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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Ji Li, Tom Monaghan, Robert Kay, Ross James Friel and Russell Harris

This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the potential of ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to incorporate the direct printing of electrical materials and arrangements (conductors and insulators) at the interlaminar interface of parts during manufacture to allow the integration of functional and optimal electrical circuitries inside dense metallic objects without detrimental effect on the overall mechanical integrity. This holds promise to release transformative device functionality and applications of smart metallic devices and products.

Design/methodology/approach

To ensure the proper electrical insulation between the printed conductors and metal matrices, an insulation layer with sufficient thickness is required to accommodate the rough interlaminar surface which is inherent to the UAM process. This in turn increases the total thickness of printed circuitries and thereby adversely affects the integrity of the UAM part. A specific solution is proposed to optimise the rough interlaminar surface through deforming the UAM substrates via sonotrode rolling or UAM processing.

Findings

The surface roughness (Sa) could be reduced from 4.5 to 4.1 µm by sonotrode rolling and from 4.5 to 0.8 µm by ultrasonic deformation. Peel testing demonstrated that sonotrode-rolled substrates could maintain their mechanical strength, while the performance of UAM-deformed substrates degraded under same welding conditions ( approximately 12 per cent reduction compared with undeformed substrates). This was attributed to the work hardening of deformation process which was identified via dual-beam focussed ion beam–scanning electron microscope investigation.

Originality/value

The sonotrode rolling was identified as a viable methodology in allowing printed electrical circuitries in UAM. It enabled a decrease in the thickness of printed electrical circuitries by ca. 25 per cent.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

K.M. Deen, A. Farooq, M. Rizwan, A. Ahmad and W. Haider

This study/paper aims to the authors applied low “Si” ions dose over cp-Ti-2, and the potent dose level was optimized for adequate corrosion resistance and effective…

Abstract

Purpose

This study/paper aims to the authors applied low “Si” ions dose over cp-Ti-2, and the potent dose level was optimized for adequate corrosion resistance and effective proliferation of stem cells.

Design/methodology/approach

The cp-Ti surface was modified by silicon (Si) ions beam at 0.5 MeV in a Pelletron accelerator. Three different ion doses were applied to the polished samples, and the surface was characterized by XRD and AFM analysis.

Findings

At moderate “Si” ion dose (6.54 × 1012 ions-cm−2), the potential shifted to a noble value. The small “icorr” (1.22 µA.cm−2) and relatively large charge transfer resistance (43.548 kΩ-cm2) in the ringer‘s lactate solution was confirmed through Potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy analysis. Compared to cp-Ti and other doses, this dose level also provided the effective proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Originality/value

The dosage levels used were different to previous work and provided the effective proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Arivarasi A. and Anand Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to describe, review, classify and analyze the current challenges in three-dimensional printing processes for combined electrochemical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe, review, classify and analyze the current challenges in three-dimensional printing processes for combined electrochemical and microfluidic fabrication areas, which include printing devices and sensors in specified areas.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review of the literature focusing on existing challenges is carried out. Focused toward sensors and devices in electrochemical and microfluidic areas, the challenges are oriented for a discussion exploring the suitability of printing varied geometries in an accurate manner. Classifications on challenges are based on four key categories such as process, material, size and application as the printer designs are mostly based on these parameters.

Findings

A key three-dimensional printing process methodologies have their unique advantages compared to conventional printing methods, still having the challenges to be addressed, in terms of parameters such as cost, performance, speed, quality, accuracy and resolution. Three-dimensional printing is yet to be applied for consumer usable products, which will boost the manufacturing sector. To be specific, the resolution of printing in desktop printers needs improvement. Printing scientific products are halted with prototyping stages. Challenges in three-dimensional printing sensors and devices have to be addressed by forming integrated processes.

Research limitations/implications

The research is underway to define an integrated process-based on three-dimensional Printing. The detailed technical details are not shared for scientific output. The literature is focused to define the challenges.

Practical implications

The research can provide ideas to business on innovative designs. Research studies have scope for improvement ideas.

Social implications

Review is focused on to have an integrated three-dimensional printer combining processes. This is a cost-oriented approach saving much of space reducing complexity.

