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Article

Harold Van Andaya Aquino, Tyron Yap, Jean Paolo Gomez Lacap, Gertrude Tuazon and Maribel Flores

The study examines the interrelationships of food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the moderating effect of food safety training on the said interrelationships.

Abstract

Purpose

The study examines the interrelationships of food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the moderating effect of food safety training on the said interrelationships.

Design/methodology/approach

Predictive-causal was the primary research design used and partial least squares – structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was the statistical technique applied.

Findings

Results showed that food safety knowledge significantly and positively influences attitudes towards food safety. It was further revealed that attitudes toward food safety and food safety practices are also significantly and positively related. Moderation analysis indicated that food safety training moderates the significant and positive relationship between attitudes towards food safety and food safety practices.

Research limitations/implications

The present study has limitations. First, the unit of analysis is focused on food handlers in fast-food restaurants in Angeles City, Philippines. Other researchers may come up with similar studies on a larger scale – provincial, regional or national. Second, only food safety training as a construct was used as a moderator on the hypothesized relationships of the structural model. Other studies may expand and explore other moderating variables and/or mediating constructs that may affect the said hypothesized relationships.

Practical implications

Based on the present study, food safety knowledge was found to have a huge significant and direct influence on attitudes of fast-food restaurant food handlers towards food safety, as evidenced by the computed effect size. In short, knowledge on food safety is an integral factor when it comes to enhancing food safety attitudes of fast-food restaurant food handlers. When fast-food restaurant food handlers are well-equipped with the right food safety knowledge, they become more aware of the different food safety protocols and other pertinent food safety guidelines and procedures which can lead to favorable food safety attitudes.

Social implications

The present study highlighted the moderating effect of food safety training on the relationship between attitudes toward food safety and food safety practices. Therefore, regular attendance of food handlers to food safety training is crucial in developing acceptable attitudes toward food safety, which in turn, favorably affect their food safety practices in fast-food restaurants.

Originality/value

The current study utilized PLS-SEM, a second-generation statistical technique, to measure the hypothesized relationships as compared to correlation tests performed by prior studies on the interrelationships of food safety knowledge, attitudes toward food safety and food safety practices. PLS-SEM is suitable for this type of research design – predictive-causal – since this study involves model development and prediction. Furthermore, it employed moderation analysis to measure the moderating effects of food safety training on the identified hypothesized relationships of the structural model. Hence, methodologically, the present study employed new ways and insights in measuring the interrelationships of food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Makbule Gezmen Karadağ, Duygu Ağagündüz, Hilal Yıldıran, Sabriye Arslan and Onur Toka

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perception and knowledge of standard food/meal portion size and related factors in young adults.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perception and knowledge of standard food/meal portion size and related factors in young adults.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study was conducted on 1,000 volunteer young adults, consisting of 504 men and 496 women (18 and 28 years). The portion size of food/meal, amount of food measuring utensils and also nutritional knowledge were evaluated via a questionnaire and some visual materials.

Findings

Knowledge of portion sizes, amount of food each utensil holds and nutrition was evaluated via a questionnaire and some visual materials. Knowledge of portion size with respect to food groups (p = 0.015), meals (p < 0.001) and food measuring utensils (p = 0.002) and nutritional knowledge scores (p = 0.011) differed based on body mass indexes (BMI). Women had on mean a higher nutritional knowledge score than men (2.0 ± 1.3, 1.9 ± 1.1 points, respectively). The probability of having knowledge about food measuring utensils was 1.4-fold greater for individuals who had been previously educated about nutrition (p = 0.034). Individuals of the faculty of health sciences had higher mean scores for all portion scores (p < 0.05).

Originality/value

The study findings highlighted that portion knowledge and perception of young adults were affected by gender, BMI, enrolled faculty and nutritional knowledge status. This is the first study, through which the portion knowledge and perception subcomponents (food, meal and measuring utensils) are evaluated, indicating each subcomponent to be affected by distinct factors.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article

Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi, Leila Nikniaz, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Mostafa Farahbakhsh and Zeinab Nikniaz

The purpose of this paper is to determine the food safety knowledge and practices of the Iranian consumers and also its association with socio-demographic characteristics.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the food safety knowledge and practices of the Iranian consumers and also its association with socio-demographic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present cross-sectional and population-based study, the validated food safety questionnaires applied to 1,500 participants who were selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling from the capital city and regional area of East-Azerbaijan – Iran. The Student t-test and analysis of variance and linear regression were used for statistical analysis.

