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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Shenggen Fan, Emily EunYoung Cho and Christopher Rue

The paper is a synthesis of the 2017 Global Food Policy Report, and the purpose of this paper is to put into perspective the major food policy issues, developments, and

1802

Abstract

Purpose

The paper is a synthesis of the 2017 Global Food Policy Report, and the purpose of this paper is to put into perspective the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2016 and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents an overview of recent changes in the global context for food security and nutrition, and synthesizes research findings on major issues that arise in an urbanizing world. Based on its findings, the authors present policy recommendations and areas for future research for food security and nutrition.

Findings

Urbanization is linked with dietary changes to more energy-dense diets, and, the triple burden of malnutrition is increasing, particularly in rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Rural-urban linkages are key to improving food security and nutrition in both rural and urban areas, and traditional agricultural value chains linking farms to cities are undergoing a “quiet revolution.” Governance to enhance food security in the context of rapid urbanization faces various challenges in the institutional, administrative, and political realms, especially for the informal economy in developing countries. To address the unique challenges of urbanization, policies will need to create enabling environments, promote efficient and inclusive value chains, improve governance, and promote tailored programs. Research gaps that need to be filled include better, updated, and disaggregated data on food security and nutrition, as well as an enhanced understanding of enabling environments.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the increasingly relevant issue of rapid urbanization, especially in developing countries, for food security and nutrition, and synthesizes recent research in this area.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Gianluca Brunori, Tessa Avermaete, Fabio Bartolini, Natalia Brzezina, Stefano Grando, Terry Marsden, Erik Mathijs, Ana Moragues-Faus and Roberta Sonnino

Among the food system's outcomes, food and nutrition security remains a key concern also in developed countries. This chapter analyzes food and nutrition security issues…

Abstract

Among the food system's outcomes, food and nutrition security remains a key concern also in developed countries. This chapter analyzes food and nutrition security issues, unpacking the four dimensions in which the concept is articulated: availability, access, utilization and stability. Then the concept is explored, beyond the official definitions, through a description of the various frames that shape the public debate on food and nutrition security. These frames are: the classical productivist view emerged in the early post-war period; the neoproductivism, promoting a sustainable intensification aimed at producing more food while reducing negative environmental impacts, the entitlement approach based on Sen's reflections on people's capability to access food; the food sovereignty (Via Campesina, 1996) which regards food insecurity as an outcome of unequal power relations: the livelihood approach focused on the assets that determine the living gained by the individual or household; the right to food (De Schutter, 2014) based on the status of each individual as a rights-holder; the similar but less individualistic food democracy and food citizenship perspective which focusses on the collective dimension of those rights; the community food security, again close to the food citizenship but with stronger emphasis on communities and localization. Finally, the main contributions given by small farms to food and nutrition security are described, as identified on the base of the SALSA project outcomes.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Shenggen Fan, Wei Si and Yumei Zhang

The purposes of this paper are to review the impact on food and nutrition security of several pandemic emergencies and the 2018 food price crisis from a global…

2698

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper are to review the impact on food and nutrition security of several pandemic emergencies and the 2018 food price crisis from a global perspective, examine the Chinese experiences and lessons in ensuring food and nutrition security for its citizen and propose policy actions to prevent a global food and nutrition security crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors utilize a noncomprehensive review of peer-reviewed and nonpeer-reviewed literature, as well as a case study approach.

Findings

Under the ongoing COVID-19, China's food and nutrition are relatively secure in short run largely due to governmental proactive policies but may face uncertainties in livestock production and imports of soybean in the medium and long terms. Given that the disease has spread to almost all countries in the world, global cooperation and coordination are needed to prevent systemic risks to global food and nutrition security.

Practical implications

The review and analysis of this paper will help policymakers in China and other countries to design strategies and actions to prevent food and nutrition security crisis under the ongoing COVID-19 emergency and other similar threats in the future.

Originality/value

This paper provides recommendations to prevent food and nutrition security crisis based on data, evidence and case studies.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2015

Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla

This chapter places the discussion of trade and food security in a more general macroeconomic context.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter places the discussion of trade and food security in a more general macroeconomic context.

Methodology/approach

This chapter uses historical analysis to briefly trace the debate on economy-wide policies, starting with the 1943 United Nations (UN) Conference on Food and Agriculture that led to the creation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1945. A general economic framework is used to organize the different channels through which macroeconomic policies may affect food and nutrition security.

Research implications

Examples of monetary, financial, fiscal, and exchange rate policies are presented, along with their implications for food and nutrition security.

Practical implications

The current debates about trade and food security must be placed in the context of the overall macroeconomic framework: a single trade policy may have different impacts depending on its interactions with other macroeconomic policies and structural factors.

