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Article

Y. Tang, J.J.H. Paulides and E.A. Lomonova

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate winding topologies for flux-switching motors (FSMs) with various segment-tooth combinations and different excitation methods.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate winding topologies for flux-switching motors (FSMs) with various segment-tooth combinations and different excitation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

For the ac winding of FSM, two winding topologies, namely the concentrated winding and the distributed winding, are compared in terms of the winding factor and efficiency. For the field winding of dc-excited FSM (DCEFSM), another two winding topologies, namely the lap winding and the toroidal winding, are compared in terms of effective coil area, end-winding length, and thermal conditions. Analytical derivation is used for the general winding factor calculation. The calculation results are validated using finite element analysis.

Findings

Winding factors can be used as an indication of winding efficiency for FSMs in the same manner as done for synchronous motors. For FSMs with concentrated windings, the winding factor increases when the rotor tooth number approaches a multiple of the stator segment number. For FSMs with certain segment-tooth combinations, e.g. 6/8, the theoretical maximum winding factor can be achieved by implementing distributed windings. Furthermore, the toroidal winding can be an efficient winding topology for DCEFSMs with large stator diameter and small stack length.

Research limitations/implications

This work can be continued with investigating the variation of reluctance torque with respect to different segment-tooth combinations of FSM.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a general method to calculate the winding factor of FSMs using only the phase number, the stator segment number, the rotor tooth number, and the skew angle. Using this method, a table of winding factors of FSMs with different segment-tooth combinations is provided. Principle of design of FSMs with high-winding factors are hence concluded. This paper also proposed the implementation of distributed windings for FSM with certain segment-tooth combinations, e.g. 6/8, by which means a theoretical maximum winding factor is achieved. In addition, different winding topologies for the field winding of DCEFSM are also investigated.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Ruiwu Cao, Yi Jin, Yanze Zhang and Ming Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to propose the complementary design rules, give a quantitative comparison and analyze the force production mechanism of two kinds of primary…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the complementary design rules, give a quantitative comparison and analyze the force production mechanism of two kinds of primary wound field flux-switching linear (PWFFSL) motors.

Design/methodology/approach

PWFFSL motors have the merits of no use of rare-earth magnet, low cost and a wide operation range in which the armature windings and the field windings are all located at the short primary mover and the secondary is very robust. Hence, the PWFFSL motor is ideal for rail transportation systems which need a long stator and a wide speed range. To overcome the disadvantages of the existing PWFFSL motors, new complementary design rules will be proposed. Also, to offer a better PWFFSL motor for the rail transportation systems, it is necessary to investigate different structures of PWFFSL motors and give a comprehensive comparison. To predict the force performance of two kinds of PWFFSL motors with different secondary types, their flux density analysis and force production mechanism will be presented and compared.

Findings

The comparison result shows that the PWFFSL motor with toothed secondary can offer larger thrust force, higher force density and higher efficiency, whereas the PWFFSL motor with segmented secondary has the merits of lower force ripple, less use of stator iron, higher power factor and less critical saturation.

Research limitations/implications

Many PWFFSL motors with different primary/secondary pole pitches based on the proposed design principle have not been considered in this paper.

Originality/value

This paper has presented the air-gap flux analysis, proposed the complementary design rules for two kinds of PWFFSL motors with different secondary types and compared the electromagnetic performance of the two motors.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Javad Rahmani Fard and Mohammad Ardebili

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a novel axial flux-switching motor with sandwiched permanent magnet for direct drive electric vehicles (EVs), in which the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate a novel axial flux-switching motor with sandwiched permanent magnet for direct drive electric vehicles (EVs), in which the torque density is increased and the cogging torque is decreased. For reducing the back-electromotive force (EMF) harmonics and cogging torque, a twisted structure is employed. To improve the dynamic performance of the axial field flux-switching sandwiched permanent magnet (AFFSSPM) motor a space vector modulation-direct torque and flux control scheme is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-objective optimization is performed by means of artificial neural network and non-sorting genetic algorithm II to minimize the cogging torque while preserving the average torque.

Findings

A comparative study between two proposed machines and the conventional flux-switching permanent magnet (FSPM) machine is accomplished and the static electromagnetic characteristics are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the proposed model with twisted structure has significantly improved performance over the conventional FSPM machine in back-EMF and efficiency. The proposed controller has a speed loop only and contains neither the current loop nor hysteresis control. The AFFSSPM motor exhibits excellent dynamic performance with this scheme.

Originality value

The axial flux-switching permanent-magnet machine is one of the most efficient machines but the AFFSSPM with sandwiched permanent magnet has not been specially reported to date. Thus in this paper, the authors report on optimal design of an axial flux-switching sandwiched permanent magnet machine for electric vehicles and investigate its dynamic performance.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Javad Rahmani Fard and Mohammad Ardebili

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel axial field flux-switching machine with sandwiched permanent magnets. It is one of the most efficient machines which is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel axial field flux-switching machine with sandwiched permanent magnets. It is one of the most efficient machines which is appropriate for high-torque and low-speed direct-drive applications. The proposed model is equipped with an advanced phase-group concentrated-coil winding to obtain a unity displacement winding factor. Two configurations of the proposed motors with 6-stator-slot (S)/10-rotor-pole (P) and 12S/19P are investigated. These two structures are compared with optimized a conventional axial-field flux-switching permanent-magnet (CAFFSPM) machine. Unity displacement winding factor increases the back-EMF and electromagnetic torque. Moreover, the prototype 12S/19P motor is built to verify the design.