Findings

Although the overall percentages of mean score for knowledge (77.66 percent) and self-reported practice (70.77 percent) were good, there was a low level of awareness and self-reported practice in some subsections such as optimal heating/cooling temperature, proper thawing techniques and eating raw egg. Female and married respondents had significantly higher mean knowledge score than males (p<0.001) and singles (p=0.04). Residents of regional areas acted more safely than capital city residents (p=0.01).

Research limitations/implications

Despite the good knowledge of some respondents regarding food safety, their food safety practices were poor. It can thus be suggested that the future studies have better focus on investigating the perceived barriers of consumers about food safety practices.

Practical implications

Although the mean knowledge and practice regarding food safety of Iranian consumers was good, yet there is the lack of knowledge and practice on some important factors related to food poisonings such as eating raw or lightly cooked egg or improper heating/thawing practices. So, it is important to develop proper food safety education programs emphasizing on these issues. According to lower food safety knowledge and practice of low-educated, single and male respondents, the educational programs should mainly focus on these groups.

Originality/value

For the development of effective food safety education programs in Iran, learning about the basic knowledge and practice of consumers is essential; however, there is limited data that directly tackles this issue in Iran.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Nevin Sanlier and Ece Konaklioglu

The number of reported food‐borne illnesses has increased recently in the world. In this respect, this study is carried out with the aim of investigating the food safety…

Abstract

Purpose

The number of reported food‐borne illnesses has increased recently in the world. In this respect, this study is carried out with the aim of investigating the food safety knowledge, attitude and food handling practices of university students in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were applied to 1,340 people volunteered in the study, regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices. The research data was collected through a face‐to‐face questionnaire. An overall number of 1,340 university students from three different institutions were included in this study. Gender distribution was 54.6 per cent for male while that of female was 45.4 per cent, and age range was between 18‐24 years.

Findings

Depending on the respondents' gender, a statistically significant difference was found between male and female participants on total food safety knowledge, attitude and practice scores (p<0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between students' institutes (p<0.001). Also, a correlation was found between food safety knowledge attitude and practice (p<0.001).

Research limitations/implications

Because the population of this study consisted of university students from different faculties in the city of Ankara, the results cannot be generalized to all students or to all ages. Comment on the results is limited due to responses being self reported, which are prone to bias by the subjects.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, limited studies focused on university students have been found in the Turkish literature and there is a lack of study concerning food safety knowledge, attitude and practice of university students in Ankara, Turkey. The originality of this study is to assess the level of food safety attitude, knowledge and food handling practice to investigate the association between the students' institutions and gender among university students in Turkey. There is a need to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude and practice of this target group as they are more likely to engage in risky eating behaviors, thus are more susceptible to food‐borne illnesses and they are more likely to engage in risky food handling practices because of their future roles as parents and food preparers for his/her family.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Hussein F. Hassan, Hani Dimassi and Zeina Nakat Karam

The purpose of this paper is to assess level of food safety knowledge and self-reported practices among Lebanese food handlers in Lebanese households and to identify the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess level of food safety knowledge and self-reported practices among Lebanese food handlers in Lebanese households and to identify the association between knowledge/practices and socio-demographic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,500 participants from different gender, age, area of residence, income, marital status and education. They completed a questionnaire of six questions about demographics, and 26 questions related to knowledge and self-reported practices in terms of food handling, storage, usage of kitchen facilities and personal hygiene subgroups. SPSS v23 was used for statistical analyses. Student t-test and analysis of variance were conducted. Significance level of 0.05 was used.

Findings

On average, participants scored 55.6±16.3, 51.3±25.7, 67.4±19.3 and 89.1±16.3 on food handling, storage, usage of kitchen facilities and personal hygiene, respectively, whereas the passing (score above 50 percent) rates were 64.5, 69.9, 90.5 and 99.1, respectively, for the different subgroups. Gender had significant (p<0.05) effect on food handling and personal hygiene; age, marital status and education had significant (p<0.05) effect on handling, usage of kitchen facilities and personal hygiene; area of residence had significant (p<0.05) effect on storage, handling and usage of kitchen facilities; income had significant (p<0.05) effect on handling and usage of kitchen facilities. Overall mean food safety knowledge and self-reported practices score was 63.8±12.6; passing rate was 86.2; gender, age, area of residence, education, marital status and income had significant (p<0.05) effect. Food safety self-reported practices and knowledge scores were significantly (p<0.001) related to a weak to moderate correlation coefficient (R=0.34).

