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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1982

John A. Scarlett

The manufacture of flexi‐rigid multilayer boards poses a number of problems which are not met with in ordinary multilayer production or in the making of plain flexible

Abstract

The manufacture of flexi‐rigid multilayer boards poses a number of problems which are not met with in ordinary multilayer production or in the making of plain flexible circuits. Steps have to be taken to overcome the poor dimensional stability of thin polyimide foils during processing and to ensure that those portions of the assembly which need to be rigid are bonded whilst flexible portions are left unbonded other than for a cover coat. Pressure on cover coated flexible areas must be maintained during bonding without allowing resin to now over these areas, and finally the bonded unit must be profiled, often with superimposed flexible areas of different shapes. This article describes some of the techniques used by a leading manufacturer to overcome these problems. Several of the processes described are covered by patents held by Exacta Circuits Ltd. This article is an extract from a forthcoming book ‘Handbook of Multilayer Printed Circuits’ to be published at the end of the year by Electrochemical Publications Ltd., 8 Barns Street, Ayr, Scotland.

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Circuit World, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

T.H. Shepler

Flexible circuitry and flexible interconnects are high technology products that require a good understanding of flexible laminates and their properties to ensure the…

Abstract

Flexible circuitry and flexible interconnects are high technology products that require a good understanding of flexible laminates and their properties to ensure the proper design of a functional part. Many designers use flexible interconnects for packaging and multiplane interconnections, but incorrectly compare flexible materials to rigid laminates. Flexible materials and design considerations when using flexible materials are reviewed, with a brief overview of the combination of flex and rigid materials in a flex/rigid multilayer circuit.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

P. Matthijs Bal and Paul G. W. Jansen

As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations, and workers are looking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace…

Abstract

As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations, and workers are looking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has been introduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until their retirement ages. This chapter presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibility across the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across different disciplines, and postulates a definition that captures the joint roles of employer and employee in negotiating workplace flexibility that contributes to both employee and organization benefits. Moreover, it reviews how flexibility has been theorized and investigated in relation to older workers. The chapter ends with a future research agenda for advancing understanding of how workplace flexibility may enhance working experiences of older workers, and in particular focuses on the critical investigation of uses of flexibility in relation to older workers.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-263-7

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Florian Moll and Jan de Leede

New ways of working (NWW) change some fundamental processes in the workplace. NWW practices like teleworking, flexible workspaces, and flexible working hours lead to…

Abstract

New ways of working (NWW) change some fundamental processes in the workplace. NWW practices like teleworking, flexible workspaces, and flexible working hours lead to different behaviors of employees. But does the employment of NWW practices also have an impact on the innovation behavior of employees? This chapter explores this relationship and uses qualitative data from case studies to illustrate the complex linkages between three components of NWW and IWB.

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Fredrick Onyango Odhiambo and Radha Upadhyaya

The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of flexibility in loan products offered to smallholder farmers in Siaya County in Kenya and to examine the effect of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the level of flexibility in loan products offered to smallholder farmers in Siaya County in Kenya and to examine the effect of flexibility on access to credit.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses primary survey data from a sample of smallholder farmers in Siaya County in Kenya who had borrowed from various lending institutions within the study area. The paper develops an index variable of loan flexibility using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) technique. The model is estimated using both OLS and truncated regression analyses. Access to credit is measured as the amount of loan borrowed by each farmer.

Findings

The authors find that the level of flexibility of loans offered to farmers is low. Furthermore, the authors find that the level of flexibility is not significantly correlated to access to credit. Further analysis using individual components of flexible loans show that refinancing and lines of credit are more likely to improve access to credit when farmers are more educated and wealthier, respectively. The age of a farmer, the type of lender, the type of loan, education and household wealth are the main determinants of access to credit.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the debate on access to credit by showing that theoretically, while loan flexibility should lead to higher credit access, this is not a key determinant of access to credit in this context.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 81 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Yongyao Li, Ming Cong, Dong Liu, Yu Du, Minjie Wu and Clarence W. de Silva

Rigid robotic hands are generally fast, precise and capable of exerting large forces, whereas soft robotic hands are compliant, safe and adaptive to complex environments…

Abstract

Purpose

Rigid robotic hands are generally fast, precise and capable of exerting large forces, whereas soft robotic hands are compliant, safe and adaptive to complex environments. It is valuable and challenging to develop soft-rigid robotic hands that have both types of capabilities. The paper aims to address the challenge through developing a paradigm to achieve the behaviors of soft and rigid robotic hands adaptively.

Design/methodology/approach

The design principle of a two-joint finger is proposed. A kinematic model and a stiffness enhancement method are proposed and discussed. The manufacturing process for the soft-rigid finger is presented. Experiments are carried out to validate the accuracy of the kinematic model and evaluate the performance of the flexible body of the finger. Finally, a robotic hand composed of two soft-rigid fingers is fabricated to demonstrate its grasping capacities.

Findings

The kinematic model can capture the desired distal deflection and comprehensive shape accurately. The stiffness enhancement method guarantees stable grasp of the robotic hand, without sacrificing its flexibility and adaptability. The robotic hand is lightweight and practical. It can exhibit different grasping capacities.

Practical implications

It can be applied in the field of industrial grasping, where the objects are varied in materials and geometry. The hand’s inherent characteristic removes the need to detect and react to slight variations in surface geometry and makes the control strategies simple.

