The Internet is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives. So, too, is the ease of communication by means of television. The power of these two technological…
The Internet is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives. So, too, is the ease of communication by means of television. The power of these two technological tools in education has been combined in so‐called ‘flexible learning’. This study investigates the experience of students in a master’s degree programme in taxation, which is presented by means of flexible learning. In general, students experience this mode of learning very positively and would advise others to enrol for the same course. They acknowledge that the benefits of flexible learning far exceed any possible drawbacks.
Defines “open learning” and related terms, especially “flexible learning”. These terms focus on the provision of choice to individuals, over various aspects of the learning process. Describes critical stages in the evolution of open learning, including the Open University, National Extension College, collaborative developments with further and adult education colleges, the Open Tech Programme and the Training Agency′s flexible learning project in schools. Reviews progress in applying open learning: much has been achieved in extending learner autonomy, through the development of packages, associated support systems, and information technology. The national vocational qualifications framework requires the deployment of open approaches to learning delivery. Finally, surveys current challenges to the education and training systems and outlines responses to these, based on the achievements of open learning.
Working in the UK, Sadler‐Smith, Down and Lean, in their article “‘Modern’ learning methods: rhetoric and reality”, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 No. 4, 2000, pp. 474‐90, have…
Working in the UK, Sadler‐Smith, Down and Lean, in their article “‘Modern’ learning methods: rhetoric and reality”, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 No. 4, 2000, pp. 474‐90, have shown that distance learning methods are neither favoured nor perceived as effective by enterprises pursuing training that yields a competitive edge. They have suggested that these methods need to be integrated with other more conventional on‐job training methods. This paper, based on Australian research, shows a tension between the requirements of flexible training methods based on distance learning methods, and the characteristics that typify learners and their workplaces. That identified tension is used to suggest how an integration of training methods may be effected in workplaces.
Four learning modes, interacting through students as different learning systems, are mapped into a cone-of-learning continuum that allows tertiary institutions to visually…
Four learning modes, interacting through students as different learning systems, are mapped into a cone-of-learning continuum that allows tertiary institutions to visually re-consider where within their cone-of-learning, they choose to position their learning approaches. Two forms of blended learning are also distinguished. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Undergraduate law, business, IT, and creative arts student perceptions are structural equation modelled (SEM) into traditional, blended-enabled, blended-enhanced, and flexible learning systems.
Within the SEM derived learning cone-of-learning continuum, a migration from traditional learning systems towards blended and flexible learning systems typically offers higher-net levels of undergraduate student learning experiences and outcomes.
The authors do not capture learning system feedback loops, but the cone-of-learning approaches can position against chosen competitors. The authors recognise benchmark, positioning, and transferability differences may exist between different tertiary institutions; different learning areas; and different countries of operation. Cone-of-learning studies can expand to capture student perceptions of their value acquisitions, overall satisfaction, plus trust, and loyalty considerations.
The cone-of-learning shows shifts towards flexibility as generating higher student learning experiences, higher student learning outcomes, and as flexible technologies mature this demands higher student inputs. These interactive experiential systems approaches can readily incorporate new technologies, gamifications, and engagements which are testable for additional student deep-learning contributions. Experiential deep-learning systems also have wide industrial applications.
Understanding the continuum of transitioning between and across deeper-learning systems offers general social benefit.
Learning system studies remain complex, variable systems, dependent on instructors, students, and their shared experiential engagements environments. This cone-of-learning continuum approach is useful for educators, business, and societal life-long learners who seek to gauge learning and outcomes.
A previous article in this journal, by the same author, reported on research that indicated that flexible training for business learners in the workplace needed to take…
A previous article in this journal, by the same author, reported on research that indicated that flexible training for business learners in the workplace needed to take account of their need for instructor guidance and direction, and of their preference for learning in affiliative environments with fellow learners and trainers. In this article the use of computer‐mediated communication (CMC) is explored as one training method that can assist with flexible training of this clientele. Some specific strategies for the successful use of CMC are suggested.
Although flexible training is widely supported by enterprises and government, there are considerable challenges in ensuring successful training outcomes. The evidence is…
Although flexible training is widely supported by enterprises and government, there are considerable challenges in ensuring successful training outcomes. The evidence is that business learners, at a vocational training level, are not typically well‐equipped for the self‐directed learning required by flexible training, nor do they prefer to learn from textually presented learning packages. This paper suggests a number of strategies that may be used to prepare both learners and enterprises for successful outcomes from flexible training.
On a basis of research and literature review, Smith, in 2001, suggested a model for the development of preparedness of learners and their workplaces to support the flexible…
On a basis of research and literature review, Smith, in 2001, suggested a model for the development of preparedness of learners and their workplaces to support the flexible delivery of training in enterprises. Using the model as a framework, he then developed a detailed set of strategies that may be used in operating workplaces to develop learners and workplaces for effective flexible delivery. The research reported here was designed to test that strategy set in 12 different enterprises to assess the feasibility of their implementation in operating workplaces. The research shows that a majority of suggested strategies are feasible for implementation; some are feasible with qualification; and a minority were not seen as feasible.
The purpose of this paper is to consider how simulations are increasingly used in training programs for the development of skills such as leadership. However, the requirements of leadership development go beyond the development of task specific procedural knowledge or expertise that simulations have typically been used to develop. Leadership requires flexibility in the application of knowledge developed through simulations and the creation of linkages to behavioral execution skills needed to utilize that knowledge effectively in real world settings.
The successful acquisition of flexible expertise and the related execution skills requires instructional techniques that manage cognitive load, delay automatization of responses, and provide diversity in simulated experiences to ensure richness of the mental models developed while working on simulations. The successful transfer of that knowledge to real world settings requires supplemental instructional techniques that link the use of the mental models developed on simulations to the contexts and behavioral requirements of the trainees' roles in real world settings.
If simulations are going to be used effectively for the development of dynamic skills such as leadership there is a need to go beyond their traditional use. The execution of leadership skills requires flexible expertise. The successful acquisition of rich schemata and versatile mental models as the goal of leadership development programs calls for instructional techniques that also facilitate the successful manifestation of flexible expertise.
The paper shows that, when embedded in deliberative processing, application of knowledge developed though simulations and the creation of linkages to behavioral execution skills facilitates successful performance in complex and dynamic real world challenges.
The study reports the views of Parcelforce managers who areundertaking training programmes using distance learning strategies. Theprogrammes of study are well received by…
The study reports the views of Parcelforce managers who are undertaking training programmes using distance learning strategies. The programmes of study are well received by all of the managers and a majority of them indicate their preference for such a training strategy. There is a suggestion that some managerial groups may have more difficulty than others in organising their study programmes and most managers have some difficulty in organising their study time. The tutorial elements of the distance education programmes are found to be especially useful and many managers would like these to be extended. Suggestions are made for ways of overcoming the problems and reservations of such learners while still retaining the benefits of the distance‐learning model
Lifelong learning has come to involve a variety of learning experiences. These include conventional campus teaching, workplace open learning, modular flexible learning programmes, correspondence‐based distance learning courses, and most recently Web or multimedia‐based courseware. This paper considers the use of multimedia environments for open, flexible and distance education, in particular a learning environment known as the “Virtual University” as part of a process of lifelong learning. A comparison of different modes of learning is made. The Virtual University consists of virtual lectures, virtual seminars, virtual tutorials and virtual exams. It has a number of advantages over both formal lectures and conventional open learning materials, such as interactivity, adaptation, simulation, demonstration and integration. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Virtual University, and the results indicate an enhancement of the overall learning experience.