Practical implications

The results confirm the need for ongoing educational initiatives to improve the relatively low food safety knowledge and practices among the Lebanese food handlers in Lebanese households.

Originality/value

No study has determined the food safety knowledge and self-reported practices of Lebanese food handlers in Lebanese households before.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Laure Saulais, Maurice Doyon, Bernard Ruffieux and Harry Kaiser

The purpose of this paper is to compare knowledge about dietary fats in some dairy products and other foods across consumers from France, (French‐speaking) Canada and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare knowledge about dietary fats in some dairy products and other foods across consumers from France, (French‐speaking) Canada and the USA. A relation is explored between the types of information, knowledge levels and obesity predominance.

Design/methodology/approach

A nine‐question nutritional test was developed and administered to three samples of consumers, respectively in Grenoble (France), Quebec, Canada and Ithaca, New York. In France, Canada and the USA the number of participants was respectively 100, 107 and 120. Participants were recruited randomly outside groceries stores and the test was administered directly through one‐on‐one interviews.

Findings

Results indicate a significant gap in knowledge between consumers from the three countries studied. The level and quality of knowledge seems to be correlated with the nature of the informational background: a wider availability of information such as nutrition facts and public health recommendations on fat consumption seems to have a positive effect on the general level of knowledge. However, “technical” knowledge seems to be inversely correlated to the level of obesity.

Research limitations/implications

This work is of an exploratory nature and the sample might not be representative of the countries' population. Further works that link food knowledge and food consumption patterns would be needed.

Practical implications

This study gives weight to the hypothesis that a “science” or nutrient approach to food might not result in appropriate food choices; consumers losing sight of the big picture. To confirm this hypothesis, further work would be needed.

Originality/value

This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first cross‐country study that attempts to link the type of knowledge on fat in food and predominance of obesity. This should encourage nutritionist to further investigate this link. It should also concern the dairy industry, given most often consumers' perception of dairy products' fat content is overestimated, especially for fluid milk in France.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Anita Eves, Gill Bielby, Bernadette Egan, Margaret Lumbers, Monique Raats and Martin Adams

The purpose of this research is to show the evaluation of food hygiene knowledge and self‐reported behaviours of school children, assessment of children's attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to show the evaluation of food hygiene knowledge and self‐reported behaviours of school children, assessment of children's attitudes towards food hygiene and evaluation of barriers to the adoption of appropriate food hygiene behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The food hygiene knowledge and self‐reported behaviours of pupils (4 and 14 years; Key Stages 1‐3 in the English system – or Scottish equivalent) were determined using age‐appropriate knowledge quizzes completed by 2,259 pupils across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Attitudes towards food hygiene and barriers to performing desirable hygiene‐related behaviours were established through semi‐structured interviews with 82 pupils who completed knowledge tasks in South East England.

Findings

Children generally had good knowledge of food hygiene. However, there were misconceptions about the nature of micro‐organisms and how they affect food. In addition, a lack of reminders and practical food activities, especially at Key Stage 2 (7‐11 years), coupled with poor hand‐washing facilities, meant that children did not always adopt desirable behaviours. Children gave suggestions for ways to help others to remember good practice.

Originality/value

The study identified areas of weakness in pupils' hygiene knowledge and understanding and has determined barriers to adoption of desirable behaviours at all times. It has also suggested ways in which food hygiene education could be made more engaging for pupils, and other methods to encourage good practice.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 108 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Sunhee Seo, Kawon Kim and Junghee Jang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating effect of uncertainty avoidance (UA) on the relationships among subjective knowledge, attitude toward Korean foods

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the moderating effect of uncertainty avoidance (UA) on the relationships among subjective knowledge, attitude toward Korean foods and dining out behavioral intentions (BI) of foreign residents in Korea.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 247 foreign residents in Korea were participated through a street intercept survey at several locations in metropolitan areas of South Korea. Subsequently, the samples were divided into two groups (a low UA group and a high UA group) for multiple group analysis to examine the moderating role of UA.

