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The issue of forced marriage is typically located within debates on violence against women, immigration control and cultural difference and is rarely considered in…
The issue of forced marriage is typically located within debates on violence against women, immigration control and cultural difference and is rarely considered in relation to adults with learning disabilities. The purpose of this paper is to argue that this is an issue which needs to be addressed by Safeguarding Adult Boards.
This paper draws upon original research undertaken by the author in conjunction with the Ann Craft Trust, a voluntary sector organisation which supports statutory, independent and voluntary sector organisations across the UK to protect adults at risk. The project sought to establish the extent to which the issue of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities is recognised, understood and acted upon by Boards.
Although many Boards are aware of national policy guidelines, very few had incorporated these guidelines into their local practice. There were two key consequences of this. First, Boards were failing to monitor cases of forced marriage and were unable to plan preventative services. Second, frontline workers were not given necessary training and so were unable to develop effective skills of knowledge. The need for both better recognition of and improved responses to the problem of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities is highlighted, as is the need for the safeguarding workforce to be supported by more effective strategic planning and better training.
This paper draws upon original research which examined how Safeguarding Adult Boards are responding to the issue of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities – a problem currently very much under-represented in existing research and practice literature.
The purpose of this study is to compare the UK demographics of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities to inform…
The purpose of this study is to compare the UK demographics of forced marriage of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities to inform effective safeguarding practice.
An analysis of all cases of forced marriage reported to the UK Government’s Forced Marriage Unit (FMU) between 2009 and 2015.
People with learning disabilities are at five times greater risk of forced marriage than people without learning disabilities. Men and women with learning disabilities are equally likely to be forced to marry, whereas amongst the general population, women are more likely than men to be forced to marry. Patterns of ethnicity, geographic location within the UK and reporters are the same for people with and without learning disabilities.
The analysis is based on cases reported to the FMU, and for some cases, data held was incomplete. More importantly, many cases go unreported and so the FMU data does not necessarily reflect all cases of forced marriage in the UK.
Forced marriage of people with learning disabilities is a safeguarding issue. Practitioners across health, education, criminal justice and social care need to better understand the risk of forced marriage for people with learning disabilities. Links to practice resources developed as part of the wider project are provided.
This is the first time that researchers have been given access to FMU data and the first time that a statistical analysis of cases of forced marriage involving someone with a learning disability have been analysed.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of Muslim society marriages – forced, arranged or marriages of choice/love, on women entrepreneurial intentions (EI)…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of Muslim society marriages – forced, arranged or marriages of choice/love, on women entrepreneurial intentions (EI), with reference to Ajzen’s (2002) theory of planned behaviour. It is postulated that marriage type has a significant influence on women household dynamics towards EI and business growth.
A qualitative methodology was used and a total of 20 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with Muslim married women entrepreneurs operating home-based and market-based small businesses.
The findings show that all these three types of married women entrepreneurs are active in the entrepreneurial process. However, the authors found different paradoxes in their EI and desire for business growth based on their marriage choices or marriage-related constraints that may have been imposed on them.
Qualitative research on a small sample size certainly presents a limitation on the generalizability of this work, because it is difficult to capture data regarding this sensitive issue. Future research could also be carried out in other cultural and religious traditions.
The paper provides good insights to understand the entrepreneurial journey of Muslim women entrepreneurs in the conservative society based on their marriages options.
The contribution of this research is twofold. First, the paper offers a theoretical perspective related to female EI and business growth based on religious marriages. Second, it applies Ajzen’s (2002) planned behaviour theory to establish how marriage constraints may influence women EI in the Muslim society.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between forced marriage, running away/going missing and child sexual exploitation.
An extensive research review and interviews with experts and practitioners across the three fields identified a total of 22 cases in which young people (aged 18 and under) had experienced some combination of all three issues. Of these, nine case studies involving South Asian young people were explored in depth using a case study methodology.
Through adopting constitutive intersectionality as an analytical framework, the power of “community” emerged as a distinct theme within the cases. Concern about both family and community “honour” impacted young people’s decision making and help seeking processes. “Honour” also impacted parental responses to the young people as well as how they engaged with the professionals seeking to support them.
The safety of mothers also emerged as an issue, suggesting that this is an area for further research.
Practical implications for practice included: the need to address barriers to young people disclosing abuse and entering into the criminal justice process; difficulties associated with finding safe spaces to work with young people; the need to identify effective ways of working with abused young people who are unable to draw on relational and social support; and dangers associated with accessing support services.
An extensive review of the relevant research literature failed to uncover links between forced marriage, going missing and child sexual exploitation. This led the author to assert that the risk of child sexual exploitation as it relates to young South Asian young people who run away from home to escape forced marriage has been both under-acknowledged and under-explored (Sharp, 2013). Empirical research undertaken by the author over a 15-month period confirmed this assertion.
In this chapter, we describe the belief system of Izzat which is central among South Asian families. The idea of forced marriage is based upon the concept of Izzat or…
In this chapter, we describe the belief system of Izzat which is central among South Asian families. The idea of forced marriage is based upon the concept of Izzat or honor which is a cornerstone of family life in South Asian communities.