Originality/value

To date, no other publication reviews the varied three-dimensional printing challenges by classifying according to process, material, size and application aspects. Study on resolution based data is performed and analyzed for improvements. Addressing the challenges will be the solution to identify an integrated process methodology with a cost-effective approach for printing macro/micro/nano objects and devices.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Haobo Yu, Zimo Li, Yeyin Xia, Yameng Qi, Yingchao Li, Qiaoping Liu and Changfeng Chen

This paper aims to investigate the anti-biocorrosion performance and mechanism of the Cu-bearing carbon steel in the environment containing sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the anti-biocorrosion performance and mechanism of the Cu-bearing carbon steel in the environment containing sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB).

Design/methodology/approach

The biocorrosion behavior of specimens with Cu concentration of 0 Wt.%, 0.1 Wt.%, 0.3 Wt.% and 0.6 Wt.% were investigated by immersion test in SRB solution. By examining the prepared cross-section of the biofilm using focused ion beam microscopy, SRB distribution, bacterial morphology, biofilm structure and composition were determined. The ion selectivity of the biofilm was also obtained by membrane potential measurement. Moreover, the anti-biocorrosion performance of the Cu-bearing carbon steel pipeline was tested in a shale gas field in Chongqing, China.

Findings

Both the results of the laboratory test and shale gas field test indicate that Cu-bearing carbon steel possesses obvious resistance to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). The SRB, corrosion rate and pitting depth decreased dramatically with Cu concentration in the substrate. The local acidification caused by hydrolyze of ferric ion coming from SRB metabolism and furtherly aggravated by anion selectivity biofilm promoted the pitting corrosion. Anti-biocorrosion of Cu-bearing carbon steel was attributed to the accumulation of Cu compounds in the biofilm and the weaker anion selectivity of the biofilm. This research results provide an approach to the development of economical antibacterial metallic material.

Originality/value

MIC occurs extensively and has become one of the most frequent reasons for corrosion-induced failure in the oil and gas industry. In this study, Cu-bearing carbon steel was obtained by Cu addition in carbon steel and possessed excellent anti-biocorrosion property both in the laboratory and shale gas field. This study provides an approach to the development of an economical antibacterial carbon steel pipeline to resist MIC.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

M. Jariyaboon, P. Møller, R.E. Dunin‐Borkowski and R. Ambat

The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to understand the structure of trapped intermetallics particles and localized composition changes in the anodized anodic oxide film on AA1050 aluminium substrates.

Design/methodology/approach

The morphology and composition of Fe‐containing intermetallic particles incorporated into the anodic oxide films on industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) has been investigated. AA1050 aluminium was anodized in a 100 ml/l sulphuric acid bath with an applied voltage of 14 V at 20°C ±2°C for 10 or 120 min. The anodic film subsequently was analyzed using focused ion beam‐scanning electron microscopy (FIB‐SEM), SEM, and EDX.

Findings

The intermetallic particles in the substrate material consisted of Fe or both Fe and Si with two different structures: irregular and round shaped. FIB‐SEM cross‐sectioned images revealed that the irregular‐shaped particles were embedded in the anodic oxide film as a thin strip structure and located near the top surface of the film, whereas the round‐shaped particles were trapped in the film with a spherical structure, but partially dissolved and were located throughout the thickness of the anodic film. The Fe/Si ratio of the intermetallic particles decreased after anodizing.

Originality/value

This paper shows that dual beam FIB‐SEM seems to be an easy, less time consuming and useful method to characterize the cross‐sectioned intermetallic particles incorporated in anodic film on aluminium.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Agata Skwarek, Jan Kulawik, Andrzej Czerwinski, Mariusz Pluska and Krzysztof Witek

The purpose of this study is to develop a testing method for tin pest in tin – copper (SnCu) alloys. Tin pest is the allotropic transformation of white β-tin…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a testing method for tin pest in tin – copper (SnCu) alloys. Tin pest is the allotropic transformation of white β-tin (body-centered tetragonal structure) into gray α-tin (diamond cubic structure) at temperatures < 13.2°C.

