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Article

Alex Anlesinya, Oluwayemisi Ajoke Adepoju and Ulf Henning Richter

This purpose of this paper is to examine cultural orientations and intention of Ghanaian women to engage in entrepreneurship while assessing the role of perceived support…

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this paper is to examine cultural orientations and intention of Ghanaian women to engage in entrepreneurship while assessing the role of perceived support system. The aim is to contribute to the literature in the sub-Saharan African context where women entrepreneurs are generally under-researched, despite their increasing significant roles in socio-economic development in the continent even in the face of huge cultural barriers.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a hierarchical regression analysis and Hay’s PROCESS moderation technique to analyze survey data from 190 female students from Ghana, Africa.

Findings

The results indicate that uncertainty avoidance and power distance cultural orientations have significant positive and negative effects, respectively, on women’s participation in formal entrepreneurship. However, collectivism and masculine cultural orientations do not have any effect on their intention to engage in formal entrepreneurial activity. The study further shows that perceived support system has a buffering effect on the destructive consequences of power distance culture on formal entrepreneurship intentions. On the contrary, perceived support does not moderate the relationship between uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and masculine cultural and formal entrepreneurial intention.

Practical implications

Given the fact that most African governments are making efforts to accelerate the growth and development of their economies via entrepreneurship and economic empowerment, this study’s findings encourage stakeholders to implement measures to leverage on the positive dimensions of cultures to facilitate the development of formal entrepreneurship among Ghanaian women while mitigating the negative consequences of cultural practices. The findings further highlight the need to evaluate the current level of support given to women in Ghana. The study suggests that provision of sufficient level of support can make women more willing to challenge the status quo in power distance cultures and take personal initiatives, thereby leading to more formal entrepreneurial actions.

Originality/value

This study is a significant addition to women entrepreneurship literature because the role of culture in females’ intention to participate in entrepreneurship is generally an under-researched area. Besides, our examination of national cultural variation at the individual level on formal entrepreneurship intention in a heterogeneous setting is novel. The study also highlights the buffering roles of perceived support on the destructive consequences of power distance cultural orientation on formal entrepreneurial development among women.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

Keywords

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Article

Mai Thi Thanh Thai, Ekaterina Turkina and Amon Simba

Through utilizing social capital as an overarching concept, the purpose of this article is to investigate cross-country rates of business formation in the formal vs…

Abstract

Purpose

Through utilizing social capital as an overarching concept, the purpose of this article is to investigate cross-country rates of business formation in the formal vs informal sectors. Plus, empirically assess the impact of social capital constructs on the national rates of entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a regression-oriented methodology, partial least squares (PLS), the study used a sample comprising 50 nations. National rates of registered and nonregistered business creation were utilized as endogenous variables. To determine the indigenous variables, constructs of social capital were measured which is consistent with the World Value Survey (WWS).

Findings

The results of this study show that in the formal and the informal sectors, social networking enables business creation with varying levels of impact. It establishes that institutional trust has a negative effect on informal business creation and a positive effect on business registration; interpersonal trust drives entrepreneurship in the informal sector but has less impact on business registration; norms of trustworthiness are related to business registration than informal business creation.

Practical implications

The findings of this research have theoretical and practical implications. They stimulate academic debate on the application of social capital constructs at the national level. The indications that social capital promotes business formation in both the informal and formal sectors can influence entrepreneurship policy development in many countries.

Originality/value

The originality of the results of this study lies in how it conceptualizes social capital as having direct impact on business creation in the informal vs formal sector. Thus, the findings elevated the conceptualization of social capital to the national level thereby enhancing knowledge on the entrepreneurship process as well as developmental economics.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Arezou Harraf, Hasan Ghura, Allam Hamdan and Xiaoqing Li

The paper aims to analyse the interplay between formal and informal institutions' and their impact on entrepreneurship rates in emerging economies.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to analyse the interplay between formal and informal institutions' and their impact on entrepreneurship rates in emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study expands previous research in examining the moderating effect of control of corruption on the relationship between formal institutions and the development of the entrepreneurial activity. The study utilizes longitudinal analyses of a dataset from 41 emerging economies over 11 years (2006–2016).

