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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Vaishali Tyagi, Nitesh Rawat and Mangey Ram

The purpose of this work is to develop a prototype of flood alerting system (FAS) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) to save the lives and property by alerting the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to develop a prototype of flood alerting system (FAS) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) to save the lives and property by alerting the people about flood. The proposed system can permit detection and evaluation of threating events to take place before it hits a network or community.

Design/methodology/approach

Connecting water bodies or water channels to the cities is a sign of development and growth, but sometimes when these connected water channels gets overfilled due to some reasons then they can create horrendous situation, one of such situations is flood. Hence, there is a need to find a way, in order to alert when there will be flood-related conditions and to predict if there are any such conditions in near future. In this work, a model based on FAS, that can alert when flood-related conditions are there, is proposed. Mathematical modelling of the model is done through the Markov process to obtain the state transition probabilities, and these probabilities are solved by Laplace transformation. The performance of the proposed system is affected by good or bad working of its components. Thus, the performance characteristics are expected in terms of component failure rates. Failure and repair rate of FAS's components follow exponential and general distribution.

Findings

Using the proposed Markov model, performance characteristics of the model like availability, reliability, mean time to failure (MTTF), profit and sensitivity have been calculated and explored by taking numerical illustration. Graphical representation of performance characteristics is done to make the results more understandable.

Originality/value

This work presents a Markov process-based reliability model of FAS, which provides the information about failures and working of the system's components. Also, it provides information about components and failures which majorly affect the system reliability.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Huynh Thi Lan Huong and Luong Huu Dzung

Determining alarm levels of river floods is considered an effective non-structural measure to prevent and mitigate the damages of flood and inundation. This study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Determining alarm levels of river floods is considered an effective non-structural measure to prevent and mitigate the damages of flood and inundation. This study aims to propose a holistic approach, a comprehensive review of the factors affecting flooding and flood risk, based on which the water level (WL) is proposed for the flood alarm levels. The corresponding proposed WL to the necessary flood alarm levels is based on observed data, as well as simulated data from statistical methods and hydrological and hydraulic models.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the proposed criteria to delineate WLs corresponding to flood alarm levels include flood magnitude; flood derivation and flood duration; flood risks and damage; correlation with neighboring stations; flood characteristics and local characteristics; and other criteria (flood prevention strategy and flood experience).

Findings

The paper proposed a synthesis approach to determine flood warning levels in Vietnam. The retrieved levels are the basics to revise the Decision 632/2010 of the Vietnam Government on determining water alarm levels for flood prevention. The study proposes a new flood alarm system including revised flood levels at 115 existing stations and new flood levels at 30 additional stations. The proposed flood warning level can help manage the flooding problem in major river systems that supports flood protection and prevention services in Vietnam.

Originality/value

The paper proposed a novel synthesis approach to flood prevention in Vietnam.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Nick Sciulli, Giuseppe D'Onza and Giulio Greco

The purpose of this paper is to investigate resilience to extreme weather events (EWE) in a sample of Italian local councils (LCs), impacted by flood disasters. Whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate resilience to extreme weather events (EWE) in a sample of Italian local councils (LCs), impacted by flood disasters. Whether resilience as a concept is adopted by the affected councils and factors that promote or inhibit LC resilience are explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Using semi-structured interviews, the authors investigate seven Italian LCs that were severely impacted by the flood event. An interview protocol was developed and background information collected. A number of themes were drawn from the interview transcripts and relationships with the relevant literature were examined.

Findings

The findings highlight that the adoption of the concept of resilience is at an early stage in the LCs decision and policy making. The authors find that the financial resources and the external relations management with other public entities, NGOs and local communities, promote the LCs resilience during and after an EWE. By contrast, bureaucratic constraints and poor urban planning restrain resilience. The findings suggest that LCs resilience needs to be distinguished from local community resilience.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on public sector management and investigates the under-researched area of resilience within the context of the public sector, vis-à-vis, local government. In particular the realization that EWE are not the realm only of emergency personnel, but that local government managers have an integral role placed upon them during and especially after the EWE.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Namrata Bhattacharya Mis, Rotimi Joseph, David Proverbs and Jessica Lamond

This study aims to investigate the level of preparedness among property owners who had experienced flood damage to their properties in two cities in England following the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the level of preparedness among property owners who had experienced flood damage to their properties in two cities in England following the summer floods of 2007. Flooding can have a variety of impacts on residential properties and businesses that may be unprepared and therefore vulnerable to both direct and indirect effects. Research suggests that the focus in analysis of damage to flood plain population (residential and commercial) tends to be on the direct tangible impacts, limiting their ability to recognize the true costs of flooding, thereby leading to unpreparedness to future flooding. Greater understanding of the level of preparedness against different types of flood impacts is likely to contribute towards increased knowledge of the likely resilience of residential and commercial property occupiers.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data obtained through self-administered postal questionnaire survey of floodplain residential and commercial residents provide the basis for the research analysis and findings. The rationale behind choosing the locations for the research was based on the need to investigate areas where a sizeable number of residential and commercial properties were affected during the 2007 event, in this case, Sheffield and Wakefield in the northern part of England were chosen. The data collected were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis.