Findings

The results of structural equation modeling showed that subjective knowledge and attitude toward Korean foods significantly influenced intention to visit Korean restaurants. Furthermore, multiple group analysis results showed that UA had a significant moderating effect as a cultural dimension on the relationships between subjective knowledge and BI, as well as between attitude and BI.

Research limitations/implications

This research has made the first attempt to account for UA in examining the relationships among subjective knowledge, attitude and BIs, especially for ambiguous situations where foreign residents who are new to the mainstream Korean food culture face challenges in visiting Korean restaurants.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that enhancing subjective knowledge about Korean foods should increase the probability of foreign residents visiting Korean restaurants, so restaurant marketers should consider subjective knowledge as they work to encourage foreign residents to try Korean foods. Furthermore, planning strategies for marketing to foreign residents should consider level of UA among foreigners.

Originality/value

This study first illustrates the value of considering the cultural trait of UA in examining dining out behavior at ethnic restaurants. The UA trait sheds light on how subjective knowledge helps predict attitude and dining out BI at ethnic restaurants.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Melissa Burton, Lynn Riddell and Anthony Worsley

Food education in secondary schools can provide adolescents with essential food knowledge and skills required for healthy, independent living. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Food education in secondary schools can provide adolescents with essential food knowledge and skills required for healthy, independent living. The purpose of this paper is to identify food-related knowledge and skills that Australian consumers believe are required for all consumers, and to identify their demographic and psychographic associations based on two studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Two online surveys were conducted in 2012 and 2014 in different samples of Australian consumers (n=2,146 and 770, respectively), both drawn from a commercial research panel. Respondents rated their views on the importance of food knowledge and skills items as “essential” or “not essential” in the 2012 survey, or by rating their importance in the 2014 using five-point scales. Principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to group the different types of food knowledge and skills and identify their associations.

Findings

In both surveys, “the effects of food on people’s health” and “how to prepare food safely” were viewed as the most important knowledge and skills, and food production, food system and environmental items were the least important. Food knowledge and equality values were positively associated with the importance of Nutrition Knowledge and Practical Skills in both surveys. In addition, food mavenism was a positive predictor of Nutrition and Health Knowledge and The Food System in 2012 and female sex was positively associated with Practical Food Skills.

Research limitations/implications

Most respondents believed that nutrition and health knowledge and practical food skills were more important than knowledge of food production, the food system or the environment. The findings suggest that psychological factors such as personal values, food knowledge and food mavenism may be more important influences over these perceptions than respondents’ demographic characteristics.

Originality/value

This research is novel as it explores consumers’ views about the food knowledge and skills that all consumers need to be healthy and independent, and has important implications for food education, particularly in secondary schools. In addition, it assessed consumers’ views at two different time points, two years apart and, thus, provides evidence for stability of these views.

Details

Health Education, vol. 118 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article

Barbara Mullan, Cara Wong, Jemma Todd, Esther Davis and Emily Jane Kothe

The purpose of this paper is to utilise the comprehensive Food Safety Knowledge Instrument to compare food hygiene knowledge across a population of high school and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to utilise the comprehensive Food Safety Knowledge Instrument to compare food hygiene knowledge across a population of high school and university students in Australia and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 475 students from secondary schools and universities in Australia and the UK took part in a survey, which included a Food Safety Knowledge Instrument and demographic items.

Findings

Food safety knowledge was generally very low. High school students had a mean score of only 38 per cent, while university students just reached a “pass” with a mean of 54 per cent. Demographics accounted for 41 per cent of variance in food knowledge scores. Female gender, being at university rather than high school, and living out of home rather than with parents were associated with greater food knowledge. Residing in Australia rather than the UK and being older were also associated with greater knowledge; however, these findings were subsumed by education group. Socio-economic status was not a significant predictor of food knowledge.

Practical implications

Identifying demographic and cultural differences in food knowledge can help to identify at-risk populations to better target in theory and knowledge-based interventions.

Originality/value

This study is the first to apply the knowledge instrument in an Australian population. Understanding the baseline knowledge in this population is an important first step at developing effective interventions for food safety.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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