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The Internet is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives. So, too, is the ease of communication by means of television. The power of these two technological…
The Internet is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives. So, too, is the ease of communication by means of television. The power of these two technological tools in education has been combined in so‐called ‘flexible learning’. This study investigates the experience of students in a master’s degree programme in taxation, which is presented by means of flexible learning. In general, students experience this mode of learning very positively and would advise others to enrol for the same course. They acknowledge that the benefits of flexible learning far exceed any possible drawbacks.
Defines “open learning” and related terms, especially “flexible learning”. These terms focus on the provision of choice to individuals, over various aspects of the learning process. Describes critical stages in the evolution of open learning, including the Open University, National Extension College, collaborative developments with further and adult education colleges, the Open Tech Programme and the Training Agency′s flexible learning project in schools. Reviews progress in applying open learning: much has been achieved in extending learner autonomy, through the development of packages, associated support systems, and information technology. The national vocational qualifications framework requires the deployment of open approaches to learning delivery. Finally, surveys current challenges to the education and training systems and outlines responses to these, based on the achievements of open learning.
Working in the UK, Sadler‐Smith, Down and Lean, in their article “‘Modern’ learning methods: rhetoric and reality”, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 No. 4, 2000, pp. 474‐90, have…
Working in the UK, Sadler‐Smith, Down and Lean, in their article “‘Modern’ learning methods: rhetoric and reality”, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 No. 4, 2000, pp. 474‐90, have shown that distance learning methods are neither favoured nor perceived as effective by enterprises pursuing training that yields a competitive edge. They have suggested that these methods need to be integrated with other more conventional on‐job training methods. This paper, based on Australian research, shows a tension between the requirements of flexible training methods based on distance learning methods, and the characteristics that typify learners and their workplaces. That identified tension is used to suggest how an integration of training methods may be effected in workplaces.
Four learning modes, interacting through students as different learning systems, are mapped into a cone-of-learning continuum that allows tertiary institutions to visually…
Four learning modes, interacting through students as different learning systems, are mapped into a cone-of-learning continuum that allows tertiary institutions to visually re-consider where within their cone-of-learning, they choose to position their learning approaches. Two forms of blended learning are also distinguished. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
Undergraduate law, business, IT, and creative arts student perceptions are structural equation modelled (SEM) into traditional, blended-enabled, blended-enhanced, and flexible learning systems.
Within the SEM derived learning cone-of-learning continuum, a migration from traditional learning systems towards blended and flexible learning systems typically offers higher-net levels of undergraduate student learning experiences and outcomes.
The authors do not capture learning system feedback loops, but the cone-of-learning approaches can position against chosen competitors. The authors recognise benchmark, positioning, and transferability differences may exist between different tertiary institutions; different learning areas; and different countries of operation. Cone-of-learning studies can expand to capture student perceptions of their value acquisitions, overall satisfaction, plus trust, and loyalty considerations.
The cone-of-learning shows shifts towards flexibility as generating higher student learning experiences, higher student learning outcomes, and as flexible technologies mature this demands higher student inputs. These interactive experiential systems approaches can readily incorporate new technologies, gamifications, and engagements which are testable for additional student deep-learning contributions. Experiential deep-learning systems also have wide industrial applications.
Understanding the continuum of transitioning between and across deeper-learning systems offers general social benefit.
Learning system studies remain complex, variable systems, dependent on instructors, students, and their shared experiential engagements environments. This cone-of-learning continuum approach is useful for educators, business, and societal life-long learners who seek to gauge learning and outcomes.
A previous article in this journal, by the same author, reported on research that indicated that flexible training for business learners in the workplace needed to take…
A previous article in this journal, by the same author, reported on research that indicated that flexible training for business learners in the workplace needed to take account of their need for instructor guidance and direction, and of their preference for learning in affiliative environments with fellow learners and trainers. In this article the use of computer‐mediated communication (CMC) is explored as one training method that can assist with flexible training of this clientele. Some specific strategies for the successful use of CMC are suggested.
Although flexible training is widely supported by enterprises and government, there are considerable challenges in ensuring successful training outcomes. The evidence is…
Although flexible training is widely supported by enterprises and government, there are considerable challenges in ensuring successful training outcomes. The evidence is that business learners, at a vocational training level, are not typically well‐equipped for the self‐directed learning required by flexible training, nor do they prefer to learn from textually presented learning packages. This paper suggests a number of strategies that may be used to prepare both learners and enterprises for successful outcomes from flexible training.