Findings

The result of the analysis revealed that non-structural measures have been implemented by more people when compared to other measures, which can be linked to the fact that non-structural measures, in most, cases do not have financial implication to the property owners. The uptake of the other measures (resistance and resilience) is very low. It can be concluded from the findings that the level of implementation of measures to reduce damage from potential future flooding among the flood plain residents is relatively low and mainly focussed towards reducing the direct effects of flooding.

Practical implications

The study argues that increased resilience can be sustainable only by developing integrated attitude towards risk reduction not only by enhancing coping strategy by reducing direct impacts of flooding but also equally focussing on indirect effects.

Originality/value

There have been previous studies towards investigating the impacts of flooding on residential and commercial property owners as a separate entity. It is believed that this is the first time in which both residential and commercial properties will be investigated together as one body of research.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2019

Massimo Migliorini, Jenny Sjåstad Hagen, Jadranka Mihaljević, Jaroslav Mysiak, Jean-Louis Rossi, Alexander Siegmund, Khachatur Meliksetian and Debarati Guha Sapir

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how, despite increasing data availability from a wide range of sources unlocks unprecedented opportunities for disaster risk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how, despite increasing data availability from a wide range of sources unlocks unprecedented opportunities for disaster risk reduction, data interoperability remains a challenge due to a number of barriers. As a first step to enhancing data interoperability for disaster risk reduction is to identify major barriers, this paper presents a case study on data interoperability in disaster risk reduction in Europe, linking current barriers to the regional initiative of the European Science and Technology Advisory Group.

Design/methodology/approach

In support of Priority 2 (“Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk”) of the Sendai Framework and SDG17 (“Partnerships for the goals”), this paper presents a case study on barriers to data interoperability in Europe based on a series of reviews, surveys and interviews with National Sendai Focal Points and stakeholders in science and research, governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations and industry.

Findings

For a number of European countries, there remains a clear imbalance between long-term disaster risk reduction and short-term preparation and the dominant role of emergency relief, response and recovery, pointing to the potential of investments in ex ante measures with better inclusion and exploitation of data.

Originality/value

Modern society is facing a digital revolution. As highlighted by the International Council of Science and the Committee on Data for Science and Technology, digital technology offers profound opportunities for science to discover unsuspected patterns and relationships in nature and society, on scales from the molecular to the cosmic, from local health systems to global sustainability. It has created the potential for disciplines of science to synergize into a holistic understanding of the complex challenges currently confronting humanity; the Sustainable Development Goals are a direct reflectance of this. Interdisciplinary is obtained with integration of data across relevant disciplines. However, a barrier to realization and exploitation of this potential arises from the incompatible data standards and nomenclatures used in different disciplines. Although the problem has been addressed by several initiatives, the following challenge still remains: to make online data integration a routine.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2010

Jeremy Linskell and Jenny Hill

This paper describes the role that smart home technology can play in enhancing the provision of supported living for people with complex needs and challenging behaviour…

Abstract

This paper describes the role that smart home technology can play in enhancing the provision of supported living for people with complex needs and challenging behaviour. Intelligent building systems, or smart house technologies, offer a flexible environment that can be readily adapted and mapped onto the needs of service users and their carers. The effective management and presentation of information on the activity of service users can assist in planning care and facilitating responses to their needs in ways that promote individual dignity and independence. This paper describes how an approach was developed, using smart home technology, based on local experiences with previous technological solutions. Recommendations are offered towards the specification of a system within a design brief. The application of these recommendations is illustrated in the use of smart house technology within three contrasting local projects and the advantages of applying this approach are discussed.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Nuwan Waidyanatha, Kasun Perera, Manoj Silva, Brenda Burrell and Tichafara Sigauke

Telephone calls are the predominant telecommunication mode in Sri Lanka. Consequently, leveraging voice-based applications for disaster communication would be acceptable

Abstract

Purpose

Telephone calls are the predominant telecommunication mode in Sri Lanka. Consequently, leveraging voice-based applications for disaster communication would be acceptable and sustainable. The purpose of this paper is to realise the design requirements for an integrated voice-enabled alerting and reporting system, and then to use the lessons learned to influence disaster management researchers, practitioners and developers to invest resources in related new system developments.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings in this paper are from an experiment concerning interactive voice for connecting community-based emergency field operatives with their central co-ordination hub.

