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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Aysit Tansel and Elif Oznur Acar

This study investigates the formal/informal employment earnings gap in Turkey. We focus on the earnings differentials that can be explained by observable characteristics…

Abstract

This study investigates the formal/informal employment earnings gap in Turkey. We focus on the earnings differentials that can be explained by observable characteristics and unobservable time-invariant individual heterogeneity. We first, estimate the standard Mincer earnings equations using ordinary least squares (OLS), controlling for individual, household, and job characteristics. Next we use, panel data and the quantile regression (QR) techniques in order to account for unobserved factors which might affect the earnings and the intrinsic heterogeneity within formal and informal sectors. OLS results confirm the existence of an informal sector penalty almost half of which is explained by observable variables. We find that formal-salaried workers are paid significantly higher than their informal counterparts and of the self-employed confirming the heterogeneity within the informal employment. QR results show that pay differentials are not uniform along the earnings distribution. In contrast to the mainstream literature which views informal self-employment as the upper-tier and wage-employment as the lower-tier, we find that self-employment corresponds to the lower-tier in the Turkish labor market. Finally, fixed effects estimation indicates that unobserved individual characteristics combined with controls for observable characteristics explain the pay differentials between formal and informal employment entirely in the total and the female sample. However, informal sector penalty persists in the male sample.

Details

Inequality after the 20th Century: Papers from the Sixth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-993-0

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Benedikt Gerst and Christian Grund

Career interruptions of employees imply important issues for both firms and individuals, including a possibly lower compensation after returning to a job. Different…

Abstract

Purpose

Career interruptions of employees imply important issues for both firms and individuals, including a possibly lower compensation after returning to a job. Different compensation components are explored, as bonus payments frequently complement fixed salaries for many employees, making various channels of lower compensation possible. This paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a yearly salary survey among a rather homogeneous group of professionals and middle managers from the German chemical sector, which contains detailed information on compensation components next to individual and job characteristics. The incidence and duration of past career interruptions act as the most important independent variables. Mincer-type wage regressions are complemented by estimations on wage increases.

Findings

The results show that career interruptions are more related to lower subsequent bonus payments than they are to fixed salaries. Furthermore, interruptions caused by unemployment are associated with higher interruption pay gaps than those resulting from other reasons such as parental leave. The results even hint for catch-up effects following parental leave with regard to higher wage increases compared to individuals without interruptions. Career interruptions are more prevalent for female managers offering an explanation for a considerable part of gender pay gaps. Wage losses after career interruptions are more pronounced for male employees than they are for females, though.

Originality/value

This study extents the literature by disentangling the relation of career interruptions and different compensation components, bonus payments next to fixed salaries in particular. The role of interruption type and gender are also taken into account so that the paper deepens the understanding of the role of past career interruptions for employees’ remuneration.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

John P. Koeplin and Pascal Lélé

Integrating interdisciplinary studies with Human Capital Management Accounting (HCMA) refers to the dynamics of organized interdisciplinary action that are transversal or…

Abstract

Integrating interdisciplinary studies with Human Capital Management Accounting (HCMA) refers to the dynamics of organized interdisciplinary action that are transversal or cross-cutting. This approach requires the mastery of a certain number of technical skills and disciplines, as well as the capacity to use them in a process to solve problems of financial performance. This is accomplished through the specific interaction tasks that are performed by each management function and operational unit, which act in real time with others, in the same direction as an organizational team, using a selected risk appetite threshold base.

Putting business fields side by side, (i.e., business disciplines silos, as is normally the case in MBA programs), is not enough to create the transversal interaction dynamic needed for firms to achieve expected financial performance goals. As a result, few graduates today have the cross-cutting or vertical skills required to act, in real time, from their workstation in accordance with the pyramid shape of the organization chart in order to create value.

This chapter presents the results of the interface established by a faculty member in the Accounting Department of the University of San Francisco with a “seasoned leader in the FinTech industry.” It proposes a single portal for employers and HRMs to which the continuing education services of professional training associations, executive education departments of colleges, and MBA schools and universities, can connect to issue the HCMA certificate supplementing their training offerings focused on “Leadership Development”.

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Recent Developments in Asian Economics International Symposia in Economic Theory and Econometrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-359-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

M. Oberholzer and J.E.E. Ziemerink

Cost behaviour classification and cost behaviour structures of manufacturing companies. The purpose of this paper is to determine the cost structures of companies that…

Abstract

Cost behaviour classification and cost behaviour structures of manufacturing companies. The purpose of this paper is to determine the cost structures of companies that formed part of an empirical investigation. Further aspects were investigated to determine why manufacturing companies classify cost behaviour into fixed and variable components and to determine how these companies classify specific cost items. It was found that there is a significant negative relationship between the fixed cost of a company and its degree of technological development. This means that labour intensive companies have more fixed cost as part of total costs and therefore a higher operating risk than technologically developed companies. It was also found that manufacturing companies classify cost items differently and this study provides some guidelines how to manage cost behaviour.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Arianna Seghezzi and Riccardo Mangiaracina

This paper focusses on on-demand food delivery (ODFD), i.e. the delivery of freshly prepared meals to customers' homes, enabled by the use of online platforms. In ODFD, a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focusses on on-demand food delivery (ODFD), i.e. the delivery of freshly prepared meals to customers' homes, enabled by the use of online platforms. In ODFD, a key process is represented by last-mile deliveries (LMDs): they directly affect customers (the delivery price influences their purchase intention), riders (the compensation drives their willingness to perform deliveries) and platforms (deliveries are very expensive). In this context, this work aims to investigate the economic performances of ODFD LMDs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a multi-method threefold process. First, it develops a model that – after the generation of customers' demand and the assignment of deliveries to available riders – identifies incomes and costs faced by an ODFD operator. Second, the model is applied to a base case in Milan (Italy). Third, sensitivity analyses are performed (on daily demand and riders' salary).

