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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Krystal Hans and Kylie Parrotta

Purpose: The authors attempt to capture new forensic science students’ pre-conceptions of the field and their assessment of competencies. Methodology: The authors surveyed…

Abstract

Purpose: The authors attempt to capture new forensic science students’ pre-conceptions of the field and their assessment of competencies. Methodology: The authors surveyed students at a Historically Black College and University and a Primarily White Institution on their viewership of crime and forensic TV shows and measured their competencies in a range of forensic science skills at the start and end of the semester, along with having students capture errors and evidence from an episode of CSI Las Vegas. Findings: Students who were viewers of crime series with and without prior forensics coursework over evaluated their level of preparedness at the start of the semester, often ranking themselves as moderately or well prepared in blood spatter analysis, fingerprinting, bodily fluid, and hair/fiber collection. Research limitations: The authors relied on a convenience sample of forensic science courses, and their comparison of student learning was disrupted by COVID-19. Originality: The authors examine student concerns with working at crime scenes and reflections on their abilities to succeed in the field. The authors discuss the need for incorporating media literacy, content warnings, and emotional socialization and professional development into forensic science curricula to better equip and prepare students for careers as crime scene investigators and forensic analysts.

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Roberta Julian and Sally F. Kelty

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss key risk factors in the use of forensic science in the criminal justice system by adopting a holistic and systemic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss key risk factors in the use of forensic science in the criminal justice system by adopting a holistic and systemic approach that examines the collection and use of forensic evidence from crime scene to court.

Design/methodology/approach

The research on which the paper is based was a mixed-method five-year study of the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice system in Australia using qualitative and quantitative methods. The paper draws on the in-depth analysis of qualitative data from 11 case studies of investigations of serious crime to identify key risk factors in the use of forensic science from crime scene to court.

Findings

Six key risk factors in the forensic process from crime scene to court are identified: low level of forensic awareness among first responders; crime scene examiners (CSEs) as technicians rather than professionals; inefficient and/or ineffective laboratory processes; limited forensic literacy among key actors in the criminal justice system; poor communication between key actors in the criminal justice system; and, financial resources not directed at the front end of the forensic process. Overall the findings demonstrate that forensic science is not well embedded in the criminal justice system.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that the risks inherent in the current practice of forensic science in the criminal justice system can be reduced dramatically through: forensic awareness training among first responders; the professionalisation of CSEs; continued improvements in efficiency and effectiveness at the laboratory with a focus on timeliness and quality; greater forensic literacy among actors in the criminal justice system; appropriate avenues of communication between agencies, practitioners and policymakers in the criminal justice system; and increased allocation of resources to the front end of the forensic process.

Originality/value

By adopting a holistic, systemic approach to the analysis of forensic science in the criminal justice system, and identifying inherent risks in the system, this paper contributes to the emerging body of research on the social processes that impact on the effectiveness of forensic science.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Katherine B. Killoran

In today's society with concern for crime and violence increasing and court television and celebrity trials bringing the criminal justice system, courtroom procedures, and…

Abstract

In today's society with concern for crime and violence increasing and court television and celebrity trials bringing the criminal justice system, courtroom procedures, and rules of evidence into our living rooms, there is an increased need for reliable information about issues that are the core of forensic science: crime scene investigation and the collection and scientific analysis of physical evidence used in trials.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2020

Brendan Chapman, David Keatley, Giles Oatley, John Coumbaros and Garth Maker

Cold case review teams and the processes that they adopt in their endeavour to solve historic crimes are varied and largely underreported. Of the limited literature…

Abstract

Purpose

Cold case review teams and the processes that they adopt in their endeavour to solve historic crimes are varied and largely underreported. Of the limited literature surrounding the topic of cold case reviews, the focus is on clearance rates and the selection of cases for review. While multiple reports and reviews have been undertaken and recommend that the interface between investigators and forensic scientists be improved, there is little evidence of cold case teams comprised of a mixture of investigators and scientists or experts. With the growing reliance on forensic science as an aide to solvability, the authors propose that the inclusion of forensic scientists to the central cold case investigation may be a critical factor in future success. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

To support the proposed approach, the authors conducted a review of the current literature seeking insight into the reported make-up of cold case teams. In conjunction with this, the authors reviewed a number of commissioned reports intended to improve cold case reviews and forensic services.

Findings

While many of the reviewed reports and recommendations suggested better integration with scientists and external expertise, little evidence of this in practice was reported within published literature. Open dialogue and cross pollination between police investigators and forensic scientists are likely to mitigate biases, inform case file triage and better equip investigations with contemporary and cutting-edge scientific solutions to the evidence analysis for cold cases. Furthermore, with respect to scientists within academia, large pools of resources by way of student interns or researchers may be available to assist resource-sparse policing jurisdictions.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first peer-reviewed recommendation for the consideration of integrated forensic scientists within a cold case review team. Multiple reports suggest the need for closer ties, but it is the anecdotal experience of the authors that the benefits of a blended task force approach may yield greater success.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Val Spikmans

Environmental forensic investigations rely on the collection, analysis and interpretation of evidence from an environmental scene to assist in identifying the party…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental forensic investigations rely on the collection, analysis and interpretation of evidence from an environmental scene to assist in identifying the party responsible for the introduction of exogenous material. These investigations also try to elucidate if the environment and/or human health have been affected. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Environmental forensic investigations are considered a sub-category of the forensic sciences. The potential scientific evidence is subjected to the same rigour as for other forensic science disciplines, including quality control, accreditation, chain of custody and evidence integrity. The manner in which evidence is analysed and interpreted is also similar. Even though strong similarities can be drawn between environmental forensic investigations and the general forensic sciences, some important differences need to be understood.

