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Article

Hamed Shadpour, Jae‐Kuk Kim and Jifeng Chen

The purpose of this paper is to study and minimize loss of vitamin B9 in bread during warming protocol.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study and minimize loss of vitamin B9 in bread during warming protocol.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, warming intensity, warming time, warming device, and bread storage method were selected as the most effective factors on B9 loss in bread. The variation of B9 in bread and its loss were studied with orthogonal array design (OAD) using the L9 optimization matrix.

Findings

With a calculated per cent of contribution (P%) of error of 0.38 per cent and according to the analysis of variance, ANOVA, of the fluorescence data, 86 per cent of B9 was saved by using toaster as the warming device, a bread warming temperature of <200F and a warming time of <10min. Fluorescence method evaluated warming intensity and warming device as the most powerful factors affecting the B9 concentration in bread with corresponding P% of 42.28 per cent and 41.72 per cent, respectively.

Practical implications

In conclusion, heat destroyed significant portion of B9 in bread during daily warming protocols, and the suggested optimized parameters obtained in this work significantly minimized this loss.

Originality/value

The OAD can be used to effectively evaluate effective parameters on food science investigations.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article

Dinesh Ramkrushna Rotake, Anand Darji and Jitendra Singh

The purpose of this paper is a new thin-film based sensor proposed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury (Hg2+) ions in water. The thin-film platform is easy to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is a new thin-film based sensor proposed for sensitive and selective detection of mercury (Hg2+) ions in water. The thin-film platform is easy to use and quick for heavy metal ions (HMIs) detection in the picomolar range. Ion-selective self-assembled monolayer's (SAM) of thiol used for the detection of HMIs above the Au/Ti top surface.

Design/methodology/approach

A thin-film based platform is suitable for the on-field experiments and testing of water samples. HMIs (antigen) and thiol-based SAM (antibody) interaction results change in surface morphology and topography. In this study, the authors have used different characterization techniques to check the selectivity of the proposed method. This change in the morphology and topography of thin-film sensor checked with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray analysis used for high-resolution images.

Findings

This thin-film based platform is straightforward to use and suitable for real-time detection of HMIs at the picomolar range. This thin-film based sensor platform capable of achieving a lower limit of detection (LOD) 27.42 ng/mL (136.56 pM) using SAM of Homocysteine-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid to detect Hg2+ ions.

Research limitations/implications

A thin-film based technology is perfect for real-time testing and removal of HMIs, but the LOD is higher as compared to microcantilever-based devices.

Originality/value

The excessive use and commercialization of nanoparticle (NPs) are quickly expanding their toxic impact on health and the environment. The proposed method used the combination of thin-film and NPs, to overcome the limitation of NPs-based technique and have picomolar (136.56 pM) range of HMIs detection. The proposed thin-film-based sensor shows excellent repeatability and the method is highly reliable for toxic Hg2+ ions detection. The main advantage of the proposed thin-film sensor is its ability to selectively remove the Hg2+ ions from water samples just like a filter and a sensor for detection at picomolar range makes this method best among the other current-state of the art techniques.

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Article

Galal H. Elgemeie and Doaa M. Masoud

This paper aims to focus on the most popular technique nowadays, the use of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis; in a few years, most chemists will use microwave…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the most popular technique nowadays, the use of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis; in a few years, most chemists will use microwave energy to heat chemical reactions on a laboratory scale. Also, many scientists use microwave technology in the industry. They have turned to microwave synthesis as a frontline methodology for their projects. Microwave and microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) has emerged as a new “lead” in organic synthesis.

Design/methodology/approach

Using microwave radiation for synthesis and design of fluorescent dyes is of great interest, as it decreases the time required for synthesis and the synthesized dyes can be applied to industrial scale.

Findings

The technique offers many advantages, as it is simple, clean, fast, efficient and economical for the synthesis of a large number of organic compounds. These advantages encourage many chemists to switch from the traditional heating method to microwave-assisted chemistry.

Practical implications

This review highlights applications of microwave chemistry in organic synthesis for fluorescent dyes. Fluorescents are a fairly new and very heavily used class of organics. These materials have many applications, as a penetrant liquid for crack detection, synthetic resins, plastics, printing inks, non-destructive testing and sports ball dyeing.

