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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2015

John Antle, Roshan Adhikari and Stephanie Price

A food security indicator for technology impact assessment is needed that can be constructed with available data, is comparable over time and space, and represents the…

Abstract

Purpose

A food security indicator for technology impact assessment is needed that can be constructed with available data, is comparable over time and space, and represents the multiple dimensions of food security.

Methodology/approach

In this chapter, we review some commonly used food security indicators, analyze the extent to which these indicators satisfy key criteria, and introduce a food security indicator constructed for use in an economic impact assessment and that exhibits a number of desirable properties.

Findings

This income-based indicator is similar to a consumption-based poverty indicator, utilizing an estimate of the income required to purchase a food “basket” that meets nutritional requirements and comparing the food security income requirement to a household’s per capita income.

Social implications

The applicability of the indicator is illustrated with an analysis of the impacts of legume inoculation technology developed for smallholder farms in Tanzania and other parts of Africa. We conclude with a discussion of suggested improvements for food security indicators used for technology impact assessment.

Details

Food Security in an Uncertain World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-213-9

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

A. Amarender Reddy, Ch. Radhika Rani, Timothy Cadman, Soora Naresh Kumar and Anugula N Reddy

The purpose of this paper is to measure performance of India in food and nutrition security relative to other Asian countries like Bangladesh, China, Africa and also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to measure performance of India in food and nutrition security relative to other Asian countries like Bangladesh, China, Africa and also developed countries from 1991 to 2016.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on FAO food security indicators under four dimensions, namely, food availability, access, stability and utilization. These indicators are further categorized into determinants and outcome indicators of food security. A comprehensive fifteen indicators are examined in depth.

Findings

Food availability in terms of dietary calories and protein per capita was less in India compared to even Africa and Bangladesh. However, food access indicators like road density is better, food prices remain low and stable, which improved food access and stability. However, in utilization indicators, access to water and sanitation remained low, anaemia among pregnant women and undernourishment was relatively higher when even compared to least developed countries like Africa and Bangladesh. Depth of food deficit (an indicator of severity of food deficit) was higher in India except Africa.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should focus on policies for decreasing undernourishment and anaemia and severity in depth of food deficit with focus on India.

Practical implications

The results highlight the severity of food deficit and anaemia among women, undernourishment and provide benchmark to monitor sustainable development goals in zero hunger goal.

Originality/value

This study examined the relative performance of India in various food and nutrition security indicators in comparison to other countries.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Bingxin Yu and Lingzhi You

The recent high food price and volatility, as well as economic recession, have reversed the last decade's progress in reducing hunger and poverty. This aim of this paper…

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Abstract

Purpose

The recent high food price and volatility, as well as economic recession, have reversed the last decade's progress in reducing hunger and poverty. This aim of this paper is to conduct a factor and sequential typology analysis to identify groups of countries categorized according to five measures of food security.

Design/methodology/approach

The recent high food price and volatility, as well as economic recession, have reversed the last decade's progress in reducing hunger and poverty. This paper conducts a factor and sequential typology analysis to identify groups of countries categorized according to five measures of food security – consumption, production, imports, distribution, and agricultural potential – by using indicators from 175 countries. The analysis first identifies five distinct food security groups, measured by the levels of nutrient intake, and then further splits these groups based on indicators of food production, trade security, and agricultural potential.

Findings

The results suggest that the terms of “developing country” or “low income country” can be inaccurate in the discussion of food security because they are too general and can actually mask the extreme heterogeneity in different aspects of food security. The results also indicate that different responses are needed by different types of food‐insecure countries to address their unique food and economic challenges.

Originality/value

The typology of food security and linkage between agricultural potential and food security contribute to a better understanding of the effectiveness of different policy interventions under a country's unique conditions.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2020

Akanganngang Joseph Asitik and Benjamin Musah Abu

This paper assessed the causal effect of women empowerment in agriculture (WEA) on household food security in the Savannah Accelerated Development Authority (SADA) zone of Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper assessed the causal effect of women empowerment in agriculture (WEA) on household food security in the Savannah Accelerated Development Authority (SADA) zone of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the extended probit regression with endogenous treatment to account for potential endogeneity of empowerment and food security using data from the United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Feed the Future baseline survey.

Findings

All three indicators of women empowerment positively impact food security. In specific terms, when women participate in crop and livestock decision-making in the household, and when they have access to cultivable lands, their households have lower probabilities of being severely or moderately hungry. Also, crop decision-making exhibits the highest impact on food security.

Practical implications

While there may be several policy options to eradicate food insecurity challenges in Ghana, the policy measure of empowering women in agriculture needs attention. Priority should be given to empowering them in production decision-making.

Social implications

There is the need to sensitise households on the importance of women decision-making within the household and their access to land.

