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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Chukwuemeka David Emele, Steve Wright, Richard Mounce, Cheng Zeng and John D. Nelson

This chapter presents a novel visualisation tool, known as Flexible Integrated Transport Services (FITS) that transport commissioners, providers and administrators could…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents a novel visualisation tool, known as Flexible Integrated Transport Services (FITS) that transport commissioners, providers and administrators could employ to specify and edit the operating constraints as they redesign transport services.

Design/methodology/approach

The context of rural transport planning is discussed noting that where resources are fewer, effective co-ordination is required to provide passengers with efficient transport services. An overview of the FITS visualisation tool and its different sub-systems (e.g. general information regarding services, operating area, passenger eligibility, fare structure and surcharge structure) is given. Additionally, some key computational details of the system are discussed. Preliminary results of a sample case study that trialled the FITS tool in a specific test run, using simulated transport to health data in the Morayshire and North-West Aberdeenshire area of Scotland are presented. The concluding discussion considers the potential impact of employing tools like FITS in planning transport services in rural and low-demand settings.

Findings

Results from the case study show how these effects could be quantified in terms of changes in costs incurred by transport providers, the level of potential demand that could be covered and the associated revenues (fares and subsidies) which could be generated by providers.

Originality/value

The FITS visualisation tool has the potential to act as a planning tool to help transport commissioners, providers and administrators visualise the effects of shifting operating boundaries of flexible transport services.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Giorgio Ambrosino, John D. Nelson, Marco Boero and Dora Ramazzotti

This chapter introduces the concept of the Shared Mobility Services Agency for the planning and managing of collective transport services at urban and regional level.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter introduces the concept of the Shared Mobility Services Agency for the planning and managing of collective transport services at urban and regional level.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on previous work which established the concept of the Flexible Transport Service (FTS) Agency as a single co-ordination centre for different flexible services, this chapter extends the concept to consolidate the role of the Agency as a Shared Mobility Centre, including the integration of different on-demand or New Mobility Services and the co-ordination of different key actors in a co-modal approach. Specific attention is given to the enabling information and communication technology (ICT) architecture and standards and to the actions needed for consolidating the Agency’s role.

Findings

Findings indicate the fundamental role of the Public Transport Authority (local or regional) to enable the implementation of the concept. Priorities include: recognizing the Agency as an added value service for the area; supporting possible interaction/synergy among different Dispatch Centres and/or with other paratransit services; and defining a specific set of indicators measuring the quality and quantitative of service that are different from those of the conventional transport service.

Originality/value

In a time when household and public expenditure are under pressure, coupled with rapid technology progress (especially enhanced connectivity) the shared mobility services Agency offers a co-ordinated solution to planning and managing collective transport services, including New Mobility Services (represented by recent solutions like Uber, Sidecar, Lyft and BlaBlaCar) which are not yet integrated with traditional transport services.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

David Denmark and Nick Stevens

This chapter presents a review of community transport in Australia with the aim of providing material for comparative research in flexible transport.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents a review of community transport in Australia with the aim of providing material for comparative research in flexible transport.

Design/methodology/approach

Research on Australian community transport has been brought together to present an analysis of the key features of the industry: history; geography; funding; regulation and the use of volunteers.

Findings

Each key feature has led to the current strong state/territory basis for service organisation and delivery, despite the federal responsibility for supplying most of the funding and ensuring equity and standards. Varying approaches to regulation and supply have also been driven by remoteness and the prevalence of large pockets of entrenched social disadvantage in some regions.

Originality/value

The chapter summarises research findings including hitherto unpublished research on an application of flexible transport services outside mainstream public transport operations in Australia.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Corinne Mulley and Geoffrey Clifton

This chapter demonstrates how the ‘golden rule’ can be applied by operators of flexible transport services to improve investment and pricing decisions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter demonstrates how the ‘golden rule’ can be applied by operators of flexible transport services to improve investment and pricing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The chapter explains why an appropriate decision making framework is particularly important for operators of flexible transport services and compares the traditional economic framework of fixed versus variable costs to the decision-oriented approach that analyses the activities of a firm in terms of costs that are avoidable (i.e. specific to a particular activity) and costs that are shared amongst a number of activities. The chapter introduces the ‘golden rule’ of decision making and discusses issues in implementing the rule.

Findings

An economic framework for decision making is particularly important for smaller scale transport operations (such as flexible transport services) because ‘lumpy’ investment costs are more significant than for larger operators. The traditional economic approach divides costs into fixed costs and those which vary by patronage. A better framework for decision making divides costs into those which are specific to a particular activity and, therefore, avoidable if that activity ceases, and those costs which are common to more than one activity.

Practical implications

Using this framework allows operators to apply the ‘golden rule’ in pricing their services so that the avoidable costs of each activity are recovered and the enterprise covers its shared costs overall.

Originality/value

This chapter will be useful to operators of flexible transport services who are new to the industry or are reacting to changes in the funding environment.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Corinne Mulley and John D. Nelson

This chapter provides the context for this book and highlights how the different chapters contribute to a greater understanding of how the flexible transport future may emerge.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter provides the context for this book and highlights how the different chapters contribute to a greater understanding of how the flexible transport future may emerge.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter reviews the content of the book, drawing together the threads to provide insights into the important issues and policies around the world both in practice and for the future.

Findings

This book benefits from the papers presented at the TRB-sponsored International Paratransit Conference, “Shaping the New Future of Paratransit,” held in Monterey, CA in the United States (US) in October 2014. Over and above this, chapters were commissioned so as to provide a broader understanding of context and operations. The present is affected by the common problem of the silo nature of funding for transport and the need for innovative solutions to develop partnership working and business models which in turn will allow paratransit or flexible transport systems (FTS) to flourish. This chapter also points to the considerable contribution of the chapters which look to the flexible transport future. These detail the way in which our understanding of mobility must change, the role of technology as an enabler, and the way in which automation will change each mobility mode and the connections between them.

