on its specific characteristics and needs. This will require a deeper understanding of the context and issues facing a specific firm.

Practical implications

Because of the diversity of small firms' structures, product and market conditions and leadership and management approaches, generic support policies are unlikely to be effective. Research, management and policy instruments of training support will need to interact with, and be responsive to, the subtle distinctions of context that will moderate what is more appropriate, and more likely to be welcomed, in the small business sector. There does appear to be a demand for formal training in certain types of firms, but other learning initiatives will have to be supported where formal training is not appropriate or not welcome.

Originality/value

The empirical analysis and the tentative conceptual framework make an important contribution towards a demand‐led policy framework in the area of development and training support for SMEs.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 49 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

Markus Hällgren and Eva Maaninen‐Olsson

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how unexpected events (deviations) are handled and how the limited time available in a project affects…

5347

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of how unexpected events (deviations) are handled and how the limited time available in a project affects the possibilities for reflection and knowledge creation. Since deviations will inevitably occur and they will substantially increase project costs, studies of them are imperative. When only a fraction of the project management literature has focused on the actuality of the project this study gives insights into the practice of project management.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on an exploratory, in‐depth case study of a power plant project found in an integrated provider of projects of this type. The projects were followed by participative observations during ten weeks of onsite visits.

Findings

The results show that in contrast to contemporary project management theories, the management of deviations was found to be primarily informal. The reason for this was two‐fold. First, there was not enough time to use formal procedures. Second, if the formal routines were to be followed, the window of opportunity would be lost, making the decisions that follow useless. Third, two types of reflection were noted: structured collective reflection and contextual reflection, the former corresponding to formal routines and the later to the solution of deviations which is seen as a trigger for spreading practices around the organization.

Research limitations/implications

The research presented that projects should be studied from a practice point of view, where deviations might be a good starting point. Moreover, it is suggested that there is a need to broaden the studies of reflection to accommodate other organizational levels and time spans.

Practical implications

The case has several suggestions for practitioners. First, small deviations should be paid attention to. Second, bureaucracy hampers flexibility and the organization should rather set up organizational structures, i.e. dual structures, to allow for a smoother process. Third, networks and confidence were found to be essential for the process. Finally, there is a need to pay attention to different time frames when managing deviations.

Originality/value

The paper develops a more intricate view of project organizing coming from the new Project‐as‐Practice agenda. Rather than focusing on what should be done, it focuses on what is done, which is a research area that needs further attention.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

Muhammad A. Al‐Buraey

Puts forward an “ideal Islamic administration model” (based on Islamic principles “synthesized with modern thought”), explains the role of the Islamist as change agent and…

1991

Abstract

Puts forward an “ideal Islamic administration model” (based on Islamic principles “synthesized with modern thought”), explains the role of the Islamist as change agent and outlines the sources, process, outcome, implementation methods and end results of administrative development in Muslim countries. Discusses implementation methods in more detail, contrasting the informal/personal method with the formal/institutional method suitable for Islamic states. Considers the effects on society of introducing the Islamic model and the likely sources of resisteance to it.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 27 no. 10/11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 84000