Originality/value

In the context of the empowerment literature, from our search, this study is the first in applying the hunger scale as a measure of food security and represents the first attempt at examining the effect of women empowerment on food security in Ghana.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Richard J. Culas and Kimsong Tek

The paper presents food and nutritional status and relevant policy objectives that can sustain food security in Cambodia. This paper aims to review Cambodia’s food security

Abstract

Purpose

The paper presents food and nutritional status and relevant policy objectives that can sustain food security in Cambodia. This paper aims to review Cambodia’s food security situation over a period.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an approach for selecting food security indicators in relation to both inputs and outcomes by drawing on a conceptual framework. National level data for the food security indicators are analysed over a period to provide trends in food and nutritional status.

Findings

Cambodia has not experienced drastic food insecurity yet, as most people are farmers and their livelihoods dependent on agriculture. Agriculture has maintained food availability in the country; however, there is a proportion of the population living in remote areas unable to obtain sufficient, safe, nutritious food. Landlessness, internal migration, rapid population growth, lack of education and skills, limited access to natural resources and agricultural land, poor health and infrastructure leave the people with inadequate employment opportunities, low capabilities and low productivity which in turn bring deeper poverty. Therefore, people are insecure, excluded and vulnerable to food deprivation.

Practical implications

To tackle the food security challenges, the Government of Cambodia focuses on food-based social safety nets in the sectors of education, nutrition and productive assets/livelihoods support, to enable longer-term, nationally owned food security solutions.

Originality/value

The paper draws conclusions using a range of recently proposed food security indicators and offers a perspective for policy formulation which may be of interest to development scholars and practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Eduardo Botti Abbade

The purpose of this paper is to identify the association between the levels of food utilization (FU), food availability, economic access (EA) and physical access (PA) to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the association between the levels of food utilization (FU), food availability, economic access (EA) and physical access (PA) to food in developing countries – the main dimensions underlying the concept of food security.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzed available data from 57 developing countries. The variables investigated were: food availability (FA), EA to food measured through economic development, PA to food using the Logistics Performance Index as a proxy, and FU. The paper uses factorial, correlation and cluster analyses.

Findings

The results show that the dimensions of food security are strongly and positively correlated. PA has a moderate association with FU (ρS=0.5338 [p<0.001]; ρP=0.4252; [p<0.01]). EA has a strong association with FU (ρS=0.6998 [p<0.001]; ρP=0.6404; [p<0.01]). Moreover, cluster analysis suggests that some countries present significant urgencies regarding some of the food security dimensions considered.

Research limitations/implications

Cluster analysis has some limitations regarding the interpretations of the key findings. Moreover, many factors affect food security promotion; this paper addresses just a few of them.

Practical implications

Through a better alignment of food security dimensions worldwide, policy makers, as well as private sector actors, might achieve better conditions to reduce food waste or loss, supply a wider diversity of foods, reduce adverse environmental impacts, reduce logistics costs and, finally, reduce food prices.

Originality/value

This study outlines specific fragilities regarding the main dimensions of food security in developing economies. Thus, this study highlights that some countries need to focus urgently on certain, specific dimensions in order to promote the food security for their populaces.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour and Eltayeb Mohamedain Abdalla

Different from the previous studies in the Sudanese literature, this study aims to examine the incidence and of food security, the variation in households' food insecurity…

Abstract

Purpose

Different from the previous studies in the Sudanese literature, this study aims to examine the incidence and of food security, the variation in households' food insecurity between localities and the adaptation and survival strategy in Kassala State as a case study of Eastern Sudan.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the measurement of Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and uses new primary data from a Food Security Household Survey in Kassala State (2019) and uses the descriptive analysis to discuss the measurement of HFIAS, the incidence of food security, the variation in households' food insecurity between localities and the adaptation and survival strategy in Kassala State.

Findings

The authors find that the majority of household (77%) are food-insecure of various degrees, with 32.9% being severely food-insecure, while some households are food-secure (23%). The authors find support for their hypothesis that there will be variation in households' food insecurity between localities that most probably relate to variation in the distribution of monthly income between localities. In particular, the authors find that most households in rural areas are severely food-insecure.

Originality/value

This paper provides a significant contribution to the Sudanese and international literature because it discusses the incidence of food insecurity in Sudan. Different from the two other accompanying papers that focused on the determinants of food security in Kassala State using the measurement of HFIAS and determinants of production of food and consumption of food in Kassala State, this paper focuses on the incidence of food security in Kassala State using the measurement of HFIAS.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2015

Shida Rastegari Henneberry and Claudia Diaz Carrasco

The objective of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the meaning and measurements of food security.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the meaning and measurements of food security.

Methodology/approach

This chapter consolidates and examines the evolution of the many definitions of food security since 1975 and describes the four dimensions of global food security. We examine the relationship between global food crisis and food security, and the significance of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa as emerging markets.

Findings

Achieving food security will be determined by the world as a group helping developing countries in creating proper infrastructures, providing better income opportunities, and reducing financial constraints.

Practical implications

Governments, international agencies, private firms, and the world’s population need to be involved in food security from seed to plate.

