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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2022

Chetan Jalendra, B.K. Rout and Amol Marathe

Industrial robots are extensively used in the robotic assembly of rigid objects, whereas the assembly of flexible objects using the same robot becomes cumbersome and…

Abstract

Purpose

Industrial robots are extensively used in the robotic assembly of rigid objects, whereas the assembly of flexible objects using the same robot becomes cumbersome and challenging due to transient disturbance. The transient disturbance causes vibration in the flexible object during robotic manipulation and assembly. This is an important problem as the quick suppression of undesired vibrations reduces the cycle time and increases the efficiency of the assembly process. Thus, this study aims to propose a contactless robot vision-based real-time active vibration suppression approach to handle such a scenario.

Design/methodology/approach

A robot-assisted camera calibration method is developed to determine the extrinsic camera parameters with respect to the robot position. Thereafter, an innovative robot vision method is proposed to identify a flexible beam grasped by the robot gripper using a virtual marker and obtain the dimension, tip deflection as well as velocity of the same. To model the dynamic behaviour of the flexible beam, finite element method (FEM) is used. The measured dimensions, tip deflection and velocity of a flexible beam are fed to the FEM model to predict the maximum deflection. The difference between the maximum deflection and static deflection of the beam is used to compute the maximum error. Subsequently, the maximum error is used in the proposed predictive maximum error-based second-stage controller to send the control signal for vibration suppression. The control signal in form of trajectory is communicated to the industrial robot controller that accommodates various types of delays present in the system.

Findings

The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller have been validated using simulation and experimental implementation on an Asea Brown Boveri make IRB 1410 industrial robot with a standard low frame rate camera sensor. In this experiment, two metallic flexible beams of different dimensions with the same material properties have been considered. The robot vision method measures the dimension within an acceptable error limit i.e. ±3%. The controller can suppress vibration amplitude up to approximately 97% in an average time of 4.2 s and reduces the stability time up to approximately 93% while comparing with control and without control suppression time. The vibration suppression performance is also compared with the results of classical control method and some recent results available in literature.

Originality/value

The important contributions of the current work are the following: an innovative robot-assisted camera calibration method is proposed to determine the extrinsic camera parameters that eliminate the need for any reference such as a checkerboard, robotic assembly, vibration suppression, second-stage controller, camera calibration, flexible beam and robot vision; an approach for robot vision method is developed to identify the object using a virtual marker and measure its dimension grasped by the robot gripper accommodating perspective view; the developed robot vision-based controller works along with FEM model of the flexible beam to predict the tip position and helps in handling different dimensions and material types; an approach has been proposed to handle different types of delays that are part of implementation for effective suppression of vibration; proposed method uses a low frame rate and low-cost camera for the second-stage controller and the controller does not interfere with the internal controller of the industrial robot.

Details

Industrial Robot: the international journal of robotics research and application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1982

John A. Scarlett

The manufacture of flexi‐rigid multilayer boards poses a number of problems which are not met with in ordinary multilayer production or in the making of plain flexible

Abstract

The manufacture of flexi‐rigid multilayer boards poses a number of problems which are not met with in ordinary multilayer production or in the making of plain flexible circuits. Steps have to be taken to overcome the poor dimensional stability of thin polyimide foils during processing and to ensure that those portions of the assembly which need to be rigid are bonded whilst flexible portions are left unbonded other than for a cover coat. Pressure on cover coated flexible areas must be maintained during bonding without allowing resin to now over these areas, and finally the bonded unit must be profiled, often with superimposed flexible areas of different shapes. This article describes some of the techniques used by a leading manufacturer to overcome these problems. Several of the processes described are covered by patents held by Exacta Circuits Ltd. This article is an extract from a forthcoming book ‘Handbook of Multilayer Printed Circuits’ to be published at the end of the year by Electrochemical Publications Ltd., 8 Barns Street, Ayr, Scotland.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

T.H. Shepler

Flexible circuitry and flexible interconnects are high technology products that require a good understanding of flexible laminates and their properties to ensure the…