Findings

Environmental forensic investigations can be more complex than they first appear and identifying, analysing and interpreting scientific evidence is not always straightforward. It is crucial in the comprehension of the complexities of the environmental forensic discipline to understand the intricacies of the investigations, including the limited sample numbers, complex matrices, wide range of exogenous materials encountered, often large size of the scene, changes to the scene and, above all, the potential for degradation or transformation of evidence. In addition, scientific evidence is frequently used to gather intelligence rather than to provide knowledge that can be brought forward to determine guilt or innocence of an accused party.

Originality/value

This paper explores the complexities of the discipline and discusses the difficulties that are encountered during environmental investigations.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Craig Lee Engstrom

The purpose of this paper is to provide a rationale and step‐by‐step description of how to use rhetorical criticism as a method for accounting for organizational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a rationale and step‐by‐step description of how to use rhetorical criticism as a method for accounting for organizational isomorphism in organizational fields.

Design/methodology/approach

The idea that rhetoric is an important form of organizational discourse has gained interest among organizational scholars in recent years. Institutional theorists, especially, have been willing to embrace the “rhetorical turn” in organization studies. These scholars recognize that rhetoric plays an important role in creating, maintaining, and disrupting organizational and institutional orders. This paper adds to this research agenda by suggesting that organizational isomorphism can be partly understood as a rhetorical phenomenon. A method of rhetorical criticism – a qualitative approach for analyzing the rhetorical dimensions of texts and practice – and its efficacy for institutional research is explicated. Using a popular television program about crime scene investigations (which has arguably produced a “CSI effect” that influences the criminal justice system as an organizational field) as a sustained example, steps are provided for conducting rhetorical criticism of popular culture texts in order to account for isomorphic trends in an organizational field.

Findings

Rhetorical analysis of cultural and organizational artifacts, including institutional work, can expose myths and ceremonies that guide practices effectively and problematically.

Originality/value

The potential value of the paper is in its function as a guide for (neo)institutional and organization scholars looking for innovative approaches to studying organizations from a cultural perspective.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Photography and Death: Framing Death throughout History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-045-5

Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2020

Süleyman Uyar and Kürşad Çavuşoğlu

Due to the developments in information technologies, new concepts and practices have emerged in the field of accounting and auditing. One of these concepts is the concept…

Abstract

Due to the developments in information technologies, new concepts and practices have emerged in the field of accounting and auditing. One of these concepts is the concept of Forensic Accounting. Forensic accounting acts as a bridge between law and accounting sciences. Academic strutting about forensic accounting carried out in Turkey is increasing every day. In this study, we aim to examine the views of Turkish accounting academicians about skills of forensic accountant. Within this scope, we investigate whether there is any difference in views of Turkish accounting academicians by their gender, title, age, experience and university department (faculty, vocational school, etc.). Survey was sent to 543 Turkish accounting academicians via e-mail. 80 responses were used as data. Data analysis was made in SPSS Statistics 17.0. Means, standard deviations and percentages were computed for items related to skills of forensic accountant. Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to analyse whether there was any difference in views of Turkish accounting academicians by their gender, title, age, experience and university department. According to findings, the skills rated as most important by Turkish academicians are, respectively, deductive analysis, critical thinking and unstructured problem solving. The skills rated as least important by Turkish academicians are, respectively, oral communication, investigative flexibility and analytical proficiency. There is a significant difference in rating of the importance of critical thinking, investigative flexibility, analytical proficiency and written communication by gender and there is a significant difference in rating of the importance of deductive analysis, unstructured problem solving and composure by experience year as academician.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Audit Management and Forensic Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-636-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Alyson Kettles and Phil Woods

Forensic nursing is a term applied to nurses working in many different areas of clinical practice, such as high security hospitals, medium secure units, low secure units…

Abstract

Forensic nursing is a term applied to nurses working in many different areas of clinical practice, such as high security hospitals, medium secure units, low secure units, acute mental health wards, specialised private hospitals, psychiatric intensive care units, court liaison schemes, and outpatient, community and rehabilitation services. Rarely is the term defined in the general literature and as a concept it is multifaceted. Concept analysis is a method for exploring and evaluating the meaning of words. It gives precise definitions, both theoretical and operational, for use in theory, clinical practice and research. A concept analysis provides a logical basis for defining terms and helps us to refine and define a concept that derives from practice, research and theory. This paper uses the strategy of concept analysis to explore the term ‘forensic nursing’ and finds a working definition of forensic mental health nursing. The historical background and literature are reviewed using concept analysis to bring the term into focus and to define it more clearly. Forensic nursing is found to derive from forensic practice. A proposed definition of forensic nursing is given.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Glenn Porter

112

Abstract

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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