Details

Food Security in an Uncertain World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-213-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Deeksha Tayal

This paper aims to suggest that gender inequality plays a significant role in explaining the prevailing magnitudes of food insecurity in the countries of Sub-Saharan…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to suggest that gender inequality plays a significant role in explaining the prevailing magnitudes of food insecurity in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. It provides empirical evidence for the underlying hypothesis that removing discrimination against women, particularly, with respect to their reproductive health and rights, depicted in high adolescent fertility rates and maternal deaths, will be an important pre-condition for addressing the hunger and undernourishment challenge in the region. A theoretical linkage has been conceptualised and supported through findings from panel data analysis of a set of 20 countries in the region, over a period of 16 years (from 1999 to 2015). The key result is that the relative impact of health inequality on food insecurity is higher and significant, in comparison to disparities in education and economic participation of women. A unit increase in adolescent fertility rate leads to an increase in undernourishment by 19.4 per cent, depth of food deficit by 1.15 per cent and a decline in average dietary energy adequacy by 0.21 per cent.

Design/methodology/approach

In the paper, time series data set for 20 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa is generated by using world development indicators (World Bank) of gender inequality and food security statistics of Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Data set involves trends in variables over a period of 16 years (1999 to 2015). A panel regression analysis with fixed effects is undertaken for testing the underlying hypothesis. To capture the linkage in a detailed manner, the author has fitted four models for each of the three measures of food security. First model captures the specific impact of gender differences in secondary school enrolment on food security in the region. Second model assesses the impact of gender inequality in labour force participation, and the third model explores the impact of health inequality in terms of adolescent fertility and maternal mortality on food security indicators. In the final model, the relative impact of all the four gender inequality indicators on magnitude of food insecurity in the study region is assessed.

Findings

The findings from panel data analysis provide empirical support to our hypothesis that gender disparities prevailing in Sub-Saharan Africa have an adverse impact on the level of food security in the region. Individually, increase in both, gender parity in secondary education and ratio of female to male labour force participation rate, has a negative influence on prevalence of undernourishment and depth of food deficit in the region. But, when the relative impact of gender inequality in education, economic participation and health are considered together in a single model, adolescent fertility rate, followed by maternal mortality ratio became the two most important indicators negatively influencing the magnitude of food security in SSA. A unit increase in adolescent fertility rate, leads to an increase in undernourishment by 19.4 per cent, depth of food deficit by 1.15 per cent and a decline in average dietary energy adequacy by 0.21 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

Scarcity of continuous time series data for the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa limits the scope of analysis.

Social implications

Government policies and programmes in Sub-Saharan Africa must focus on successful implementation of sexual and reproductive health and rights of women, as underlined in Goal 3 of sustainable development goals (SDGs). This would require deeper levels of interventions aimed at transforming gender roles and relations through involvement of men and boys as partners. Elimination of sexual and gender-based violence against women and girls, and ensuring easy and affordable access to sexual and reproductive health services, particularly in fragile and conflict affected areas, are some of the important measures which may facilitate movement of the countries in the region, towards the target set by SDG 3.

Originality/value

Indisputably, women play a key role in a nation’s food economy, not only as food producers and income earners but also as food distributors and consumers. Nevertheless, they face discrimination in every dimension and phase of life, which hampers their ability to successfully fulfill this responsibility. The paper provides a theoretical linkage and empirical evidence on the underlying hypothesis that targeting various forms of gender disparities in the African sub-continent, particularly those relating to reproductive health and rights of women will pave the way for reducing the magnitude of hunger and food insecurity in the region of Sub-Saharan Africa. Few papers in my knowledge have explored the linkage between gender inequality and food insecurity, but none have empirically emphasised the reproductive health dimension of this association.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2021

Emma Beacom, Christopher McLaughlin, Sinéad Furey, Lynsey Elizabeth Hollywood and Paul Humphreys

Data from the Northern Ireland (NI) Health Survey 2014/15 (n = 2,231) were statistically analysed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity according to both indicators

Abstract

Purpose

Data from the Northern Ireland (NI) Health Survey 2014/15 (n = 2,231) were statistically analysed to examine the prevalence of food insecurity according to both indicators. Pearson's X2 test for association and logistic regressions were used to examine associations between food security status and predictor variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Household food insecurity has been identified as a significant societal issue in both developed and developing nations, but there exists no universal indicator to approximate its prevalence. In NI, two indicators (United States Household Food Security Survey Module [HFSSM] and the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions [EU-SILC] food deprivation questions) have been used. This study examines how both indicators differ in their classification of food insecurity prevalence in a population sample and also examines the relationship between various demographic and household factors and food security status.

Findings

According to the EU-SILC food deprivation questions, 8.3% (n = 185) were indicated to be food insecure, while according to the HFSSM, 6.5% (n = 146) were indicated to be food insecure. The HFSSM and EU-SILC regression models differed in the underlying variables they identified as significant predictors of food insecurity. Significant variables common to both modules were tenure, employment status, health status, anxiety/depression and receipt of benefits.

Originality/value

Findings can inform policy action with regards to targeting the key contributors and can inform policy decisions in NI and elsewhere with regards to choosing the most appropriate food insecurity indicator.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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