Abstract

Flexible circuitry and flexible interconnects are high technology products that require a good understanding of flexible laminates and their properties to ensure the proper design of a functional part. Many designers use flexible interconnects for packaging and multiplane interconnections, but incorrectly compare flexible materials to rigid laminates. Flexible materials and design considerations when using flexible materials are reviewed, with a brief overview of the combination of flex and rigid materials in a flex/rigid multilayer circuit.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2022

Jayaraman Kathirvelan

The purpose of this paper is to deal with an identification of a novel ink-jet printing sensor fabrication technology for fabricating flexible carbon heaters of macro and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with an identification of a novel ink-jet printing sensor fabrication technology for fabricating flexible carbon heaters of macro and micro sizes, carbon interdigitated (IDT) electrodes and silver IDT electrodes. The technology involved in the proposed ink-jet printing method and materials used for the formulation of homemade nano-conductive inks (digital inks) are discussed in detail. The ink-jet printed flexible carbon heaters of different sizes (macro and micro) and carbon IDT electrodes and flexible silver IDT electrodes can be used as the flexible sensing layers in electrochemical gas sensors for sensitive and selective gas sensing applications. The characterization of ink-jet printed carbon heaters on Kapton substrate and its results are discussed. Similarly, the results of formulation of silver nano-conductive ink and printing of silver IDT electrodes on Kapton and its characterization are reported here for the first time.

Design/methodology/approach

Flexible carbon heaters of different sizes (macro and micro), carbon micro-IDT electrodes and silver IDT electrodes patterns were developed using AutoCAD 2D and printed on the Kapton (polyimide sheet) flexible substrate using the home-made nano-conductive inks with the help of EpsonT60 commercial piezo-head-based drop-on demand technology printer with standard printing options.

Findings

The proposed novel method is able to print heater patterns and IDT electrode patterns of approximately 12 µm and approximately 1 µm thickness, respectively, on flexible substrate using the home-made nano-conductive inks of carbon and silver by using a commercial low-cost printer. The home-made nano-conductive inks can be re-used for multiple prints up to six months shelf life. The resistance of the carbon heater was measured as 88 O under normal atmospheric condition. The novel flexible carbon heater was tested for its functionality and found to be satisfactory. The resistance of the silver IDT flexible electrodes was measured as 9.5 O which is better than the earlier works carried out in this paper.

Research limitations/implications

The main challenge is associated with cleaning of printing ink ejection system in the existing commercial printers. The customization of the existing printer in the near future can minimize the printing challenges.

Practical implications

The novel ink-jet printing technology proposed in this work is cost-effective, capable of achieving bulk production of flexible sensor elements, and consumes the least device fabrication time and high material yielding. The printing can be done with commercial piezo-head-based ink-jet printers with custom-prepared nano-conductive inks. There is a huge market potential for this paper.

Originality/value

Both the carbon heaters and silver IDT electrodes were printed on Kapton flexible substrate by using the commercial printer for the first time. The paper is promising the revolution in flexible low-cost sensor fabrication for mass production, and it is an alternate for thin film and thick sensor fabrication methods. The future of sensor fabrication technology will be the ink-jet printing method. In this paper, the research developments of flexible carbon heaters and flexible silver IDT electrodes for the time are reported. The characterization of carbon heaters and silver IDT electrodes were carried out and confirmed that the results are favourable for gas sensor applications.