Originality/value

The aim value of this review is to define the scope and limitation of microwave synthesis procedures for the synthesis of novel fluorescent dyes via a simple and economic way.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Haiyang Gu, Kaiqi Liu, Xingyi Huang, Quansheng Chen, Yanhui Sun and Chin Ping Tan

Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled with support-vector machine (SVM) was carried out to identify and discriminate between the fluorescence spectroscopies of…

Abstract

Purpose

Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) coupled with support-vector machine (SVM) was carried out to identify and discriminate between the fluorescence spectroscopies of coconut water brands.

Design/methodology/approach

PARAFAC was applied to reduce three-dimensional data of excitation emission matrix (EEM) to two-dimensional data. SVM was applied to discriminate between six commercial coconut water brands in this study. The three largest variation data from fluorescence spectroscopy were extracted using the PARAFAC method as the input data of SVM classifiers.

Findings

The discrimination results of the six commercial coconut water brands were achieved by three SVM methods (Ga-SVM, PSO-SVM and Grid-SVM). The best classification accuracies were 100.00%, 96.43% and 94.64% for the training set, test set and CV accuracy.

Originality/value

The above results indicate that fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PARAFAC and SVM methods proved to be a simple and rapid detection method for coconut water and perhaps other beverages.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Article

Henri Dou and Parina Hassanaly

The use of databases and microcomputers enables almost anyone to analyse a scientific field. Forecasting scientific production is a way of estimating trends in various…

Abstract

The use of databases and microcomputers enables almost anyone to analyse a scientific field. Forecasting scientific production is a way of estimating trends in various countries, patents, thresholds of investment, etc. This analysis of trends can be used to determine research policy. Fundamental research and R&D must obviously be developed with full regard to results present in the international scientific literature. Moreover, it is important to view the various human and financial potentials involved in certain areas. The aim of this paper is to show how, with an information tool such as the Chemical Abstracts database, it is possible to carry out various analyses of scientific subjects. The authors present a real‐life case study developed at the laboratory of the Centre de Recherche Retrospective de Marseille; the work was closely related to the analytical work on various liquefaction products from the French coal liquefaction pilot plant. The database used was Chemical Abstracts. Two periods corresponding to two files have been considered: CA 77 (from 1977 to 1981) and CA 82 (from 1982 to date). The software used allows most types of search, and the mathematical analysis and trends were determined with an Apple II/e computer using the programs Vitrend, Visiplot and Appleplot.

Details

Online Review, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

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Article

B.D. Dunn

The various electronic component parts and materials that are used in the construction of spacecraft electronic boxes have been chemically analysed. An elemental…

Abstract

The various electronic component parts and materials that are used in the construction of spacecraft electronic boxes have been chemically analysed. An elemental distribution is recorded for items that include paint, aluminium alloy structure, printed circuit boards and their soldered joints, attachment screws and ten different conventional leaded components. This data may be of use to future projects and to those involved in recycling electronic hardware.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article

Arvind Chandrasekaran and Muthukumaran Packirisamy

This paper proposes to examine a simple and cost‐effective method of integrating a reflector surface with a silicon‐based microfluidic channel for enhanced biosensing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper proposes to examine a simple and cost‐effective method of integrating a reflector surface with a silicon‐based microfluidic channel for enhanced biosensing through the method of fluorescence in a microfluidics and nanofluidics‐based lab‐on‐a‐chip device.

Design/methodology/approach

Herein, the reflector is integrated with silicon‐based microfluidic channels and fluorescence measurements were carried out using alexafluor 647 particles. Two types of microfluidic channel surfaces were used, with and without reflector integration, for the experiments.

Findings

The experimental results prove that the proposed technique of partial reflector integration within microfluidic or nanofluidic channel surfaces is highly suitable for fluorescence‐based detection of single molecules and low concentration fluorophore‐tagged receptors.

Originality/value

It is believed that this is a novel work of integrating a reflector with a microfluidic channel surface for fluorescence‐based biodetection. This method will be very useful for fluorescence‐based biosensors in detecting low concentration fluorophores and single molecules.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Content available
Article

Sevinç Sevim Kahya, Yasemin Sönmez, Güngör Gündüz and Bora Mavis

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the limited fluorescence of mica titania (MT) effect pigments by coating them with peripherally substituted zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPc).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the limited fluorescence of mica titania (MT) effect pigments by coating them with peripherally substituted zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPc).