Rai (2006) suggests that South Asian community members are deeply affected by what others say about them. The closest English translations to Izzat and Sharam are honor and shame, respectively. Rai argues that Izzat and Sharam are mechanisms that safeguard patriarchal customs such as arranged marriage which are familiar to us from our own backgrounds as two Asian women. It is our belief that Izzat is the highest “context marker” (Pearce & Cronen, 1980) for forced marriages.
We will illustrate the concept of Izzat through two case vignettes and explicate theoretical ideas, based on Izzat to include Borzemyi-Nagy’s ideas about belief systems.
The research of Ryan Brown (2016) University of Oklahoma on “honour cultures” in the USA draws some parallels in gendered discourses about power of men over women. He suggests that high levels of murder rates as well as reluctance to address mental health issues are present in “honour cultures.” These ideas resonate with the strong influence of Izzat upon South Asian family and community systems which we have met in our practice. The development of our practice was in response to issues arising from our clinical work in these communities (Robinson, 2016).
We will explore the continuum of marriage to include forced, arranged and consensual marriage within the context of Izzat and compare with black African and African-Caribbean families.
We will also consider issues of cultural competence and expertness and how this interplays with strongly held belief systems such as Izzat. We will end with some clinical implications and pointers for practice.
This chapter is about child labour as slavery in modern and modernizing societies in an era of rapid globalization.
For the most part, child slavery in modern societies is hidden from view and cloaked in social customs, this being convenient for economic exploitation purposes.
The aim of this chapter is to bring children's ‘modern slavery’ out of the shadows, and thereby to help clarify and shape relevant social discourse and theory, social policies and practices, slavery-related legislation and instruments at all levels, and above all children's everyday lives, relationships and experiences.
The main focus is on issues surrounding (i) the concept of ‘slavery’; (ii) the types of slavery in the world today; (iii) and ‘child labour’ as a type, or basis, of slavery.
There is an in-depth examination of the implications of the notion of ‘slavery’ within international law for child labour, and especially that performed through schooling.
According to one influential approach, ‘slavery’ is a state marked by the loss of free will where a person is forced through violence or the threat of violence to give up the ability to sell freely his or her own labour power. If so, then hundreds of millions of children in modern and modernizing societies qualify as slaves by virtue of the labour they are forced – compulsorily and statutorily required – to perform within schools, whereby they, their labour and their labour power are controlled and exploited for economic purposes.
Under globalization, such enslavement has almost reached global saturation point.
Since many Afghans, especially in rural areas, favor traditional, customary, and tribal laws over national laws, they tend to disregard the constitution and national…
Since many Afghans, especially in rural areas, favor traditional, customary, and tribal laws over national laws, they tend to disregard the constitution and national governmental structure under the new democracy that gives girls and women protection. These laws allow girls to attend school, and ban child marriage; therefore, the problems related to these practices should be decreasing. However, since many in the more rural areas of Afghanistan do not honor the regulations, laws, and rulings of the national government, serious problems still exist for girls and women. Those to be addressed in this chapter are high rates of illiteracy, child marriage, obstetrical fistulas, poor health, domestic violence, and self-immolation.
Child marriage, or marriage between two individuals when one or both are under the age of 18, is legal and practiced in 48 US states. Despite this, child marriage is…
Child marriage, or marriage between two individuals when one or both are under the age of 18, is legal and practiced in 48 US states. Despite this, child marriage is commonly understood as only occurring in the Global South. Child marriage laws shed light on the paradoxical policies that most US states enforce regarding young people’s sexual agency. By legalizing sex between adults and minors within the institution of marriage, child marriage provides exception to statutory rape laws, which classify sex between minors and adults as sexual violence. In this chapter, I draw on feminist and queer theories to critically examine the racialized and gendered effects of these contradictory state policies. First, I analyze US age of consent laws’ reliance on an adult/child binary that constructs adults and minors as essentially and radically different. Second, I explore efforts to challenge the adult/child binary, looking at how frameworks for understanding sexual violence that are rooted in an adult/child binary can exacerbate young people’s vulnerability to sexual violence. Third, I discuss feminist efforts to theorize sexual violence outside of binary logics and their implications for research on child marriage. I conclude by discussing areas for future research on child marriage that attend to the racialized and gendered inequalities that undergird the state regulation of youth sexualities.
The article is based on a research project using survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) with young people and their parents belonging to the five largest…
The article is based on a research project using survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) with young people and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark, along with the experiences of psychosocial services for minority young people. The theoretical framework is social psychological, combining theories of modernisation, family relations and effects of discrimination. The article examines interaction with the parents in relation to their intimate partnership formation and the dynamics of religious endogamy. Main findings are that parents may be either supportive or against the young people, contrary to the dominant discourses about intergenerational conflicts. The continued practice of religious endogamy is another finding. The article criticises the reductionistic dichotomy ‐ either own or parental choice ‐ and appeals for broader concepts which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with the problems of ethnic minority young people in forming intimate partnerships in other countries. A model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to ageism and sexism, as well as racism, at personal, interpersonal and structural levels.