Design/methodology/approach

The torque equation is obtained and the dimensions of the two proposed motors are determined. Some specific design issues, including the stator/rotor pole sandwiching pole angle, the stator tooth angle and the rotor pole angle have been optimized to minimize the cogging torque while maintaining the high torque density by means of response surface methodology (RSM) and 3-D finite element model of the machine.

Findings

To improve the performance, especially at high torque density, low cogging torque and high level of fault-tolerant capability, the 12S/19P axial field flux-switching sandwiched permanent-magnet (AFFSSPM) motor is proposed. Based on the optimized design, a prototype of the 12S/19P AFFSSPM motor is fabricated and tested. It is found that the experimental results validate the 3-D finite element method (FEM) simulation results.

Originality/value

The AFFSSPM motor is one of the most efficient motors, but the 12S/19P AFFSSPM motor with sandwiched permanent magnet and unity displacement winding factor has not been specially reported to date. Thus, in this paper, the authors report on optimal design of a novel axial flux-switching sandwiched permanent-magnet machine for electric vehicles and fabricate a prototype of the 12S/19P AFFSSPM motor.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Javad Rahmani Fard and Mohammad Ardebili

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a novel current sensor-less drive system for a novel axial flux-switching permanent-magnet motor drive to reduce the costs and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a novel current sensor-less drive system for a novel axial flux-switching permanent-magnet motor drive to reduce the costs and avoid problems caused by faults of the current sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

Commonly, a conventional controller needs at least two current sensors; in this paper, the current sensors are removed by replacing estimated stator current with the extended Kalman filter.

Findings

A prototype of the novel axial flux-switching permanent-magnet motor is fabricated and tested. It is found that the experimental results confirm the proposed method and show that the control has almost the same performance and ability as the conventional control.

Originality/value

The axial flux-switching permanent-magnet motor is one of the most efficient motors, but current sensor-less control of an axial flux-switching permanent-magnet motor with a sandwiched permanent magnet and a unity displacement winding factor has not been specially reported to date. Thus, in this paper, the authors report on current sensor-less control based on the extended Kalman filter for electric vehicles.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Monir Sadat Hosseini, Hamid Javadi and Sadegh Vaez-Zadeh

This paper aims to investigate analytical electromagnetic fields and thrust ripples representation of linear flux-switching motors with simple modulated secondary referred…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate analytical electromagnetic fields and thrust ripples representation of linear flux-switching motors with simple modulated secondary referred as segmented secondary linear flux-switching motor (SSLFSM).

Design/methodology/approach

SSLFSMs are applicable to transportation systems like Maglev due to their simple and consequently low-cost secondary structures and high force density. However, they have high thrust ripples that deteriorate a smooth motion in rail transportation systems. Therefore, derivation of accurate analytical models for thrust ripples minimization of the motor is essential, which is absent in the literature. In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is developed for this motor. The model is based on transfer relations and Fourier theory used for solving a two-dimensional boundary value problem. Certain model regions are determined by considering actual machine structure and observing specific rules. Analytical solution of Maxwell and Poison equations are then obtained in the regions.

Finding

Using the presented modeling method, the airgap electromagnetic field distribution and developed thrust of the motor are calculated for different positions of the motor as well as its thrust ripples. They are verified by the results obtained from finite element method. Also, the analytical results are compared with the presented experimental results.

Originality/value

This paper has analytically presented the airgap electromagnetic field distribution, thrust and thrust ripples of the SSLFSMs. This modeling is essential in thrust ripples minimization of the motor.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

E. Ilhan, J.J.H. Paulides and E.A. Lomonova

Transient torque calculations of the parallel flux switching machines, both cogging and electromagnetic, require a long simulation time for transient analyses. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Transient torque calculations of the parallel flux switching machines, both cogging and electromagnetic, require a long simulation time for transient analyses. This paper seeks to present an optimization method for the accurate but time consuming transient models.

Design/methodology/approach

A superposition principle is used to optimize the simulation time of the machine model. Finite element method (FEM) is chosen as the example machine model, since it is widely used among researchers for its accuracy. The machine geometry is simplified by reducing the number of rotor teeth, because these parts are re‐meshed with each transient step. Torque results are compared to the full machine model to find the best representation.

Findings

Among compared simplified machine geometries, the two teeth model gives the most accurate results.

Research limitations/implications

The superposition method requires a modelling method such as FEM. The method offers a geometrical simplification of the machine, not a complete model.

Practical implications

Parallel flux switching machines should be considered as promising candidates for hybrid and electrical truck applications due to their high power density. For these kind of applications, a fast torque estimation tool helps greatly in investigating noise related mechanical problems, which have a direct effect in passenger comfort.