Details

Food Security in an Uncertain World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-213-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Stefani Milovanska-Farrington

Living a nutritious lifestyle requires that people get a sufficient amount of nutrients, vitamins and minerals every day. Healthy dietary practices are related to a…

Abstract

Purpose

Living a nutritious lifestyle requires that people get a sufficient amount of nutrients, vitamins and minerals every day. Healthy dietary practices are related to a stronger immune system, better prevention and easier recovery from illnesses, lower blood pressure, healthy weight, lower risk of diabetes, heart problems and other medical conditions and improved overall well-being (WHO, 2020). Therefore, to maintain a strong immune system able to prevent diseases and ease recovery, optimal nutrition and healthy habits are of increased importance during a pandemic such as Covid-19. However, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 22 million Americans have lost a job between February and October 2020, increasing the unemployment rate from 3.5% in February 2020 to 6.9% in October 2020, reaching a peak of 14.7% in April 2020. Job losses during the Covid-19 crisis are likely to put lots of families at risk of malnutrition and food insufficiency and to further deteriorate the already existing food insecurity (Gundersen et al., 2018). This research explores the effect of a recent job loss between August and October 2020 on food sufficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

This research examines the impact of a job loss on nutrition and food safety. Specifically, this study explores the effect of a job loss during the Covid-19 pandemic on the level of family and child food sufficiency as perceived by the respondent, confidence about meeting family’s dietary needs in the four weeks following the interview, and an indicator of whether the food sufficiency status of the family has deteriorated or not. This study also determines the differential effect of a job loss by individuals who are still employed despite the loss relative to workers who remained unemployed after a job loss during the Covid-19 crisis. Subsample analyses based on ethnicities, genders and educational attainment are also performed to identify the most vulnerable groups.

Findings

The results provide evidence that a job loss is associated with a highly statistically significant deterioration of food sufficiency for families and children and a reduction in the confidence in food security for the near future. This effect is observed for all job losers, but from them, it is larger for the ones who are currently unemployed compared to those who are working. The association between a job loss and family’s nutrition insecurity is the greatest for Hispanic, males and people with some college. Children’s nutrition suffers the most for children whose parents have not completed high school. These results provide an insight into the adverse effect of Covid-19 on food security.

Practical implications

From a policy perspective, the results indicate that federal nutrition programs whose goal is to ensure that the dietary needs of Americans, and especially children, are met, which are most likely to benefit the Hispanic population, individuals with low educational attainment and individuals who remained unemployed after losing a job.

Originality/value

This study makes several contributions to the growing literature on food security. First, this study is novel in that it examines the effect of an ongoing event, specifically a labor market disruption as a result of a health and economic crisis, on families’ nutrition, and does so using the newest publicly available data designed to track the impact of Covid-19 on the American population. This is one of the first studies that investigates the forementioned impacts in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. This study further contributes to the literature by distinguishing between employed versus unemployed individuals despite a job loss and by studying distinct groups on the population. In addition, this study compares the effects of interest in the onset of the pandemic to a year later to examine the population’s adjustment to the crisis. The importance and relevance of the results for policy decision-making are also discussed in the paper.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Amy Henderson, Stefan Epp-Koop and Joyce Slater

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges and opportunities associated with attempting to maintain a healthy traditional diet for newcomers living in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the challenges and opportunities associated with attempting to maintain a healthy traditional diet for newcomers living in the North End neighbourhood of Winnipeg, Canada.

Design/methodology/approach

In this mixed-methods photovoice study the researcher used food photographs taken by participants to facilitate in-depth, semi-structured interviews with newcomers living in the area of interest. Community workers involved in food and newcomer programming were also interviewed. Qualitative data from the interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Food security status of newcomer participants was also determined using The Household Food Security Survey Module.

Findings

Newcomer participants reported many struggles, including low incomes, gardening challenges and little access to culturally acceptable foods. Community worker interviews, field notes and an environmental scan of community resources also revealed a lack of social inclusion/support and few food and nutrition resources for newcomers.

Originality/value

Newcomers to Canada experience high rates of food insecurity and diminishing health status associated with length of time in Canada. This study demonstrates an imminent need for additional resources and programmes in this inner city community in order to decrease food security rates and help newcomers in Winnipeg to eat healthy traditional diets and avoid a decline in health.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Oluwafolahan Oluwagbemiga Sholeye, Victor Jide Animasahun and Albert Adekunle Salako

Nutrition is a widely known determinant of health and well-being of individuals. Adequate nutrition is dependent on food availability and optimal dietary intake. Rural…

Abstract

Purpose

Nutrition is a widely known determinant of health and well-being of individuals. Adequate nutrition is dependent on food availability and optimal dietary intake. Rural communities are known to be disadvantaged in comparison with their urban counterparts This study therefore assessed food security and dietary diversity among adults in a rural community in Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for the cross-sectional study were collected using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and a 24-h dietary recall. Data were analyzed with SPSS 20. The relevant descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Participation was fully voluntary.

Findings

The mean age of respondents was 46.7 ± 19.0 years. Only 43.6 per cent of the respondents were food secure; 43.4 per cent were severely food insecure; 30.3 per cent were moderately food insecure, while 26.3 per cent were mildly food insecure. Low dietary diversity was reported among 55.2 per cent of respondents; 41.0 per cent had medium dietary diversity, while 3.8 per cent had high dietary diversity.