Findings

The analyses allow – besides the identification of significant values associated to ODFD profitability – to draw general insights about delivery price (e.g. free delivery is not economically sustainable), daily demand (e.g. greater demand values do not only improve positive results but also worsen negative ones) and fixed/variable wage mix (e.g. increasing the variable wage enhances the profitability for platforms).

Originality/value

On the academic side, this word enhances extant literature about ODFD, proposing a model – with multidisciplinary implications – to strategically investigate profitability conditions of LMDs. On the managerial side, it provides support for (logistics/marketing) ODFD practitioners since it allows to evaluate the potential impact of significant decisions on profitability.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Chibuzo Ejiogu and Ikedinachi Ogamba

At the end of this chapter, learners should be able to:

  • Explain the major components of executive compensation.
  • Understand the role of objectives, costs and risk in…

Abstract

Learning Objectives

At the end of this chapter, learners should be able to:

  • Explain the major components of executive compensation.

  • Understand the role of objectives, costs and risk in designing executive compensation packages.

  • Explain the influence of transparency, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility practices on executive compensation in an organisation.

Explain the major components of executive compensation.

Understand the role of objectives, costs and risk in designing executive compensation packages.

Explain the influence of transparency, corporate governance and corporate social responsibility practices on executive compensation in an organisation.

Details

Financial and Managerial Aspects in Human Resource Management: A Practical Guide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-612-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

John Stredwick

This article examines some of the recent innovations in rewarding employees arising from the changing needs of organisations in a competitive global economy. The necessity…

Abstract

This article examines some of the recent innovations in rewarding employees arising from the changing needs of organisations in a competitive global economy. The necessity for reward strategy to be congruent with business objectives and the consequent movement towards greater flexibility and variability are considered together with the important and growing concept of broad‐banded basic pay systems. A case study is described of a multinational pharmaceutical company which has travelled down some of these routes, changing from a centralised and over‐rigid pay control system to one that more closely meets the requirement of the European marketplace.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2020

Ann Selvaranee Balasingam, Kashif Hussain and Alwie Manaf

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the impact of the minimum wage order from the perspectives of two different stakeholders, namely, hotel managers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and compare the impact of the minimum wage order from the perspectives of two different stakeholders, namely, hotel managers and employees, in the Malaysian hotel industry.

Design/methodology/approach

For the study, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews from three managers and three employees from hotels in West Malaysia.

Findings

From the managers’ perspective, minimum wage implementation has resulted in managers adopting the best payment structure to reduce labour costs for the operators, deciding to reduce the service charge allocation to employees and having to deal with minimal improvement in employee productivity and motivation. In contrast, the positive impact from the managers’ perspective is lower turnover intentions and social justice for foreign workers. From the employees’ perspective, there is a rather negative impact – minimum wage policy has resulted in a minimal increase in the salary. From a positive perspective, employees said that they have experienced an improvement in living standards.

Originality/value

This research presents current responses from hotel participants regarding the latest wage increase impact, some six years after its implementation.

Details

Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4217

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

S.L. Middelberg, S. van Rooyen and A.J. Pienaar

Cost management is essential in every organisation, especially in an increasingly competitive environment (Jain & Yadav 2006:352). The management of distribution costs has…

Abstract

Cost management is essential in every organisation, especially in an increasingly competitive environment (Jain & Yadav 2006:352). The management of distribution costs has become increasingly important because of the rising fuel costs in recent years (Gaffney 2008:40). Delivery routes should be optimised in order to reduce distribution costs. This article presents a comprehensive segment margin approach model for determining the financial viability of delivery routes. A specific bakery (henceforth referred to as Bakery A) was selected as a case study, and the use of general management accounting principles in determining the financial viability of delivery routes was specifically investigated.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Case study
Publication date: 17 October 2012

Monica Singhania and Syed Ashraf Husain

Accounting and finance, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Abstract

Subject area

Accounting and finance, entrepreneurship and business strategy.

Study level/applicability

The case is suitable for the following courses: post graduate programs in entrepreneurship; executive training programs for middle and senior level employees; and MBA/post graduate programs in management in strategic management.

Case overview

The case deals with an entrepreneurship venture whose initial business model appeared to be faltering with the founder wondering about the future of the company. After Ommune Solutions' (founded 2010) initial business plan failed, the company started offering IT outsourcing services to Indian customers. However, the company was spending more that it was earning and the CEO generated additional revenues through independent consulting. By 2012 a customer relationship management (CRM) tool was also ready for release. The company was another IT start up yet to find a firm footing. The CEO wondered whether he should continue to build the company and, if so, in which direction?

Expected learning outcomes

These include: the use of SWOT analysis as a tool to aid strategic decision making along with Porter's five competitive forces model and the BCG matrix; using cost benefit analysis for evaluating business decisions; understanding the complexities involved in a strategic planning process; and identifying unnecessary cost and increasing revenue generation for expansion and maximizing profitability.

Social implications

The case provides insight on challenges faced by a venture at an early stage in the business environment and the venture is analyzed in depth. It gives students a perspective on decision making and adapting to scenarios where initial business plans appear not to have succeeded.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 2 no. 8
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

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