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

P. Matthijs Bal and Paul G. W. Jansen

As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations, and workers are looking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace…

Abstract

As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations, and workers are looking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has been introduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until their retirement ages. This chapter presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibility across the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across different disciplines, and postulates a definition that captures the joint roles of employer and employee in negotiating workplace flexibility that contributes to both employee and organization benefits. Moreover, it reviews how flexibility has been theorized and investigated in relation to older workers. The chapter ends with a future research agenda for advancing understanding of how workplace flexibility may enhance working experiences of older workers, and in particular focuses on the critical investigation of uses of flexibility in relation to older workers.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-263-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2022

Fei Sun, Haisang Liu, Yuqin Din, Honglian Cong and Zhijia Dong

The purpose of this research is to propose a flexible sensor with a weft-knitted float stitch structure and to explore knitting techniques that allow conductive yarns to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to propose a flexible sensor with a weft-knitted float stitch structure and to explore knitting techniques that allow conductive yarns to be skin-tight and less exposed, reducing production processes and increasing productivity. Study its electrical conductivity in different yarn materials, knit processes and deformation ranges. The analysis is compared to provide some basis for the design of the electrodes.

Design/methodology/approach

The method includes five operations: (1) Analysis of the morphological appearance, tensile variation, fiber material properties and electrical conductivity of high-elastic and filament silver-plated conductive yarns. (2) Based on the knitting process of the floating yarn structure, three-dimensional modeling of the flexible sensor was carried out to explore the influence of knitting process changes on appearance characteristics. (3) The fabric samples are knitted by different silver-plated conductive yarns with different structures. Processing of experimental samples to finished size by advance shrinkage. (4) Measure the resistance of the experimental sample after the machine has been lowered and after pre-shrinking. Use the stretching machine to simulate a wearing experiment and measure the change in resistance of the sample in the 0–15% stretching range. (5) Analyze the influence factors on the conductive performance of the flexible sensor to determine whether it is suitable for textile flexible sensors.

Findings

For the float knitted flexible sensors, the floating wire projection is influenced by the elasticity of the fabric and the length of the floating wire. Compared to the plain knitted flexible sensors, it has less resistance variation and better electrical properties, making it suitable for making electrodes for textile structures. In addition, the knitting method is integrated with the intelligent monitoring clothing, which saves the process for the integration of the flexible sensor, realizes positioning and fixed-point knitting.

Practical implications

The sensor technology of the designed weft-knitted float structure is varied and can be freely combined and designed in a wide range. Within the good electrical conductivity, the flexible sensor can realize integrated knitting, positioning monitoring, integrating into the appearance of clothing. It can also focus on the wearing experience of wearable products so that the appearance of the monitoring clothing is close to the clothes we wear in our daily life.

Originality/value

In this paper, an integrated positioning knitting flexible sensor based on the weft knitting float structure is studied. The improved knitting process allows the sensing contact surface to be close to the skin and reduces the integration process. The relationship between the exposure of the silver-plated yarn on the clothing surface and the electrical conductivity is analyzed. Within a certain conductive performance, reduces the exposed area of the conductive yarn on the clothing surface and proposes a design reference for the flexible sensor appearance.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2022

Halo Dalshad Omar, Auwal Abdulkadir, Md. Roslan Hashim and Mohd Zamir Pakhuruddin

This paper aims to present investigation on textured polyimide (PI) substrate for enhanced light absorption in flexible black silicon (bSi).

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present investigation on textured polyimide (PI) substrate for enhanced light absorption in flexible black silicon (bSi).

Design/methodology/approach

Flexible bSi with thickness of 60 µm is used in this work. To texture the PI substrate, copper-seeding technique is used. A copper (Cu) layer with a thickness of 100 nm is deposited on PI substrate by sputtering. The substrate is then annealed at 400°C in air ambient for different durations of 60, 90 and 120 min.

Findings

With 90 min of annealing, root mean square roughness as large as 130 nm, peak angle of 24° and angle distribution of up to 87° are obtained. With this texturing condition, the flexible bSi exhibits maximum potential short-circuit current density (Jmax) of 40.33 mA/cm2, or 0.45 mA/cm2 higher compared to the flexible bSi on planar PI. The improvement is attributed to enhanced light scattering at the flexible bSi/textured PI interface. The findings from this work demonstrate that the optimization of the PI texturing via Cu-seeding process leads to an enhancement in the long wavelengths light absorption and potential Jmax in the flexible bSi absorber.