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of deposition medium, temperature, time, initial organic pigment/MT ratio on deposition behaviour and efficiencies were investigated separately for ZnPc, nitro (TNZnPc) and amino (TAZnPc) substituted ZnPc’s.

Findings

TNZnPc could be deposited in the form of well-defined crystals on MT with per cent 64 ± 5 efficiency in chloroform at 50°C within 5 h and the amount deposited was linearly dependent on the initial TNZnPc concentration. TNZnPc fluorescence emissions, which appear mainly at 460 and 685 nm in pure pigments, could be observed in combination with MT (MT-TNZnPc) as well. A spectral analysis on the non-overlapping region of the spectrum with two different excitations (385 and 630 nm) revealed that, respectively, up to threefold to sixfold increase is possible to attain, depending on the excitation wavelengths.

Research limitations/implications

Efficiency of deposition could not be taken above per cent 11 ± 4 with TAZnPc. Although ZnPc could be deposited with per cent 57 ± 3 efficiency, the pigment was not effective in imposing its fluorescence characteristics over MT.

Originality/value

Combining inorganic effect pigments with organic dye molecules is an idea that has been elaborated mainly for producing different colour effects and stabilization of dye molecules against agglomeration. Here, for the first time, it is used to enhance the fluorescence of the effect pigments.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Nurhanis Abdul Latif, Nadia Nabihah Mohd Yusof Chan, Lidya Sulaiman, Mohamad Fitri Zaqwan Salim, Zul Hazrin Zainal Abidin, Shameer Hisham, Hairul Anuar Tajuddin, Amnani Abu Bakar and Norhana Abdul Halim

This paper aims to discuss the use of the sensor material in coating to detect defects which can cause corrosion on metal substrate. This coating consists of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the use of the sensor material in coating to detect defects which can cause corrosion on metal substrate. This coating consists of sodium polyacrylate (SP) to detect the presence of water and fluorescence substance 2-[4-(piperidin-1-yl)-5H-chromeno-[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl]phenol [benzopyranopyrimidine (BPP)] to detect crack formation.

Design/methodology/approach

The coating resin is a mixture of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride). The additives are used to provide a visual indicator to the observer for when the coating exhibits any defects, so that quick action can be taken before corrosion develops further. SP has absorbent properties and expand when in contact with water, while BPP exhibits high luminous intensity in its solid form that is easily perceivable when exposed to UV. PVM/MA was used as the binder with ethanol as the solvent. The resistance of this coating towards water penetration was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coating’s performance was observed in terms of visible optical appearance.

Findings

The sensor coating developed in this project serves as visual aid to the observer through the expansion of SP and high fluorescence of BPP material after the top coat is physically damaged. These findings are in provision of preventive measures that can be taken in case of top coat failure.

Research limitations/implications

The resistance of the coating that contained SP could not be investigated with EIS due to its ability to expand immediately when in contact with liquids.

Practical implications

The coating developed in this study may be to detect corrosion.

Originality/value

The sensor material used has not been previously studied in applications to detect the presence of water or used to detect crack formation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article

Panayiotis Papandreopoulos, Maria Koui, Dimitrios Yfantis and Theophilos Theophanides

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface corrosion products of copper alloys by non‐destructive techniques (NDT) and correlate them with their bulk composition.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface corrosion products of copper alloys by non‐destructive techniques (NDT) and correlate them with their bulk composition.

Design/methodology/approach

Specimens of copper alloys, whose compositions were close to those of ancient copper‐based artefacts, were left to be corroded in simulated soil solution containing ammoniacal buffering solution of pH =10 in 1:1 ratio, in order to accelerate the corrosion rate. The elemental compositions of the surface corrosion products were determined versus time using X‐Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, and the surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X‐Ray Micro‐detector methods, and the results were compared to the bulk composition, as measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy.

Findings

During the corrosion evolution of the copper alloys in the corrosive solution, transitional phenomena were observed such as an initial decrease of the copper concentration with a simultaneous increase of the concentrations of the secondary alloying metals (Sn, Zn and Pb). After 30‐60 immersion days, the alloy concentrations were stabilised.

Originality/value

The results of this research could contribute to the non‐destructive characterisation of copper‐based ancient artefacts (from which the taking of samples is not allowed).

1 – 10 of 271