Design/methodology/approach

Bulk samples of Sn99Cu1 weight per cent (purity, 99.9 weight per cent) were cast in the form of roller-shaped ingots with a diameter of 1.0 cm and a height of 0.7 cm. The samples were then divided into four groups. The first group included samples artificially inoculated with α-tin powder. The second group was inoculated in the same way as the samples from the first group but additionally subjected to mechanical pressing. The third group of ingots was only subjected to mechanical pressing. The fourth group of samples consisted of as-received roller-shaped ingots.All samples were divided into two groups and kept either at −18°C or at −30°C for the low-temperature storage test. For tin pest identification, a visual inspection was made, using a Hirox digital microscope over 156 days at intervals not longer than 14 days. The plot of the transformation rate, presented as the average increase in the area of α-tin warts in time, was also determined. To demonstrate the differences between regions of β- and α-tin, scanning ion microscopy observations using the focused ion beam technique was performed.

Findings

The first symptoms of tin pest were observed for the inoculated, mechanically pressed samples stored at −18°C, as well as those at −30°C, after less than 14 days. In the first stage of transformation, the rate was higher at −30°C for some time but, after about 75 days of storage at sub-zero temperatures, the rate at −30°C became lower compared to the rate at −18°C. Inoculation via the application of substances which are structurally similar to α-tin was efficient for the proposed new approach of rapid testing only when applied with simultaneous mechanical pressing. Infection from pressed-in seeds, leading to conventional seeded growth, was more rapid than infection in contact with seeds (without mechanical pressing), where the transition mechanism was induced by the epitaxial growth of metastable ice.

Originality/value

The new rapid method for the diagnostic testing of the susceptibility of different SnCu alloys to tin pest in a period much shorter than 14 days (within single days for storage at −30°C) is proposed and described. The test procedure described in this paper produced results several times quicker than conventional procedures, which may take years. In effect, the behavior of tin alloys in the face of tin pest may be predicted much more easily and much earlier. The same procedure can be applied to other SnCu alloys used in electronics (and in other areas), if the test samples are prepared in a similar manner.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

Xin Luo, Wenhui Du, Xiuzhen Lu, Toshikazu Yamaguchi, Gavin Jackson, Li lei Ye and Johan Liu

The composition and thickness of surface oxide of solder particles is extremely important to the quality of interconnect and reliability of packaged system. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The composition and thickness of surface oxide of solder particles is extremely important to the quality of interconnect and reliability of packaged system. The purpose of this paper is to develop an observable measurement to research the issue.

Design/methodology/approach

AES (Auger electron spectroscopy), XPS (X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) were employed to examine the oxide layer on microscale solder powders. Conventional techniques and FIB (Focus Ion Beam) were employed for the TEM sample preparation. High angle annular dark field (HAADF) pattern was applied to distinguish the oxide layer and the solder matrix by the contrast of average atomic number. The results were confirmed by AES and XPS measurement.

Findings

The solder powders were exposed to air (70% relative humidity) at 150°C for 0, 120 and 240 h for the accelerated growth of oxide. The surface oxide thickness was 6 nm and 50 nm measured by TEM for 0 h and 120 h samples, respectively. It was found that the increase in surface oxide thickness of solder particles is proportional to the rooting of time. The elemental distribution along the oxide was quantified by line scanning using STEM and the atomic ratio of Sn to O in the oxide layer nearer to the outer, the middle, and the inner (adjacent to the solder matrix) was found to be 1:2, 2:3 and 1:1, respectively. The result was validated using XPS which gave Sn to O ratio of 1:2 at 5 nm depth of surface oxide.

Originality/value

This is the first time FIB technology has been used to prepare TEM specimens for solder particles and TEM pictures shown of their surface oxide layer. Though requiring more care in sample preparation, the measurements by TEM and STEM are believed to be more direct and precise.

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Gino Rinaldi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy and Ion Stiharu

This paper seeks to establish an analytical reference model in order to optimize the frequency response of MEMS cantilever structures using cutouts.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to establish an analytical reference model in order to optimize the frequency response of MEMS cantilever structures using cutouts.