Originality/value

Demonstrated enhanced light absorption and potential Jmax in flexible bSi on textured PI substrate (compared to planar PI substrate) by Cu-seeding with different annealing durations.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2016

Florian Moll and Jan de Leede

New ways of working (NWW) change some fundamental processes in the workplace. NWW practices like teleworking, flexible workspaces, and flexible working hours lead to…

Abstract

New ways of working (NWW) change some fundamental processes in the workplace. NWW practices like teleworking, flexible workspaces, and flexible working hours lead to different behaviors of employees. But does the employment of NWW practices also have an impact on the innovation behavior of employees? This chapter explores this relationship and uses qualitative data from case studies to illustrate the complex linkages between three components of NWW and IWB.

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2022

Tazim Ahmed, Chitra Lekha Karmaker, Sumaiya Benta Nasir and Md. Abdul Moktadir

The emerging markets are facing a lot of risks and disruptions across their supply chains (SCs) due to the deadly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To mitigate…

Abstract

Purpose

The emerging markets are facing a lot of risks and disruptions across their supply chains (SCs) due to the deadly coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To mitigate the significant post-COVID-19 consequences, organizations should modify their existing strategies and focus more on the key flexible sustainable SC (SSC) strategies. Still now, a limited number of studies have highlighted about the flexible strategies what firms should adopt to reduce the rampant effects in the context of emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents an integrated approach including Delphi method, Bayesian, and the Best-Worst-Method (BWM) to identify, assess and evaluate the importance of the key flexible SSC strategies for the footwear industry in the emerging market context.

Findings

The results found the manufacturing flexibility through automation integration as the most important flexible SSC strategy to improve the flexibility and sustainability of modern SCs. Also, developing omni-channel distribution and retailing strategies and increasing the level of preparedness by using artificial intelligent are crucial strategies for overcoming the post-COVID-19 impacts.

Originality/value

The novelty of this research is that the research connects a link among flexible strategies, SCs sustainability, and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the research proposes a novel and intelligent framework based on Delphi and Bayesian-BWM to identify and analyze the key flexible SSC strategies to build up sustainable and robust SCs which can withstand in the post-COVID-19 world.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 February 2022

Shirley Jin Lin Chua, Nik Elyna Myeda and Yuan Xi Teo

This study aims to examine the key components to facilitate flexible work arrangement (FWA) and the issues and challenges arisen in preparing the workplace for FWA during…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the key components to facilitate flexible work arrangement (FWA) and the issues and challenges arisen in preparing the workplace for FWA during Covid-19, and to recommend better approach of FWA implementation in workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted extensive literature review and case studies approach using interviews and observations to determine the key components to facilitate FWA and the issues and challenges arisen in preparing the workplace for FWA during Covid-19, and to recommend better approach of FWA implementation in workplace. Three offices that owning FWA experience during Covid-19 and featuring flexible workspace concepts, elements and layouts in Klang Valley, Malaysia were chosen as case studies.

Findings

Findings have suggested that there are four components required to form flexible workspace for FWA adoption, such as open plan workspace design, task-oriented space, hot desking policy and IT infrastructure. Interestingly, the interview findings do not support the idea that the flexible furniture can facilitate FWA; instead, they believe that versatile, acoustical and aesthetical furniture may be installed when necessary. Among the issues and challenges faced were rearranging and designing open office plan layout, hot desk relocation and reconfiguration of spaces where people may congregate. Lastly, this research recommends that innovative planning software and tools, smart technology and apps, modern IT technology and infrastructure, and digital apps can be introduced to the workplace to help FM manage and monitor the facilities operations, workplace situations and occupancy rates.

Originality/value

Since the outbreak of Covid-19, FWA such as “Work From Home” and remote working have become the mainstream in the workplace, affecting how the workplace looks and feels as flexible working is fundamentally related to the flexible workspace. From Facilities Management (FM) perspective, FWA is the biggest consequence of Covid-19, but it also presents opportunities and certain challenges to incorporate a new office environment and employees’ needs in terms of FWA into the corporate culture.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

Keywords

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