Originality/value

This chapter offers a multidimensional perspective of the current status, operational aspects, and a wealth of case study material to underpin policy and practice in paratransit or FTS. Its particular value is centered on providing not only practice-focused policy content but research content which postulates how the flexible future may need to be influenced to emerge in a way to add to sustainability.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Abstract

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Merethe Dotterud Leiren and Kaare Skollerud

An increasing literature focuses on how Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) may contribute to improve public transport. However, qualitative studies about whether such…

Abstract

Purpose

An increasing literature focuses on how Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) may contribute to improve public transport. However, qualitative studies about whether such services contribute to social inclusion are lacking. The aim is therefore to understand how citizens experience DRT services.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, we compare the different local public transport solutions in three rural municipalities in Norway. One case represents a conventional public transport service with a school bus that is open for all. The two other cases represent DRT solutions with different characteristics in terms of how extensive the services are. The data are qualitative, gathered via interviews and focus groups.

Findings

We find that who the users are and their patterns of use differ between the cases. The more extensive the service is, the more popular it is – even to the extent that leisure clubs adapt their start and end times to the public transport routes. Moreover, the evidence suggests that door-to-door transport is crucial for the ability of many people of older age to travel.

Practical implications

The need for door-to-door services means that flexibility has to be incorporated into DRT schemes with fixed bus stops, if the aim is to cover all citizens.

Originality/value

The insights about how not only the users themselves experience different transport services, but also their relations, provide added value. Finally, we argue that, given among others the dispersion of transport responsibilities on different political levels and sectors, the DRT services have not been successful in solving efficiency issues.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Barry Connor

This chapter identifies the reasons why widespread and large-scale development of DRT has not emerged in the past 10 years even though previous research and analysis had…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter identifies the reasons why widespread and large-scale development of DRT has not emerged in the past 10 years even though previous research and analysis had suggested that conditions existed to facilitate such development.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on personal experience of operating DRT networks, supplemented by an analysis of the operating environment, operational barriers to implementation are identified.

Findings

Research results into the identified inhibiting factors are presented and supplemented by personal experience and interviews with key individuals. A successful integrated approach that has allowed a large DRT network to develop is described.

Practical implications

Recent changes in financial and structural conditions affecting the suitability of DRT in the United Kingdom as a solution to unmet travel needs and as a cost-effective alternative to conventional passenger transport are described. It is suggested that these factors have the potential to overcome barriers to further development. However, remaining obstacles in the field of Telematics are identified which may need further attention.

Social implications

Introduction of large-scale DRT networks will not only be more cost effective but also offset financially driven service reductions and allow unmet travel needs to be met.

Originality/value

The identification of financial, technical, legal and social obstacles to the widespread implementation of DRT allows barriers to be addressed and removed and the full benefits of DRT to be realised. At a time of financial constraint, this allows more economic and integrated passenger transport solutions to be introduced to benefit both end users and service commissioners.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Marcus Enoch and Stephen Potter

This chapter adopts a transport systems approach to explore why the adoption of paratransit modes is low and sporadic. Regulatory and institutional barriers are identified…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter adopts a transport systems approach to explore why the adoption of paratransit modes is low and sporadic. Regulatory and institutional barriers are identified as a major reason for this. The chapter then reviews key trends and issues relating to the uptake of, and barriers to, paratransit modes. Based on this analysis a new regulatory structure is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies and research/practice literature.

Findings

Following an exploration of the nature of paratransit system design and traditional definitions of ‘paratransit’, it is concluded that institutional barriers are critical. However, current societal trends and service developments, and in particular initiatives from the technology service industry, are developing significant new paratransit models. The chapter concludes with a proposed redefinition of paratransit to facilitate a regulatory change to help overcome its institutional challenges.

Research limitations/implications

A paratransit transformation of public transport services would produce travel behaviours different from models and perspectives built around corridor/timetabled public transport services.

Practical implications

Technology firm invaders (e.g. Uber) are viewed as disrupters from normal transport planning to be controlled or excluded. However they may be the key to a transport system transformation.

Social implications

Existing public transport modes are ill-suited to modern patterns of travel demand. A system involving paratransit could produce enhanced social mobility and system-level improvements in CO2 emissions.

Originality/value

This chapter identifies the key issues raised by the emergence of new paratransit modes and the new actors involved. A new regulatory structure is proposed which reflects this understanding.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2016

Bilge Atasoy, Takuro Ikeda and Moshe E. Ben-Akiva

We introduce and analyze an innovative transportation system called flexible mobility on demand (FMOD). FMOD provides a menu of optimized travel options in real-time…

Abstract

Purpose

We introduce and analyze an innovative transportation system called flexible mobility on demand (FMOD). FMOD provides a menu of optimized travel options in real-time. Practical considerations related to the business model for FMOD are taken into account as a pre-study for the pilot that will be conducted in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

A modeling framework of FMOD is developed that integrates scheduling, routing, assortment optimization, and choice modeling methodologies. An assortment optimization model is developed with an objective function to maximize operator profit and consumer surplus.

Findings

The FMOD system is analyzed through simulation experiments in a Japanese case study. Simulations are presented for Hino city in Tokyo with different numbers of vehicles in the fleet. This analysis provides insights about the fleet size necessary to maintain reasonable levels of operator profit and consumer surplus.

Originality/value

We consider a business model for FMOD that offers flexibility to the operator in terms of who provides resources. The resources are managed with dedicated and non-dedicated services. The experiment indicates that operators can determine the size of the dedicated fleet based on an objective function that maximizes operator profit and passenger satisfaction.

Details

Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-225-5

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000