Originality/value

This work proposes a novel robotic hand. It possesses three distinct characteristics, i.e. high compliance, exhibiting discrete or continuous kinematics adaptively, lightweight and practical structures.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Youshuang Ding, Xi Xiao, Xuanrui Huang and Jiexiang Sun

This paper aims to propose a novel system identification and resonance suppression strategy for motor-driven system with high-order flexible manipulator.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a novel system identification and resonance suppression strategy for motor-driven system with high-order flexible manipulator.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, first, a unified mathematical model is proposed to describe both the flexible joints and the flexible link system. Then to suppress the resonance brought by the system flexibility, a model based high-order notch filter controller is proposed. To get the true value of the parameters of the high-order flexible manipulator system, a fuzzy-Kalman filter-based two-step system identification algorithm is proposed.

Findings

Compared to the traditional system identification algorithm, the proposed two-step system identification algorithm can accurately identify the unknown parameters of the high order flexible manipulator system with high dynamic response. The performance of the two-step system identification algorithm and the model-based high-order notch filter is verified via simulation and experimental results.

Originality/value

The proposed system identification method can identify the system parameters with both high accuracy and high dynamic response. With the proposed system identification and model-based controller, the positioning accuracy of the flexible manipulator can be greatly improved.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Merlin Mythili Shanmugam and Bhawna Agarwal

This study aims to explore the leaky pipeline issue (attrition of working women due to motherhood) in the Indian information technology (IT) sector. The study analyses the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the leaky pipeline issue (attrition of working women due to motherhood) in the Indian information technology (IT) sector. The study analyses the effect of organisational and supervisory support perceptions on the use of flexible work options and its relationship with career outcomes in terms of job satisfaction, work-life conflict and turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey questionnaire to test the hypotheses was returned by 203 working women of the Indian IT sector belonging to three categories, namely, women undergoing treatment for infertility, pregnant women and women who had recently given birth at the time of the survey.

Findings

The findings state that the use of flexible work options significantly reduce work-life conflict, decrease the intention to turnover and increase job satisfaction, with organisational and supervisory perceptions playing a significant moderating role.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are based on self-reported responses. Nevertheless, the study provides insights into the work-life priorities of Indian women at the time of motherhood and opens up specific research opportunities to address the leaky pipeline due to pregnancy and childbirth.

Practical implications

Organisations should take genuine initiatives to effectively use the flexible work options and provide supervisory training for increased sensitivity to help reduce role conflict and let working women make informed choices in their careers and lives at the time of childbirth.

Originality/value

The paper could be the first known paper to study this special category of working women at the threshold of motherhood in the Indian IT sector.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Knut Boge, Alenka Temeljorov Salaj, Ida Bakken, Magnus Granli and Silje Mandrup

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence effective workplace designs for knowledge workers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate factors that influence effective workplace designs for knowledge workers.

Design/methodology/approach

During spring 2016, the employees in a large institution for research and higher education, a large consultancy company and a medium-sized consultancy company (in total 4367 employees) in Norway received invitations to participate in an anonymous online survey about workplaces and facilities. In all, 1,670 employees answered the survey (38.2 per cent response rate). The data have been analyzed with IBM SPSS version 23, among others through use of exploratory factor analysis and two-way ANOVA.

Findings

Most respondents at the institution for research and higher education have cell offices. Most respondents in the two consultancy companies have open and flexible offices. This paper indicate the respondents’ preferences or perception of their workstation and the workplace’s fit for their tasks is affected both by the respondents’ type of office and how much time they spend at their workstation during the week. There are also possible age or generation effects.

Research limitations/implications

One methodical weakness in the present paper is that two-way ANOVA has been applied on survey data. Experiments are usually arranged to provide almost equal numbers of observations in each category. This is usually not possible with survey data. However, despite this weakness, the present paper provides several findings that challenge some of the workplace research’s taken for givens.

Practical implications

The present paper indicates that facility managers and others responsible for office and workplace design are advised to take the employees’ tasks and work patterns into consideration when designing workplaces and providing offices and workstations to their end-users. The present paper also indicates that employees require different kinds of support facilities and services depending on what kind of offices and workplaces they have.

Originality/value

This is a large N empirical study among knowledge workers in three organizations, one public administration and two private enterprises. The present paper indicate that provision of offices and workstations with supporting facilities should be differentiated according to the end-users’ work tasks and work patterns.

Details

Facilities, vol. 37 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

Anne Goulding and Evelyn Kerslake

Describes the extent of flexible working practices in library and information services (LIS) in the UK, drawing on a recently completed study. Outlines concerns about…

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Abstract

Describes the extent of flexible working practices in library and information services (LIS) in the UK, drawing on a recently completed study. Outlines concerns about training expressed by managers in case study organizations and in the literature. Investigates gender and equal opportunity implications in training flexible workers when LIS continue to be dominated numerically by women, yet hierarchically by men. Discusses examples of gender‐based discrimination in training provision and allocation taken from the literature in women’s studies and business studies. Considers the potential of National Vocational Qualifications and the Library Association’s framework for continuing professional development in relation to flexible workers. Outlines the British Library Research and Development Department‐funded study investigating training for flexible LIS workers.

Details

Librarian Career Development, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-0810

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