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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Katherine B. Killoran

In today's society with concern for crime and violence increasing and court television and celebrity trials bringing the criminal justice system, courtroom procedures, and…

Abstract

In today's society with concern for crime and violence increasing and court television and celebrity trials bringing the criminal justice system, courtroom procedures, and rules of evidence into our living rooms, there is an increased need for reliable information about issues that are the core of forensic science: crime scene investigation and the collection and scientific analysis of physical evidence used in trials.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Suzanne David and Brian H. Kleiner

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self‐mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic

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1983

Abstract

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self‐mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to uphold the high principles required by law and to withstand scrutiny by defence lawyers, forensic psychology has defined standards by which to judge a persion and studies continue to develop these measures.

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Managerial Law, vol. 43 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Roberta Julian and Sally F. Kelty

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss key risk factors in the use of forensic science in the criminal justice system by adopting a holistic and systemic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss key risk factors in the use of forensic science in the criminal justice system by adopting a holistic and systemic approach that examines the collection and use of forensic evidence from crime scene to court.

Design/methodology/approach

The research on which the paper is based was a mixed-method five-year study of the effectiveness of forensic science in the criminal justice system in Australia using qualitative and quantitative methods. The paper draws on the in-depth analysis of qualitative data from 11 case studies of investigations of serious crime to identify key risk factors in the use of forensic science from crime scene to court.

Findings

Six key risk factors in the forensic process from crime scene to court are identified: low level of forensic awareness among first responders; crime scene examiners (CSEs) as technicians rather than professionals; inefficient and/or ineffective laboratory processes; limited forensic literacy among key actors in the criminal justice system; poor communication between key actors in the criminal justice system; and, financial resources not directed at the front end of the forensic process. Overall the findings demonstrate that forensic science is not well embedded in the criminal justice system.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that the risks inherent in the current practice of forensic science in the criminal justice system can be reduced dramatically through: forensic awareness training among first responders; the professionalisation of CSEs; continued improvements in efficiency and effectiveness at the laboratory with a focus on timeliness and quality; greater forensic literacy among actors in the criminal justice system; appropriate avenues of communication between agencies, practitioners and policymakers in the criminal justice system; and increased allocation of resources to the front end of the forensic process.

Originality/value

By adopting a holistic, systemic approach to the analysis of forensic science in the criminal justice system, and identifying inherent risks in the system, this paper contributes to the emerging body of research on the social processes that impact on the effectiveness of forensic science.

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Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Boo Svartbo, Gösta Bucht, Anders Eriksson and Lars Olov Bygren

Mortality statistics are an important source of information concerning variations in time and place, identification of risk factors and the evaluation of treatment…

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Abstract

Mortality statistics are an important source of information concerning variations in time and place, identification of risk factors and the evaluation of treatment programs. In this study, a new death certificate was completed “blind” on the basis of hospital records from the last episode of care, across a random sample of 1,376 cases. The results showed that the overlap between the official register’s underlying cause of death and that of a panel was 72 per cent at the three‐digit level. The official underlying cause of death from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) was 72 cases in this sample, while 93 were deemed to have CVD by a panel. Additionally, of the 1,233 cases originally reported as non‐CVD, the panel deemed non‐CVD to be the true underlying cause in 1,176 cases. The paper concludes that CVD was most often correctly reported as the underlying cause of death in the investigated ages up to 75 years but plain differences were found between specialities and in different hospital size.

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International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2007

David Ndegwa

Abstract

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2021

Laurène Dufayet, Cyrus Macaigne, Nicolas Soussy, Elizabeth Alcaraz and Charlotte Gorgiard

This paper aims to give an overview of emerging issues relating to the management of patients in custody during the COVID-19 outbreak in France.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to give an overview of emerging issues relating to the management of patients in custody during the COVID-19 outbreak in France.

Design/methodology/approach

During custody in France, a medical consultation is provided for any patient who requests it. In the Paris area, this consultation is carried out by a practitioner in forensic medicine, based in a general hospital. Usually, most medical consultations for patients in custody take place directly in police stations. With the COVID-19 outbreak, the authors chose to suspend this activity, asking law enforcement to bring patients directly to their hospitals. Patients presenting with severe infections or indicative symptoms of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 infection and a comorbidity are tested for COVID-19. Such patients remain hospitalized until results of the test are received. If the result is positive, they are hospitalized for the length of their custody. If sent to prison, they are transferred to a medical facility in detention.

Findings

From the onset of the outbreak, the authors observed increased pressure from law enforcement to obtain medical information. According to the French Code of Medical Ethics, no medical information should be disclosed regarding the authors’ patients’ medical situations. The authors are also concerned about sending a potentially infected patient back to a police station, to prison or to his/her home.