Findings

Findings provided robust support for the study's hypotheses. The results suggested lower levels of corruption positively moderate the effects of a country's number of procedures and education and training on the rates of entrepreneurial activity, while negatively moderating the effects of firm-level technology absorption on the rates of entrepreneurial activity.

Research limitations/implications

The study has considered only one particular aspect of high-growth entrepreneurship, which is newly registered firms with limited liability. Although newly registered firms are recognized as one of the critical drivers of entrepreneurial activity. Future research should seek to examine other aspects of growth-oriented entrepreneurship such as activities involving a high level of innovation, corporate entrepreneurship or technology developments.

Practical implications

This study advanced the existing theories in the field of entrepreneurship and institutional economics as it merged the two theories as a driving framework in the design of the study in the context of emerging economies.

Social implications

The study tested a theoretical model by expanding the number of emerging economies in the study and found comparable findings that explain factors that may influence the likelihood of individuals entering entrepreneurship.

Originality/value

This article adds to the current literature as it highlights the importance of the interplay of formal and informal institutions in determining their impact on entrepreneurship rates in emerging economies. This is of particular importance to policy-makers, and the business world as the empirical results of this study show the benefits of control of corruption in boosting entrepreneurial rates in these economies, which strive for economic diversification in their developmental endeavours.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

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Article

Travis Wiseman

Using state-level data on productive and unproductive entrepreneurship, shadow economy size, and public official corruption, the purpose of this paper is to examine…

Abstract

Purpose

Using state-level data on productive and unproductive entrepreneurship, shadow economy size, and public official corruption, the purpose of this paper is to examine whether formal sector productive (unproductive) entrepreneurial activity is associated with lower (higher) levels of informal economic activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Additionally, the author aims to connect US state-level entrepreneurship, shadow economy size, and corruption by asking whether corruption affects entrepreneurial outcomes primarily through its effects on the shadow economy. The author contends that if this is the case, then estimates of corruption should serve as a good instrument for shadow economy size in regressions on formal sector entrepreneurial outcomes.

Findings

Results from OLS regressions suggest that shadow economy size shares a strong, negative (positive), and statistically significant relationship with productive (unproductive) entrepreneurship. These results are fairly robust to GMM estimation. Additionally, the author finds that corruption is a strong instrument for shadow economy size; one for which validity cannot be rejected in regressions on productive, and net entrepreneurship scores.

Research limitations/implications

However, the author cannot safely assert that the author finds evidence of the shadow economy serving as a primary channel through which corruption affects observed entrepreneurial outcomes. Failure to reject validity of the corruption instrument is, at best, suggestive of the primacy of the entrepreneurial choice between formal and informal sector participation.

Originality/value

This study, to the author’s knowledge, is the first to attempt “connecting the dots” between entrepreneurship, corruption, and shadow economy size.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

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Article

Hasan Ghura, Arezou Harraf, Xiaoqing Li and Allam Hamdan

Corruption has been shown to discourage entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries. However, it is less clear to what extent corruption affects the…

Abstract

Purpose

Corruption has been shown to discourage entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries. However, it is less clear to what extent corruption affects the development of institutions’ impact on entrepreneurial activity in the context of emerging economies, such as those in the post-communist countries. The purpose of this study is to use institutional economics as a conceptual framework to analyse the moderating effect of control of corruption (informal institution) on the relationship between formal institutions (such as the number of procedures, education and training [TEDU], access to finance and technology absorption) and entrepreneurial activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used panel data of 14 post-communist countries and different secondary databases from the years 2006-2016.

Findings

The main findings showed the importance of the institutional environment (formal and informal) on encouraging the rates of entrepreneurial activity. Overall, corruption showed that it behaves as a moderator between formal institutions and entrepreneurship. In particular, the evidence from this study showed that formal institutions, such as the number of procedures and TEDU, are more likely to encourage individual’s choice to become an entrepreneur and start a new business activity in post-communist economies that have a perception of lower levels of corruption.

Originality/value

This study has several implications from both theoretical perspectives (advancing the application of institutional economics for the study of entrepreneurship) and from the practical point of view (providing insights for governmental policies interested in fostering higher levels of entrepreneurial activity).