Design/methodology/approach

Presented in this work is a method to tune the frequency response of MEMS cantilevers by using single cutouts of various sizes. From an interpretation of the analytical results, mass and stiffness domains are defined as a function of the cutout position on the cantilever. In this regard, the elastic properties of the MEMS cantilever can be trimmed through mechanical tuning by a single cutout incorporated into the device geometry. The Rayleigh‐Ritz energy method is used for the modeling. Analytical results are compared with FEM and experimental results.

Findings

The eigenvalues are dependent on the position and size of the cutout. Hence, the frequency response of the cantilever can be tuned and optimized through this approach.

Research limitations/implications

MEMS microsystems are sensitive to microfabrication limitations especially at the boundary support of suspended structures such as microcantilevers.

Practical implications

MEMS cantilevers are resistant to low level vibrations due to their low inertia and the elastic properties of the silicon material. For sensor applications these qualities are highly regarded and explored. This analysis will contribute to the performance optimization of atomic force microscope (AFM) probes and micromechanical resonators.

Originality/value

A method to tune, with cutouts, the frequency response of microcantilevers is proposed. The data can provide insight into the performance optimization of micromechanical resonators through mass reduction. For industrial applications requiring optimized responses the cutouts can be incorporated into microcantilevers through focused ion beam (FIB) machining or laser drilling, for example.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Adam Hehr, Paul J. Wolcott and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach a fraction of the melting temperatures of the participating metals. UAM parts can become mechanically compliant during fabrication, which negatively influences the ability of the welder to produce consistent welds. This study aims to evaluate the effect of weld power on weld quality throughout a UAM build, and develop a new power-compensation approach to achieve homogeneous weld quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes mechanical push-pin testing as a metric of delamination resistance, as well as focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the interface microstructure of UAM parts.

Findings

Weld power was found to negatively affect mechanical properties and microstructure. By keeping weld power constant, the delamination energy of UAM coupons was increased 22 per cent along with a consistent grain structure. As a result, to ensure constant properties throughout UAM component construction, maintaining weld power is preferable over the conventional strategy based on amplitude control.

Research limitations/implications

Further characterization could be conducted to evaluate the power control strategy on other material combinations, though this study strongly suggests that the proposed approach should work regardless of the metals being welded.

Practical implications

The proposed power control strategy can be implemented by monitoring and controlling the electrical power supplied to the welder. As such, no additional hardware is required, making the approach both useful and straightforward to implement.

Originality/value

This research paper is the first to recognize and address the negative effect of build compliance on weld power input in UAM. This is also the first paper to correlate measured weld power with the microstructure and mechanical properties of UAM parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Mathias Linz, Franz Walzhofer, Stefan Krenn, Andreas Steiger-Thirsfeld, Johannes Bernardi, Horst Winkelmann and Ewald Badisch

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving mechanisms for crack propagation regarding the related microstructures. Cracks in white etching layers have been…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the driving mechanisms for crack propagation regarding the related microstructures. Cracks in white etching layers have been found at the surface of submerged steel blades subjected to frictional sliding conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

In-situ monitoring revealed a fluctuation between mixed lubrication and hydrodynamic lubrication conditions. One lamella including a crack tip was prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using focused ion beam milling. Transmission electron microscope analysis was performed with the aim to understand the characteristics of the crack propagation, especially considering the influence of the microstructural configuration (grain refinement, carbides, martensite and ferrite grains).

Findings

The investigations have shown a grain-refined plastically deformed layer (friction martensite with grain sizes of < 100 nm) which influences the propagation direction of cracks introduced at the frictionally stressed surface. Thereby, the crack propagation is dominantly parallel to the margin of the grain-refined martensitic layer at the surface and the base material. Cracks were split into side cracks what mostly appears at present carbides. In this case, the crack propagation might strike through the carbide or separate it from the matrix due to the mechanical misfit.

Originality/value

For obtaining the results of this paper, a very special preparation of tribologically stressed samples was performed. Accordingly, specific findings of the crack propagation behavior under such conditions were achieved and are documented in the presented work. Moreover, the described crack propagation process is a combination of several mechanisms which occur in very limited region underneath the surface and are investigated by high-resolution TEM.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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