On a basis of research and literature review, Smith, in 2001, suggested a model for the development of preparedness of learners and their workplaces to support the flexible…
On a basis of research and literature review, Smith, in 2001, suggested a model for the development of preparedness of learners and their workplaces to support the flexible delivery of training in enterprises. Using the model as a framework, he then developed a detailed set of strategies that may be used in operating workplaces to develop learners and workplaces for effective flexible delivery. The research reported here was designed to test that strategy set in 12 different enterprises to assess the feasibility of their implementation in operating workplaces. The research shows that a majority of suggested strategies are feasible for implementation; some are feasible with qualification; and a minority were not seen as feasible.
The purpose of this paper is to consider how simulations are increasingly used in training programs for the development of skills such as leadership. However, the…
The purpose of this paper is to consider how simulations are increasingly used in training programs for the development of skills such as leadership. However, the requirements of leadership development go beyond the development of task specific procedural knowledge or expertise that simulations have typically been used to develop. Leadership requires flexibility in the application of knowledge developed through simulations and the creation of linkages to behavioral execution skills needed to utilize that knowledge effectively in real world settings.
The successful acquisition of flexible expertise and the related execution skills requires instructional techniques that manage cognitive load, delay automatization of responses, and provide diversity in simulated experiences to ensure richness of the mental models developed while working on simulations. The successful transfer of that knowledge to real world settings requires supplemental instructional techniques that link the use of the mental models developed on simulations to the contexts and behavioral requirements of the trainees' roles in real world settings.
If simulations are going to be used effectively for the development of dynamic skills such as leadership there is a need to go beyond their traditional use. The execution of leadership skills requires flexible expertise. The successful acquisition of rich schemata and versatile mental models as the goal of leadership development programs calls for instructional techniques that also facilitate the successful manifestation of flexible expertise.
The paper shows that, when embedded in deliberative processing, application of knowledge developed though simulations and the creation of linkages to behavioral execution skills facilitates successful performance in complex and dynamic real world challenges.
The study reports the views of Parcelforce managers who areundertaking training programmes using distance learning strategies. Theprogrammes of study are well received by…
The study reports the views of Parcelforce managers who are undertaking training programmes using distance learning strategies. The programmes of study are well received by all of the managers and a majority of them indicate their preference for such a training strategy. There is a suggestion that some managerial groups may have more difficulty than others in organising their study programmes and most managers have some difficulty in organising their study time. The tutorial elements of the distance education programmes are found to be especially useful and many managers would like these to be extended. Suggestions are made for ways of overcoming the problems and reservations of such learners while still retaining the benefits of the distance‐learning model
This paper aims to report a case study in flexible learning with multicomponent blended learning mode in an undergraduate chemistry course. Traditional chemistry courses…
This paper aims to report a case study in flexible learning with multicomponent blended learning mode in an undergraduate chemistry course. Traditional chemistry courses usually include lectures, tutorials and laboratory sections. For a course “Advances in Organic Synthesis” at undergraduate level, it consists of advanced information in organic chemistry such as reaction mechanisms, asymmetric catalysis, retrosynthesis and applications in synthesis of natural products. This course is a difficult subject and requires deep understanding of contents. After learning this course, students should have comprehensive knowledge in advanced strategies of organic synthesis and have an ability to apply them to real cases. This “flexible learning with multicomponent blended learning mode” was implemented by the authors to enhance student engagement and self-motivation in their studies.
The authors hoped to enhance students’ engagement in “flexible learning” – a mixed concept with “blended learning” and “flipped classroom” – and called this approach as “multicomponent blended learning mode.” Blended learning combines face-to-face and e-learning components with interactive Web-based components and technical experimental videos were developed. The knowledge integrated in different components provides a natural environment to link the different synthetic methods together, which help students to get a better understanding of the complicated knowledge and strengthen their skills. For flipped classroom, students participated in the case studies of the organic synthesis and shared their findings to other classmates in oral presentations.
In this study, both course evaluation score and students’ academic performance in the “multicomponent blended learning mode” were increased significantly when comparing with traditional teaching methods in 2011. It was found that students’ engagement and their self-motivation in learning were enhanced.
The positive feedback from the students and the enhancement of their academic performance supported the value in this research. Besides, most universities in Hong Kong have suspended all face-to-face classes and conducted all teaching in online mode during COVID-19 outbreak. As the multicomponent blended learning mode of this course has already been conducted for eight cohorts, the authors are confident that this feature can minimize the sudden change in the learning habits for the students. As social factors and individual variations in students’ learning and study mode may affect the learning outcomes, these interactive multicomponent e-learning components in this special period make students excited when they can study and digest the knowledge according to their own pace.