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

Keywords

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Article

Abu Hanifah Ayob and Abrar Ali Saiyed

The paper is grounded in a comparatively unexplored but growing research interest, which seeks to explain the effect of a country’s religious composition on its economic…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is grounded in a comparatively unexplored but growing research interest, which seeks to explain the effect of a country’s religious composition on its economic activity. As an extension of that, this study aims to examine the relationship between Muslim populations and the prevalence of entrepreneurial activity across nations. Integrated with institutional theory, the authors also consider formal and informal institutional variables as contingency factors in this milieu. So, it further investigates if the strategic intervention of formal and informal institutions moderates the relationship between religion and entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multi-source data sets from the association of religious data archive, global entrepreneurship monitor and the World Bank. The sample includes 88 countries for analysis, aggregated from 2012 to 2014. The ordinary least squares regression using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) Statistics Version 26 is used for the analysis.

Findings

The findings show that Muslim populations are negatively associated with the rate of new business activities in a country, including the formal type of entrepreneurship. However, further analysis reveals that Muslims entrepreneurship is actually driven by necessity and not by opportunity.

Practical implications

The regulatory environment and entrepreneurial culture are not enough to overcome resistance toward entrepreneurship among Muslims. One possible practical recommendation is to empower religious institutions to preach a clear message supporting participation in economic activities.

Social implications

This research sheds light on the discrepancy between Islamic religious teaching and eventual behavior of the followers.

Originality/value

This research contributes to both academics and practitioners in several ways. First, it responds to the recent call for more studies on the effect of religious beliefs toward secular organizations by providing empirical evidence on how the prevalence of Muslims in a particular country is associated with levels of entrepreneurship. Second, it adds to the theoretical understanding of the mechanism that explains the relationship between the two. As institutional theory has not been applied extensively in the study of religion and entrepreneurship, it proposes that dynamic institutions play major roles to accelerate or attenuate the effect of Islam on entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article

Colin C. Williams, Sara Nadin and Peter Rodgers

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critically the competing theories of informal entrepreneurship that variously represent such endeavour as a residue from a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critically the competing theories of informal entrepreneurship that variously represent such endeavour as a residue from a previous mode of accumulation (modernisation theory), a direct by‐product of contemporary capitalism and survival strategy for those marginalised from the circuits of the modern economy (structuralism), an endeavour voluntarily pursued due to over‐regulation in the formal economy (neo‐liberalism) or a practice chosen for social, redistributive, political or identity reasons (post‐structuralism).

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate these competing theories, a 2005/2006 survey involving face‐to‐face interviews with 298 informal entrepreneurs in Ukraine is analysed.

Findings

Contrary to previous studies which assert that one single theorisation is universally applicable, this study finds that each theory is valid for different types of informal entrepreneurship, and therefore proposes a typology of informal entrepreneurship that joins together the contrasting theorisations in order to achieve a more accurate and finer‐grained explanation of the complex and heterogeneous configuration of informal entrepreneurship in contemporary Ukraine.

Research limitations/implications

This paper reveals the need to move beyond treating the competing explanations as mutually exclusive by outlining a typology that combines the contrasting theorisations in order to more fully understand the heterogeneity of informal entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

By unravelling the heterogeneity of informal entrepreneurship, a more nuanced policy approach is shown to be required which does not seek to simply either eradicate such endeavour, pursue a laissez‐faire approach or harness such entrepreneurship but instead pursues all these approaches to varying extents in relation to different kinds of informal entrepreneur.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to identify and empirically evaluate the competing theories of informal entrepreneurship.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

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Article

Claudia Alvarez, David Urbano, Alicia Coduras and José Ruiz‐Navarro

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on entrepreneurship at the Spanish regional level, using institutional economics as…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on entrepreneurship at the Spanish regional level, using institutional economics as the theoretical framework for the research. Additionally, this work aims to emphasize how environmental conditions have different effects according to the gender of entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Regional panel data (19 Spanish regions and the 2006‐2009 period) from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), specifically from the Spanish National Expert Survey (NES) for environmental conditions and the GEM Adult Population Survey (APS) for entrepreneurial activity were analysed within a fixed effects model with panel corrected standard errors.

