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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Chrysoula Pandelidi, Tobias Maconachie, Stuart Bateman, Ingomar Kelbassa, Sebastian Piegert, Martin Leary and Milan Brandt

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is increasingly being explored as a commercial fabrication method due to its ability to produce net or near-net shape parts directly from…

Abstract

Purpose

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is increasingly being explored as a commercial fabrication method due to its ability to produce net or near-net shape parts directly from a computer-aided design model. Other benefits of technology compared to conventional manufacturing include lower cost for short runs, reduced product lead times and rapid product design. High-performance polymers such as polyetherimide, have the potential for FDM fabrication and their high-temperature capabilities provide the potential of expanding the applications of FDM parts in automotive and aerospace industries. However, their relatively high glass transition temperature (215 °C) causes challenges during manufacturing due to the requirement of high-temperature build chambers and controlled cooling rates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of ULTEM 1010, an unfilled polyetherimide grade.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, mechanical properties were evaluated through tensile and flexural tests. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significance of process parameters to the mechanical properties of the specimens, their main effects and interactions. The fractured surfaces were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy and porosity was assessed by X-ray microcomputed tomography.

Findings

A range of mean tensile and flexural strengths, 60–94 MPa and 62–151 MPa, respectively, were obtained highlighting the dependence of performance on process parameters and their interactions. The specimens were found to fracture in a brittle manner. The porosity of tensile samples was measured between 0.18% and 1.09% and that of flexural samples between 0.14% and 1.24% depending on the process parameters. The percentage porosity was found to not directly correlate with mechanical performance, rather the location of those pores in the sample.

Originality/value

This analysis quantifies the significance of the effect of each of the examined process parameters has on the mechanical performance of FDM-fabricated specimens. Further, it provides a better understanding of the effect process parameters and their interactions have on the mechanical properties and porosity of FDM-fabricated polyetherimide specimens. Additionally, the fracture surface of the tested specimens is qualitatively assessed.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2020

Isaac Ferreira, Carolina Melo, Rui Neto, Margarida Machado, Jorge Lino Alves and Sacha Mould

The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the mechanical performance of FFF parts when subjected to post processing thermal treatment. Therefore, a study of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the mechanical performance of FFF parts when subjected to post processing thermal treatment. Therefore, a study of the annealing treatment influence on the mechanical properties was performed. For this, two different types of Nylon (PA12) were used, FX256 and CF15, being the second a short fibre reinforcement version of the first one.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, tensile and flexural properties of specimens produced via FFF were determined after being annealed at temperatures of 135°C, 150°C or 165°C during 3, 6, 12 or 18 h and compared with the non-treated conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was performed to determine the degree of crystallinity. To evaluate the annealing parameters’ influence on the mechanical properties, a full factorial design of experiments was developed, followed by an analysis of variance, as well as post hoc comparisons, to determine the most significative intervening factors and their effect on the results.

Findings

The results indicate that CF15 increased its tensile modulus, strength, flexural modulus and flexural strength around 11%, while FX256 presented similar values for tensile properties, doubling for flexural results. Flexural strain presented an improvement, indicating an increased interlayer behaviour. Concerning to the DSC analysis, an increase in the degree of crystallinity for all the annealed parts.

Originality/value

Overall, the annealing treatment process cause a significant improvement in the mechanical performance of the material, with the exception of 165°C annealed specimens, in which a decrease of the mechanical properties was observed, resultant of material degradation.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2019

Swapnil Vyavahare, Soham Teraiya, Deepak Panghal and Shailendra Kumar

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most economical additive manufacturing technique. The purpose of this paper is to describe a detailed review of this technique…

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Abstract

Purpose

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most economical additive manufacturing technique. The purpose of this paper is to describe a detailed review of this technique. Total 211 research papers published during the past 26 years, that is, from the year 1994 to 2019 are critically reviewed. Based on the literature review, research gaps are identified and the scope for future work is discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review in the domain of FDM is categorized into five sections – (i) process parameter optimization, (ii) environmental factors affecting the quality of printed parts, (iii) post-production finishing techniques to improve quality of parts, (iv) numerical simulation of process and (iv) recent advances in FDM. Summary of major research work in FDM is presented in tabular form.