Research implications/limitations

This study was entirely quantitative and facility-based, so could not explore some themes to a greater depth. It however adds to the body of knowledge on dietary diversity and food security among patients accessing primary care services at Ode-Remo and its health implications.

Originality/value

Food security among respondents was low and dietary diversity was sub-optimal, a risk factor for both hidden hunger and multi-nutrient under-nutrition. Dietary diversity was significantly different between food secure and food insecure respondents. Community-directed efforts at improving residents’ food security status and dietary diversification efforts will be most appropriate and sustainable, thereby promoting self-reliance and wellbeing.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Joanna Brzeska, Mousumi Das and Shenggen Fan

The purpose of this paper is to identify the pathways through which social protection policies in China and India can address the key challenges facing poor, vulnerable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the pathways through which social protection policies in China and India can address the key challenges facing poor, vulnerable, and disadvantaged groups under rapid transformation in both countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the main social protection policies in China and India and analyzes the challenges that they are facing. This analysis is based on an evaluation of poverty and food security trends in both countries among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups followed by an overview of major experiences and gaps in social protection policies in the two emerging Asian giants.

Findings

Improving the coverage and targeting of social protection systems is vital, and will require a multi-faceted reform portfolio that promotes more integrated and horizontally equitable systems. Emphasis should be placed on developing productive, cross-sectoral social protection programs that combine short-term social safety support with long-term tools to enhance productivity, paying special attention to nutrition, health, and human capital development. More efficient coverage and targeting should bridge the rural and urban divide and be grounded in transparent criteria and procedures that govern program implementation at all levels of the government. As both countries become more urbanized, social protection programs need to give equal attention to emerging food insecurity and nutrition issues within urban areas without detracting from food security and nutrition efforts in rural areas.

Originality/value

Faced with a sizable population of undernourished and poor people, India and China have applied rather different approaches to address food insecurity. The originality and value of this paper lie in an in-depth parallel analysis of how China and India can better use their social protection systems to address food insecurity and undernutrition among poor, vulnerable, and disadvantaged groups.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

S. Mahendra Dev and Funing Zhong

China and India have to provide food security to 1.36 billion and 1.25 billion populations, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to address the roles of trade and

Abstract

Purpose

China and India have to provide food security to 1.36 billion and 1.25 billion populations, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to address the roles of trade and stock management in achieving food security in these countries, such as the impacts of trade on consumer and producer prices and incomes of farmers and others and implications for food security, and the impact of stock management on price stability, availability, access and nutrition.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on secondary data and literature on these issues. It compares the policy tools of trade and stock management used in India and China for food security purpose, in terms of long-term efficiency, in order to provide better understanding on how to achieve food security through public interventions.

Findings

Although stock is an important tool for food security, it is likely to be costly if used for price support and redistribution purposes. Trade might provide cheap food to enhance access to food, the impact on domestic producers and the volatility in world market may lead to serious problems. A carefully designed policy combining stock management and trade may help achieving food security.

Research limitations/implications

This paper relies on existing literature of current issues and policies, and tries to conduct comparative study on India and China, the two largest countries in the world. The scale and depth of the study are restricted by authors’ knowledge, hence may not be adequate in addressing those important issues.

Practical implications

Both India and China are undergoing policy review regarding food security, under pressures in domestic market and from multi-nation negotiations. This study may provide better understandings of the issues related to policy reform and trade negotiation.

Originality/value

Though a large portion of factual materials are adopted from existing literature and statistics, the analyses are those of authors.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Richard J. Culas and Kimsong Tek

The paper presents food and nutritional status and relevant policy objectives that can sustain food security in Cambodia. This paper aims to review Cambodia’s food security

Abstract

Purpose

The paper presents food and nutritional status and relevant policy objectives that can sustain food security in Cambodia. This paper aims to review Cambodia’s food security situation over a period.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides an approach for selecting food security indicators in relation to both inputs and outcomes by drawing on a conceptual framework. National level data for the food security indicators are analysed over a period to provide trends in food and nutritional status.

Findings

Cambodia has not experienced drastic food insecurity yet, as most people are farmers and their livelihoods dependent on agriculture. Agriculture has maintained food availability in the country; however, there is a proportion of the population living in remote areas unable to obtain sufficient, safe, nutritious food. Landlessness, internal migration, rapid population growth, lack of education and skills, limited access to natural resources and agricultural land, poor health and infrastructure leave the people with inadequate employment opportunities, low capabilities and low productivity which in turn bring deeper poverty. Therefore, people are insecure, excluded and vulnerable to food deprivation.

Practical implications

To tackle the food security challenges, the Government of Cambodia focuses on food-based social safety nets in the sectors of education, nutrition and productive assets/livelihoods support, to enable longer-term, nationally owned food security solutions.

Originality/value

The paper draws conclusions using a range of recently proposed food security indicators and offers a perspective for policy formulation which may be of interest to development scholars and practitioners.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000