Originality/value

This paper provides a snapshot of issues relating to the management of patients in custody during the COVID-19 outbreak in France. Unfortunately, the current situation in France does not permit a wider range of testing for the specified population in this paper.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1950

KENNETH GARSIDE

Probably no aspect of librarianship presents such variations of practice in individual libraries as does the provision of subject catalogues. The author catalogue, which…

Abstract

Probably no aspect of librarianship presents such variations of practice in individual libraries as does the provision of subject catalogues. The author catalogue, which tells the user whether a given work of which he knows the author and title is in the library, must necessarily take a similar form everywhere, and such variations as do exist in the treatment of certain types of heading—that of academies is a case in point—are quickly assimilated by the reader as he moves from library to library. The same cannot be said of the catalogue which tells the user what works are to be found in the library on a given topic. In the Anglo‐Saxon countries subject catalogues may be arranged, if indeed they exist at all, according to a variety of systems, and even where one of the accepted classification schemes or lists of subject headings is used the local modifications are often legion. Many university and research libraries find that no existing scheme offers an arrangement of the whole field of knowledge which reflects the approach to which their readers are accustomed; and certainly no ready‐made scheme is entirely suitable for a university library in the United Kingdom, although many libraries do attempt to provide a useful arrangement both of the books on the shelves and of the entries in the subject catalogue by adapting Dewey, the Brussels decimal classification, or the Library of Congress classification. Bliss, when his full scheme has been published, will probably be found to provide the arrangement most suitable for use in academic libraries, but even his admirable classification fails to provide a scheme which can be identified at all points with the approach which is required in a library which serves first and foremost the teaching of a university.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2013

Richard P. Smiraglia and Charles van den Heuvel

This paper seeks to outline the central role of concepts in the knowledge universe, and the intertwining roles of works, instantiations, and documents. In particular the…

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1404

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to outline the central role of concepts in the knowledge universe, and the intertwining roles of works, instantiations, and documents. In particular the authors are interested in ontological and epistemological aspects of concepts and in the question to which extent there is a need for natural languages to link concepts to create meaningful patterns.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors describe the quest for the smallest elements of knowledge from a historical perspective. They focus on the metaphor of the universe of knowledge and its impact on classification and retrieval of concepts. They outline the major components of an elementary theory of knowledge interaction.

Findings

The paper outlines the major components of an elementary theory of knowledge interaction that is based on the structure of knowledge rather than on the content of documents, in which semantics becomes not a matter of synonymous concepts, but rather of coordinating knowledge structures. The evidence is derived from existing empirical research.

Originality/value

The paper shifts the bases for knowledge organization from a search for a universal order to an understanding of a universal structure within which many context‐dependent orders are possible.

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Joseph Elias Ibrahim, Shelley Jeffcott, Marie‐Claire Davis and Liam Chadwick

The purpose of this paper is to re‐frame perceptions surrounding junior doctors' capacity to contribute to patient safety and quality improvement.

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1053

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re‐frame perceptions surrounding junior doctors' capacity to contribute to patient safety and quality improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

A targeted literature review was conducted followed by individual telephone interviews and a half‐day forum involving junior doctor representatives and selected leaders in the sector.

Findings

Junior doctors' entry into health care is an ideal time to cultivate practitioners' interest and expertise in improving the health system for better patient care. Junior doctors are more likely to bring or embrace new ideas, and recognize the importance of transparency and integration of technology into healthcare systems. Engaging with junior doctors in collaborative processes, rather than focusing on their more senior colleagues, may create a more effective culture.

Originality/value

The attributes of junior doctors (as they are in the absence of specific quality improvement or leadership training) that are currently underutilized in patient safety and quality improvement are explored, along with the factors limiting and facilitating the utilization of these attributes.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2014

Camilla M. Haw, Jean H. Stubbs and Geoffrey L. Dickens

Use of off-license medicines in forensic mental health settings is common and unlicensed drugs are sometimes prescribed. Despite their responsibility for administering…

Abstract

Purpose

Use of off-license medicines in forensic mental health settings is common and unlicensed drugs are sometimes prescribed. Despite their responsibility for administering medicines little is known about how mental health nurses view these practices. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 50 mental health nurses working in low and medium secure adolescent and adult mental health wards were presented with a clinical vignette about administration of unlicensed and off-license medicines. Semi-structured interviews about their likely clinical response to, and feelings about, this practice were conducted. Interview data were subject to a thematic analysis.

Findings

Analysis revealed six themes: status of unlicensed/off-label medicines; legality of administering unlicensed medicines; professional standards around administering unlicensed medicines; finding out more about unlicensed medicines; trusting medical colleagues; and decision making in uncertain cases.

Practical implications

Forensic mental health nurses take a pragmatic approach to the practice of administering unlicensed medicines and most are aware of their professional responsibilities.

Originality/value

This study provides the first evidence to inform the development of training for forensic mental health nurses about an issue that is common in forensic mental health practice.

Details

Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-8794

Keywords

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