Findings

Based on literature review, research gaps are identified and scope of future work in FDM along with roadmap is discussed.

Research limitations/implications

In the present paper, literature related to chemical, electric and magnetic properties of FDM parts made up of various filament feedstock materials is not reviewed.

Originality/value

This is a comprehensive literature review in the domain of FDM focused on identifying the direction for future work to enhance the acceptability of FDM printed parts in industries.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Sugavaneswaran M. and Arumaikkannu G.

This paper aims to additive manufacture (AM) the multi-material (MM) structure with directional-specific mechanical properties based on the classical lamination theory of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to additive manufacture (AM) the multi-material (MM) structure with directional-specific mechanical properties based on the classical lamination theory of composite materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The polyjet three-dimensional printing (3DP) process is used to fabricate the MM structure with directional-specific mechanical properties. MMs within a layer are positioned and oriented based on the classical lamination theory to achieve directional-specific properties. Mechanical behavior of the AM structure was examined under various loading conditions to justify the directional-specific properties.

Findings

With MM processing capabilities of the polyjet 3DP machine, AM MM structures with directional-specific mechanical properties were fabricated. From experimentation, it was observed that the AM MM structure with a quasi-isotropic laminate has superior tensile and flexural strength, and the AM MM structure with an angle ply laminate has superior shear strength. Various mechanical properties determined through testing will be useful for the selection of an appropriate layup arrangement within a structure for appropriate loading conditions.

Originality/value

This study presents the innovative methodology for the fabrication of AM MM structures with tailor-made mechanical properties. The developed methodology paves way for using the polyjet 3DP MM structure for applications such as the complaint mechanism, snap fits and thin features, which require directional-specific properties.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

J. Elliott Sanders, Lu Wang and Douglas J. Gardner

The purpose of this study was to produce dimensionally accurate and reliable fused layer modeling (FLM) feedstock composed of an impact modified polypropylene matrix…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to produce dimensionally accurate and reliable fused layer modeling (FLM) feedstock composed of an impact modified polypropylene matrix, compounded with a cellulose nanofiber (CNF) reinforcement and coupled by a maleic anhydride coupling agent to produce comparable mechanical properties in comparison to the industry-standard method of injection molding (IM).

Design/methodology/approach

A spray dried CNF (SDCNF) was compounded with the polymer matrix using a masterbatch method. The composite was diluted with neat polymer and extruded into a filament and then printed into standardized mechanical testing samples. For comparison, the filament was chopped and standardized samples were produced with IM.

Findings

A loss in mechanical properties of up to 30% was observed in FLM samples. If normalized to reflect improved density from a part consolidation method, losses are reduced to 15% or show improvements in the neat polymer matrix.

Originality/value

Limited research has been done on producing FLM feedstock, reporting mechanical property results based on standardized testing and comparing the same material with IM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2020

Alejandro Tapia Córdoba, Daniel García Vallejo, Pablo Millán Gata and Jaime Domínguez Abascal

The incipient growth of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) techniques encourages the development of models to predict the behavior of these parts involving complicated…

Abstract

Purpose

The incipient growth of the fused deposition modeling (FDM) techniques encourages the development of models to predict the behavior of these parts involving complicated and heterogeneous geometries whose behavior strongly diverges from the continuous model hypothesis. This paper aims to address the problem of predicting the flexural properties of FDM parts building on the geometrical similarity between a typical FDM part and a sandwich panel.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper takes advantage of the morphological similarity between FDM structures and composite sandwich panels. Thus, an approach based on classic sandwich theory is developed to validate its goodness to predict the flexural behavior of FDM parts. A set of tensile and flexural tests for FDM parts were conducted varying the density of the core pattern (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%), being the proposed model and the predicted results validated.