Originality/value

Whereas researchers in this area mainly focus on accurate but time‐consuming modeling of this nonlinear machine, this research shows an optimization of these methods to speed‐up them. The proposed optimization method can be integrated with any analytical or numerical machine model.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article

Yang Tang, Emilia Motoasca, Johannes J.H. Paulides and Elena A. Lomonova

This paper is aimed at investigating the potential advantages of flux‐switching machines (FSM) compared to permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM), particularly for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is aimed at investigating the potential advantages of flux‐switching machines (FSM) compared to permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM), particularly for the applications of electric vehicle traction.

Design/methodology/approach

A 12‐slot 14‐pole PMSM designed for an in‐wheel traction application is chosen for the comparison. With the same volume constraint, three 12/14 FSM structures are created. Both the PMSM and the three FSM structures are modeled using the software Flux. Based on these models, finite element analyses (FEA) are performed, and the results are compared in terms of open‐circuit back electromotive force (EMF), electrical loading capability, and thermal conditions.

Findings

Within the same volume constraint, a 12/14 FSMs can achieve the maximum torque higher than the one of 12/14 PMSM. This conclusion is drawn based on the observed facts that at the same rotor speed, a larger open‐circuit back EMF is induced in the FSM, while a larger electrical loading is also allowed in this machine, compared to the PMSM. In addition, the risk of demagnetization during the process of field weakening proves to be lower in FSMs than PMSMs. This advantage suggests a potentially wide constant power speed range (CPSR) of FSMs, which is especially beneficial in automotive applications.

Research limitations/implications

This research can be continued with investigating the field weakening capability and iron losses of FSMs.

Originality/value

This paper proposed two optional structures of FSMs to reduce the amount of permanent magnets. It also highlighted the effectiveness of FSMs in cooling these magnets.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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Article

Muhammad Umair, Faisal Khan and Wasiq Ullah

Field excited flux switching machines (FEFSM) are preferred over induction and synchronous machines due to the confinement of all excitation sources on the stator leaving…

Abstract

Purpose

Field excited flux switching machines (FEFSM) are preferred over induction and synchronous machines due to the confinement of all excitation sources on the stator leaving a robust rotor. This paper aims to perform coupled electromagnetic thermal analysis and stress analysis for single phase FEFSM as, prolonged high-speed operational time with core and copper losses makes it prone to stress and thermal constraints as temperature rise in machine lead to degraded electromagnetic performance whereas the violation of the principle stress limit may result in mechanical deformation of the rotor.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the implementation of coupled electromagnetic-thermal and rotor stress analysis on single-phase FEFSM with non-overlap winding configurations using finite element analysis (FEA) methodology in JMAG V. 18.1. three-dimensional (3D) magnetic loss analysis is performed and extended to 3D thermal analysis to predict temperature distribution on various parts of the machine whereas Stress analysis predicts mechanical stress acting upon edges and faces of the rotor.

Findings

Analysis reveals that temperature distribution and rotor stress on the machine is within acceptable limits. A maximum temperature rise of 37.7°C was noticed at armature and field windings, temperature distribution in stator near pole proximity was 35°C whereas no significant change in rotor temperature was noticed. Furthermore, principal stress at the speed of 3,000 rpm and 30,000 rpm was found out to be 0.0305 MPa 3.045 MPa, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The designed machine will be optimized for improvement of electromagnetic performance followed by hardware implementation and experimental testing in the future.

Practical implications

The model is developed for axial fan applications.

Originality/value

Thermal analysis is not being implemented on FEFSM for axial fan applications which is an important analysis to ensure the electromagnetic performance of the machine.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article

Qinfen Lu, Huanwen Li, Xiaoyan Huang and Yunyue Ye

Due to the advantages of direct driven, high thrust density, and high efficiency, flux-switching linear motor (FSLM) is required for many applications, including aerospace…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the advantages of direct driven, high thrust density, and high efficiency, flux-switching linear motor (FSLM) is required for many applications, including aerospace and automotive. However, the vibration caused by detent force and difficulties in the assembly produced by the large normal force become the barriers that restrict its development. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to improve the electromagnetic performance of double-sided multi-tooth FSLM (DMTFSLM), a yokeless DMTFSLM with moving primary is proposed and compared with normal DMTFSLM. Moreover, with theoretical analysis, the selection principle of slot-pole number combination is obtained. DMTFSLMs with four slot/pole combinations, 6s/16p, 6s/17p, 6s/19p, 6s/20p, are analyzed based on finite element analysis model. Finally, several parameters of this yokeless DMTFSLM have been optimized to obtain the better performance.

Findings

In yokeless DMTFSLM, it is found that the asymmetry of Back-EMF caused by the end-effect is eliminated, which leads to a better thrust force performance in comparison with the normal structure. The small attractive force between the secondary and the primary makes it easier for assembly and also can reduce the friction, which is more suitable for high-speed application. In addition, the best slot-pole combination rule is found through a simple theoretical analysis.

Originality/value

The yokeless DMTFSLM has excellent electromagnetic performance, such as high thrust density, negligible normal force, and small force ripple. It is a strong candidate for high-precision device.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

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