Findings

A particular challenge was in interchanging Sinhala and Tamil language speech data, generated by the Freedom Fone Interactive Voice Response, with the text-based “Sahana” disaster-management system for analysis and decision support. The Emergency Data Exchange Language interoperable content standard was adopted for mediation between the two disparate systems. Standard mobile phones were the interface linking the Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) members. Low quality voice transmissions over the GSM cellular infrastructure resulted in distorted data. This shortcoming was a barrier to automating transformations between text and speech.

Originality/value

Replacing those processes with human procedure significantly degrades their reliability. Nevertheless, the CERT members find voice-enabled information exchange useful and easy to use, because it diminishes the need for computer literacy and removes language barriers. The paper discusses the utility evaluation of the introduced system.

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Lydia Cumiskey, Micha Werner, Karen Meijer, S.H.M. Fakhruddin and Ahmadul Hassan

The purpose of this study is to provide recommendations for improving the social performance of warnings using mobile services in flash flood prone communities. A warning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide recommendations for improving the social performance of warnings using mobile services in flash flood prone communities. A warning cannot be considered effective until it is received, understood and responded to by those at risk. This is defined as the social performance of warning communication techniques. Mobile services offer opportunities for improving this, particularly in Bangladesh, but have been underutilised. In this research, characteristics of the warning, mobile services and community are found to influence the social performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A framework on the factors affecting the social performance was developed and applied using data collected through interviews at the national and regional level along with focus-group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews at the local level in the Sunamganj District, Bangladesh.

Findings

The study demonstrated that mobile services are the preferred means of warning communication. Communities strongly preferred voice short messaging service (SMS) and interactive voice response (IVR) because of easier accessibility and understanding of the message. Text-based services [SMS and cell broadcasting service (CBS)] were still found to be acceptable. These should be simple, use symbols and refer to additional sources of information. Further recommendations include mixing push (e.g. SMS and CBS) and pull-based (e.g. IVR) mobile services, utilising local social networks, decentralising the dissemination process and raising awareness.

Research limitations/implications

A limited sample of interviews and FGDs were used.

Practical implications

Concrete recommendations are made for overcoming obstacles related to the effective use of mobiles services.

Social implications

The suggestions made can contribute to improving the social performance of flood early warning communication.

Originality/value

The conceptualisation of mobile services’ contribution to social performance of flood warning and field-level application.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Book part
Publication date: 5 October 2017

Fiona Gleed

Flooding is a frequent problem in the United Kingdom, with 1.8 million people living in homes that are likely to flood at least once in 75 years (Sayers, Horritt…

Abstract

Flooding is a frequent problem in the United Kingdom, with 1.8 million people living in homes that are likely to flood at least once in 75 years (Sayers, Horritt, Penning-Rowsell, & McKenzie, 2015). In 2015, the River Am burst its banks, resulting in up to 1 metre of flooding in Ambridge and causing significant damage and disruption to the village. A ‘4Ps’ approach is proposed to predict, prevent, protect from and prepare for flooding. Applying this model to evidence from Ambridge allows strategies for a flood resilient community to be explored.

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Matthew L. Collins and Naim Kapucu

The aim of this research is to better inform public policy makers and the disaster management community about the use of early warning systems. The central research…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this research is to better inform public policy makers and the disaster management community about the use of early warning systems. The central research question of this article is how local governments should provide early warning to the citizenry of impending tornado danger.

Design/methodology/approach

The main objectives of the paper were achieved by reviewing the literature on early warning systems for tornadoes and by conducting a content analysis of news reports, from the Orlando Sentinel newspaper, which identified the most cost‐effective early warning system for tornadoes. The theoretical approach of the paper covered the responses, results, and recommendations themes from the disaster management early warning system literature.

Findings

The study concludes with a disaster management policy recommendation for an early warning system for tornadoes for local government. The paper's recommendation is to utilize the cost‐effective NOAA weather radios to alert the citizenry of impending tornado danger. This recommendation is also generalizable to early warning systems for hurricanes, flash flooding, terrorist attacks, and other major natural and man‐made disasters.

Research limitations/implications

A research limitation is that the paper focuses on Central Florida. Future research could begin with the paper's findings and generalize these findings to other areas internationally.

Practical implications

The paper will better inform governmental policy makers and members of the disaster management community about the early warning system alternatives available to warn the citizenry of impending tornado danger. It will hopefully begin a dialogue among disaster management practitioners and academics about early warning systems for tornadoes.

Originality/value

The paper fills a gap in the tornado early warning system literature. Heretofore, there has been little writing, which this paper reviews, that compares early warning systems for tornadoes. However, the original value of the paper is that it specifically focuses on the instrument of warning the citizenry of tornadoes, the time of day of the tornado event, and the life‐saving effects of tornado warnings. The value of the paper will be to public policy makers world‐wide and to the growing disaster management community.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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