Findings

The results showed a good accordance between the predicted values of stiffness and the experimental data. Although this is especially evidenced for low infill density values, for densities above 20% the experimental values noticeably exceed the maximum predicted stiffness, which can be explained by the non-compliance of the foil honeycomb hypothesis for high-density patterns. The main implication of these findings lies in the possibility of using advanced models from thin-foil structures as a base to develop accurate analytical approaches to model FDM structures.

Originality/value

Although the experimental characterization of FDM parts has been a matter of study in the literature, the development of robust theoretical models that consider the influence of the particular morphology of these parts is still a challenge in this field. The approach proposed in this study constitutes the first step to develop a complete analytical model to predict the complex behavior of FDM printed parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Iman Sedighi, Majid R. Ayatollahi, Bahador Bahrami, Marco A. Pérez-Martínez and Andres A. Garcia-Granada

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of layer orientation on the tensile, flexural and fracture behavior of additively manufactured (AM) polycarbonate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of layer orientation on the tensile, flexural and fracture behavior of additively manufactured (AM) polycarbonate (PC) produced using fused deposition modeling (FDM).

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental approach is undertaken and a total number of 48 tests are conducted. Two types of tensile specimens are used and their mechanical behavior and fracture surfaces are studied. Also, circular parts with different layer orientations are printed and two semi-circular bending (SCB) samples are extracted from each part. Finally, the results of samples with different build directions are compared to one another to better understand the mechanical behavior of additively manufactured PC.

Findings

The results demonstrate anisotropy in the tensile, flexural and fracture behavior of the additively manufactured PC parts with the latter being less anisotropic compared to the first two. It is also demonstrated that the anisotropy of the elastic modulus is small and can be neglected. Tensile strength ranges from 40 MPa to 53 MPa. At the end, mode I fracture toughness prediction curves are provided for different directions of the FDM samples. Fracture toughness ranges from 1.93 to 2.37 MPa.mm1/2.

Originality/value

The SCB specimen, a very suitable geometry for characterizing anisotropic materials, was used to characterize FDM parts for the first time. Also, the fracture properties of the AM PC have not been studied by the researchers in the past. Therefore, fracture toughness prediction curves are presented for this anisotropic material. These curves can be very suitable for designing parts that are going to be produced by 3D printing. Moreover, the effect of the area to perimeter ratio on the tensile properties of the printed parts is investigated.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

I.C. Nwuzor, Atuanya C.U. and Olisa O.

The production of car bumper composites based on glass fibers and carbon fibers has been a continuous trend. These materials have standard properties; however, they are…

Abstract

Purpose

The production of car bumper composites based on glass fibers and carbon fibers has been a continuous trend. These materials have standard properties; however, they are very expensive and are not readily available. Therefore, focus on the choice of reinforcement fibers is gradually shifting toward natural sources. Natural fibers are becoming attractive alternatives to traditional high‐performance fibers such as glass and carbon fibers for reinforcement in composites in structural applications. To produce a car bumper that will be less expensive and available leads to the development of Momordica angustisepala fibers (MAf) and anthill particles/ polyester hybrid composites.

Design/methodology/approach

The composite was produced by hand lay method. The physical, mechanical, microstructure and thermal properties of the composites were used as criteria for the selection of the material for car bumper application. The validation of the tensile properties was done using the finite element method.

Findings

The results should impact energy of 7.82J/mm2, 145.28 per cent improvement in tensile strength of the polyester increased by the addition of 6wt per cent MAf, and 5wt per cent anthill particles. Flexural modulus of 2269.01 and 2435.19 Mpa and flexural strength of 56.61 and 85.45 Mpa were obtained for the polyester and composite. The maximum temperature of decomposition was 370.00 and 472.00oC for polyester and composite. Validation of the tensile properties shows that with the difference between predicated yield strength the experimental gave a percentage error of 6.43 per cent and safety of 68.12 per cent. It can be concluded that the composite formulation with 6 wt per cent MAf and 5 wt per cent anthill particles in polyester can be used in the production of car bumper because the mechanical properties obtained are within the ranges used for car bumper application.