Findings

The main findings of the study indicate that both informal (cultural and social norms, perception of opportunities to start‐up and entrepreneur social image) and formal factors (intellectual property rights) influence entrepreneurship, but the informal are more determinant than the formal. Concerning the gender issues, informal and formal institutions are also determinant, but female entrepreneurship is significantly associated with the women's support to start‐up, whereas primary and higher education are associated only with male entrepreneurial activity.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the research should be interpreted carefully, because the availability of data constrained the analysis to a time period that is not reflective of the economic cycle; on the contrary, the data correspond to a period of recession, and thus the results cannot be generalized. Also, the study could extend the analysed period and compare the obtained results with international data, considering the global number of participant countries in the GEM Project.

Originality/value

The study provides a methodology to analyse the environmental factors for new firm creation at a regional level, combining GEM data and institutional economics.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article

Noorkartina Mohamad, Hock-Eam Lim, Norhafezah Yusof and Jan-Jan Soon

Previous studies on the effect of entrepreneur education are not comprehensive. Thus, estimating the effect of entrepreneur education is imperative. According to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies on the effect of entrepreneur education are not comprehensive. Thus, estimating the effect of entrepreneur education is imperative. According to the Malaysian Ministry of Education (MoE), only 1.7 percent (as of 2013) of university graduates are self-employed, that is managing one’s own business or known as graduate entrepreneurs. Consequently, a huge gap exists between what is targeted by the government (5.5 percent by 2015) and the reality (a small number of graduate entrepreneurs). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors influencing a graduate’s choice to be entrepreneur, particularly the effects of different entrepreneur education, either formal or informal.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 2,300 graduates from Universiti Utara Malaysia participated in this study.

Findings

The findings showed that the majority of the respondents are consistent in terms of their intent to become entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time and resource constraints, the data are limited to only one university in Malaysia. It is suggested that future studies include more universities, especially entrepreneurial universities. Although it is believe that public universities’ undergraduates population are highly homogeneous, it is good that the findings of the present study to be further validated by future studies using larger sample that consists of varies of public universities.

Practical implications

This paper supports government policies in terms of cultivating educated entrepreneur such as promoting the entrepreneurship education among higher institutions of education (MoE, 2007). However, there are negative relationships among higher academic achievement of graduates toward their intention to be entrepreneurs. It is indicated that high academic achievements are negatively related to becoming entrepreneurs. Thus, it is suggested that entrepreneurship education in terms of both formal and informal education be implemented into the curriculum in order to cultivate entrepreneurial intentions.

Originality/value

There is still much more to be learned to fully understand the processes that leading to the decision to become an entrepreneur. Nevertheless, the results presented in this paper provide some understanding of the factors influencing the decision to become an entrepreneur among university students and graduates using a convenience sample. Thus, the results are exploratory and subjected to validation by future studies using more representative samples. Nevertheless, the study makes a contribution to the effort to predict and develop entrepreneurs in the country.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 57 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article

Wejdan Alakaleek

The purpose of this paper is to examine the developmental level of entrepreneurship education within the context of Jordanian higher education. The level of development in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the developmental level of entrepreneurship education within the context of Jordanian higher education. The level of development in such education is investigated based on two areas: the educational courses and programs themselves and the formal structures within which they are embedded.

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative approach is based on a survey scan of all 29 Jordanian universities, including their course plans, educational programs, departments and centers. A list of entrepreneurship centers, programs and course subjects is provided and analyzed.

Findings

The main findings of study are: in Jordan, entrepreneurship education is still at an early stage of development, and its offerings are limited to a few courses covering some introductory subjects in small business and entrepreneurship courses. Of the Jordanian universities, one university offers a major educational graduate program in entrepreneurship and 27.5 percent have centers for innovation and entrepreneurship, but lack any entrepreneurship departments. Entrepreneurship education is new in Jordan: the first provided course was a small business management; the first center was established in 2004 and later in 2012, it offered the first educational programs in entrepreneurship.

Research implications

This paper assists all stakeholders in higher education to build an understanding of the nature of entrepreneurship education in Jordan and supports the design of appropriate strategies for encouraging entrepreneurial subjects to be incorporated into the country’s universities educational programs.

Originality/value

The value of this study stems from its aim to provide an overview of the status of entrepreneurship education in Jordanian universities. It also makes a contribution to knowledge as the first nationwide study in this context.

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