Originality/value

The composition of 5 wt per cent anthill particles and 6 wt per cent MAf in polyester has never been used in the production of car bumper before now; hence this work is novel and contributed to knowledge materials development.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Eric Asa, Monisha Shrestha, Edmund Baffoe-Twum and Bright Awuku

Environmental issues caused by the production of Portland cement have led to it being replaced by waste materials such as fly ash, which is more economical and safer for…

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental issues caused by the production of Portland cement have led to it being replaced by waste materials such as fly ash, which is more economical and safer for the environment. Also, fly ash is a material with sustainable properties. Therefore, this paper aims to focus on the development of sustainable construction materials using 100% high-calcium fly ash and potassium hydroxide (KOH)-based alkaline solution and study the engineering properties of the resulting fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, curing time and slump. In phase I of the study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were added to determine their effect on the strength of the geopolymer mortar. The results derived from the experiments indicate that mortar and concrete made with 100% fly ash C require an alkaline solution to produce similar (comparable) strength characteristics as Portland cement concrete. However, it was determined that increasing the amount of KOH generates a considerable amount of heat causing the concrete to cure too quickly; therefore, it is notable to forming a proper bond was unable to form a stronger bond. This study also determined that the addition of CNTs to the mix makes the geopolymer concrete tougher than the traditional concrete without CNT.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests were conducted to determine properties of the geopolymer concrete such as compressive strength, flexural strength, curing time and slump. In Phase I of the study, CNTs were studied to determine their effect on the strength of the geopolymer mortar.

Findings

The results derived from the experiments indicate that mortar and concrete made with 100% fly ash C require an alkaline solution to produce the same strength characteristics as Portland cement concrete. However, it was determined that increasing the amount of KOH generates too much heat causing the concrete to cure too quickly; therefore, it is notable to forming a proper bond. This study also determined that the addition of CNTs to the mix makes the concrete tougher than concrete without CNT.

Originality/value

This study was conducted at the construction engineering and management concrete laboratory at North Dakota State University in Fargo, North Dakota. All the experiments were conducted and analyzed by the authors.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Isaac Ferreira, Margarida Machado, Fernando Alves and António Torres Marques

In industry, fused filament fabrication (FFF) offers flexibility and agility by promoting a reduction in costs and in the lead-time (i.e. time-to-market). Nevertheless…

Abstract

Purpose

In industry, fused filament fabrication (FFF) offers flexibility and agility by promoting a reduction in costs and in the lead-time (i.e. time-to-market). Nevertheless, FFF parts exhibit some limitations such as lack of accuracy and/or lower mechanical performance. As a result, some alternatives have been developed to overcome some of these restrictions, namely, the formulation of high performance polymers, the creation of fibre-reinforced materials by FFF process and/or the design of new FFF-based technologies for printing composite materials. This work aims to analyze these technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This work aims to study and understand the advances in the behaviour of 3D printed parts with enhanced performance by its reinforcement with several shapes and types of fibres from nanoparticles to continuous fibre roving. Thus, a comprehensive survey of significant research studies carried out regarding FFF of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics is provided, giving emphasis to the most relevant and innovative developments or adaptations undergone at hardware level and/or on the production process of the feedstock.

Findings

It is shown that the different types of reinforcement present different challenges for the printing process with different outcomes in the part performance.

Originality/value

This review is focused on joining the most important researches dedicated to the process of FFF-printed parts with different types reinforcing materials. By dividing the reinforcements in categories by shape/geometry and method of processing, it is possible to better quantify performance improvements.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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